Tumor Necrosis Factor α: Potential Relationships with Cancers of the Female Reproductive Tract

  • Joan S. Hunt
  • Hua-Lin Chen
  • Yaping Yang
  • Katherine F. Roby
  • Fernando U. Garcia
Part of the Serono Symposia, USA book series (SERONOSYMP)


A wide range of polypeptide growth factors is synthesized in the female reproductive tract (reviewed in 1–5). Many of these were first identified as promoters of hematopoietic cell growth and differentiation in the bone marrow or as products of activated hematopoietic cells (6–8). Table 10.1 shows that genes encoding these factors are commonly, but not invariably, regulated by female sex steroid hormones. Pregnancy, where ovarian hormone levels remain elevated, is associated with increased expression of uterine cytokines. For example, immunological assays show that during mouse pregnancy uterine colony stimulating factor I (CSF-I) is increased 1000-fold over basal levels (9).


Tumor Necrosis Factor Female Reproductive Tract Mouse Uterus Polypeptide Growth Factor Reprod Immunol 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joan S. Hunt
  • Hua-Lin Chen
  • Yaping Yang
  • Katherine F. Roby
  • Fernando U. Garcia

There are no affiliations available

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