Impacts of Marine Debris: Entanglement of Marine Life in Marine Debris Including a Comprehensive List of Species with Entanglement and Ingestion Records
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Lost and discarded marine debris, particularly items made of persistent synthetic materials, is now recognized as a major form of marine pollution. This perception was a seminal finding of the 1984 International Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris (Shomura and Yoshida 1985). A major factor leading to this conclusion was information on the nature and extent of interactions between marine debris and marine life gathered by researchers working independently in different ocean areas during the 1970s and early 1980s. Compiled for the first time at the 1984 workshop, the information highlighted two fundamental types of biological interactions: (1) entanglement, whereby the loops and openings of various types of debris entangle animal appendages or entrap animals; and (2) ingestion, whereby debris items are intentionally or accidentally eaten and enter the digestive tract.
KeywordsFishing Gear Baleen Whale Beaked Whale Marine Debris Toothed Whale
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