New Clinical Applications of hCG Assays

  • R. E. Canfield
  • J. F. O’Connor
  • Y. Chen
  • S. Birken
  • M. C. Hatch
  • K. Friedman
  • C. Matera
  • A. C. Kelly
Conference paper
Part of the Serono Symposia USA book series (SERONOSYMP)


This chapter focuses on some clinical applications of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) assays, especially to detect early pregnancy loss. The collection and storage of urine samples for assay is an easy and painless procedure, so urinary measurements of hCG, rather than serum measurements, have been utilized for most epidemiologic studies of human reproduction.


Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Beta Subunit Early Pregnancy Loss Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Beta Carbohydrate Side Chain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hussa RO. The clinical marker hCG. New York: Praeger, 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vaitukaitis JL, Braunstein GD, Ross GT. A radioimmunoassay which specifically measures human chorionic gonadotropin in the presence of human luteinizing hormone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 113: 751–8.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vaitukaitis JL. Immunologic and physical characterization of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1973; 37: 505–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Canfield RE, O’Connor JF, Chen Y, Krichevsky A, Birken S, Wilcox AJ. The clinical utility of the measurement of urinary hCG and its fragments. In: Bellet D, Bidart JM, eds. Structure-function relationships of the gonadotropins. New York: Raven Press, 1989: 297–311.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ehrlich PH, Moustafa ZA, Krichevsky A, Birken S, Armstrong EG, Canfield RE. Characterization and relative orientation of epitopes for monoclonal antibodies and antisera to human chorionic gonadotropin. Am J Reprod Immunol Microbiol 1985; 8: 48–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krichevsky A, Armstrong EG, Schlatterer J, et al. Preparation and characterization of antibodies to the urinary fragment of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit. Endocrinology 1988; 123: 584–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bidart JM, Troalen F, Lazar V, et al. Monoclonal antibodies to the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin define three distinct antigenic domains. Endocrinology 1992; 131: 1832–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schwarz S, Krude S, Wick G, Berger P. Twelve of fourteen surface epitopes of receptor-bound human chorionic gonadotropin being antibody-inaccessible suggest an extensive involvement of the long extracellular domain of the hCG receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1991; 82: 71–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schwarz S, Krude H, Klieber R, et al. Number and topography of epitopes of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are shared by desialylated and deglycosylated hCG. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1991; 80: 33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    O’Connor JF, Schlatterer JP, Birkin S, et al. Development of highly sensitive immunoassays to measure human chorionic gonadotropin, its beta subunit, and beta core fragment in the urine: application to malignancies. Cancer Res 1988; 48: 1361–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Amr S, Wehmann RE, Birken S, Canfield RE, Nisula BC. Characterization of a carboxyterminal peptide fragment of the human choriogonadotropin beta subunit excreted in the urine of a woman with choriocarcinoma. J Clin Invest 1983; 71: 329–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Amr S, Rosa C, Birken S, Canfield R, Nisula B. Carboxyterminal peptide fragments of the beta subunit are urinary products of the metabolism of desialylated human choriogonadotropin. J Clin Invest 1985; 76: 350–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Birken S, Canfield R, Agosto G, Lewis J. Preparation and characterization of an improved beta COOH-terminal immunogen for generation of specific and sensitive antisera to human chorionic gonadotropin. Endocrinology 1982; 110: 1555–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Birken S, Gawinowicz MA, Kardana A, Cole LA. The heterogeneity of human chorionic gonadotropin, II. Characteristics and origins of nicks in hCG reference standards. Endocrinology 1991; 129: 1551–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bidart JM, Puisieux A, Troalen F, Foghietti MJ, Bohuon C, Bellet D. Characterization of the cleavage product in the human choriogonadropic beta-subunit. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1988; 154: 626–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kardana A, Elliot MM, Gawinowicz MA, Birken S, Cole LA. The heterogeneity of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), I. Characterization of peptide heterogeneity in 13 individual preparations of hCG. Endocrinology 1991; 129: 1541–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matzuk MM, Hsueh AJ, Lapolt P, Tsafriri A, Keene JF, Boime I. The biological role of the carboxyl-terminal extension of human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit. Endocrinology 1990; 126: 376–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    LaPolt PS, Nishimori K, Farer FA, Perlas E, Boime I, Hsueh A.I. Enhanced stimulation of follicle maturation and ovulatory potential by long acting follicle-stimulating hormone agonists with extended carboxyl-terminal peptides. Endocrinology 1992; 131: 2514–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cole LA, Kardana A, Park S-Y, Braunstein GD. The deactivation of hCG by nicking and dissociation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993; 76: 70414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Birken S, Armstrong EG, Gawinowicz-Kolks MA, et al. Structure of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit fragment from pregnancy urine. Endocrinology 1988; 123: 572–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blithe DL, Akar AH, Wehmann RE, Nisula BC. Purification of beta-core fragment from pregnancy urine and demonstration that its carbohydrate moieties differ from those of native human chorionic gonadotropin beta. Endocrinology 1988; 122: 173–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cole LA, Birken S. Origin and occurrence of human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit core fragment. Mol Endocrinol 1988; 2: 825–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Birken S, Chen Y, Gawinowicz MA, Canfield RE, Hartree AS. The structure and significance of hLH beta core fragment purified from human pituitary extracts. Endocrinology 1993.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    deMedeiros SF, Amato F, Norman RJ. Stability of immunoreactive beta-core fragment of hCG. Obstet Gynecol 1991; 77: 53–9.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marshall JR, Hammond CB, Ross GT, Jacobson A, Rayford P, Odell WD. Plasma and urinary chorionic gonadotropin during early human pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1968; 32: 760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Norman RJ, Buck RH, Rom L, Joubert SM. Blood or urine measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin for detection of ectopic pregnancy? A comparative study of quantitative and qualitative methods in both fluids. Obstet Gynecol 1988; 71: 315–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Armstrong EG, Ehrlich PH, Birken S, et al. Use of a highly sensitive and specific immunoradiometric assay for detection of human chorionic gonadotropin in urine of normal, nonpregnant and pregnant individuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984; 59: 867–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wittaker PG, Taylor A, Lind T. Unsuspected pregnancy loss in healthy women. Lancet 1983; 1: 1126–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Miller JF, Williamson E, Glue J, Gordon YB. Fetal loss after implantation. Lancet 1980; 2: 554–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Edmonds DK, Lindsay KS, Miller JF, Williamson E, Wood PJ. Early embryonic mortality in women. Fertil Steril 1982; 38: 447–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, O’Connor JF, et al. Incidence of early pregnancy loss. N Engl J Med 1988; 31: 189–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Braunstein GD, Vaitukaitis JL, Carbone PP, Ross GT. Ectopic production of human chorionic gonadotropin by neoplasms. Ann Intern Med 1973; 78: 39–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hoermann R, Spoettl G, Moncayo R, Mann K. Evidence for the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and free beta-subunit of hCG in the human pituitary. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 71: 179–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Odell WD, Griffin J, Bashey HM, Snyder PJ. Secretion of chorionic gonadotropin by cultured human pituitary cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 71: 1318–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hammond E, Griffin J, Odell WD. A chorionic gonadotropin secreting human pituitary cell. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991; 72: 747–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. E. Canfield
  • J. F. O’Connor
  • Y. Chen
  • S. Birken
  • M. C. Hatch
  • K. Friedman
  • C. Matera
  • A. C. Kelly

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations