Microscopic Anatomy of the Eye

  • D. J. Apple
  • G. O. H. Naumann
  • R. M. Manthey


The conjunctiva is a mucous membranelike covering that is divided into three portions.91 The palpebral or tarsal conjunctiva begins anteriorly at the posterior aspect of the eyelid margin and covers the rear surface of the eyelid. It is then reflected on itself at the fornix conjunctivae and continues over the anterior segment of the globe, forming the bulbar and limbal conjunctivae. The limbal conjunctiva merges with the stroma and epithelium of the cornea. At the nasal aspect of the eye, the conjunctiva is modified by the formation of the caruncle and the plica semilunaris, a remnant of the nictitating membrane of animals. The bulbar conjunctiva is composed of epithelium and underlying stroma, which is loosely connected to the sclera and episclera. This lax attachment allows free eye movement in all directions. All of the conjunctival epithelia are derived embryologically from the surface ectoderm.40


Optic Nerve Optic Nerve Head Central Retinal Artery Outer Plexiform Layer Lamina Cribrosa 
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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Apple
  • G. O. H. Naumann
  • R. M. Manthey

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