Advertisement

The Warm Look in Control Motivation and Social Cognition

Chapter

Abstract

It is with great pleasure and some pride that I write this final chapter for the present volume. Back in the early 1980s, Tory Higgins and I realized that our respective fields, social cognition and social motivation, had a great deal to offer one another. Yet, people in those fields were hardly speaking to each other, let alone trying to incorporate one another’s ideas (see Sorrentino & Higgins, 1986a). We realized that a renewal of the relationship between the two fields was long overdue. Early on, motivation and cognition were believed to go hand in hand, from Lewin’s field theory in the ’30s and ’40s, to Bruner’s “New Look” in the ’50s. Then, with the rise of cognition as a major force in psychology, coupled with scathing criticism of the “New Look,” the two fields went their separate ways. Although this “really wasn’t wasted time” (The Eagles), since much was learned, clearly the field was ready for reacquaintance. All it needed was a little push or a little prime.

Keywords

Control Motivation Social Cognition Moderate Risk Achievement Motivation Secondary Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkinson, J.W. (1964). An introduction to motivation. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, J.W. & Birch, D. (1970). Dynamics of action. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, J.W. & Feather, N.T. (Eds.). (1964). A theory of achievement motivation. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, J.W. & Feather, N.T. (1966). A theory of achievement motivation. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Atkinson, J.W. & Litwin, G.H. (1960). Achievement motive and test anxiety conceived as motive to approach success and motive to avoid failure. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 60, 52–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkinson, J.W. & Raynor, J.O. (Eds.). (1974). Motivation and achievement. Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  7. Bargh, J.A. (1990). Auto-motives: Preconscious determinants of social interaction. In E.T. Higgins & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 2 (pp. 93–130). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  8. Baumeister, R.F. (1990). Anxiety and deconstruction: On escaping the self. In J.M. Olson & M.P. Zanna (Eds.), Self-inference processes: The Ontario symposium: Vol. 6 (pp. 259–292). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Brouwers, M.C. & Sorrentino, R.M. (in press). Uncertainty orientation and protection motivation theory: The role of individual differences in health compliance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.Google Scholar
  10. Cantor, N., Markus, H., Niedenthal, P., & Nurius, P. (1986). On motivation and the self-concept. In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 1 (pp. 96–121). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  11. Chaiken, S. (1980). Heuristic versus systematic information processing and the use of source versus message cues in persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 752–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clayton, J.P. (1981). Uncertainty orientation, sex role identity and performance in achievement situations. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  13. Driscoll, D.M., Hamilton, D.L., & Sorrentino, R.M. (1991). Uncertainty orientation and recall of person-descriptive information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17, 494–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fazio, R.H. (1986). How do attitudes guide behavior? In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 1 (pp. 204–243). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Festinger, L. (1942). A theoretical intepretation of shifts in level of aspiration. Psychological Review, 49, 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fiske, S.T. & Pavelchak, M.A. (1986). In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 1 (pp. 167–203). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  17. Gollwitzer, P.M. (1990). Action phases and mind-sets. In E.T. Higgins & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 2 (pp. 53–92). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. Hamilton, J.O. (1974). Motivation and risk-taking: A test of Atkinson’s theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 856–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hastie, R. (1980). Memory for behavioral information that confirms or contradicts a personality impression. In R. Hastie, T.M. Ostrom, E.B. Ebbesen, R.S. Wyer, Jr., D.L. Hamilton, & D.E. Carlston (Eds.), Person memory: The cognitive basis of social perception (pp. 155–177). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  20. Higgins, E.T. & Sorrentino, R.M. (Eds.). (1990). Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 2. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  21. Higgins, E.T., Strauman, T., & Klein, R. (1986). Standards and the process of self-evaluation: Multiple affects from multiple stages. In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 1 (pp. 23–63). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Huber, G.L., Sorrentino, R.M., Davidson, M.A., Epplier, R., & Roth, J.W.H. (1992). Uncertainty orientation and cooperative learning: Individual differences within and across cultures. Learning and Individual Differences, 1–24.Google Scholar
  23. Jacoby, L.L. & Kelley, C.M. (1990). An episodic view of motivation: Unconscious influences of memory. In E.T. Higgins & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 2 (pp. 451–481). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kagan, J. (1972). Motives and development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22, 51–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lewin, K., Dembo, T., Festinger, L., & Sears, P.S. (1944). Level of aspiration. In J. McV Hunt (Ed.), Personality and the behavior disorders, Vol. 1, pp. 333–378. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  26. Nisbett, R. & Ross, L. (1980). Human inferences: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  27. Petty, R.E. & Cacioppo, J.T. (1984). The effects of involvement on responses to argument quantity and quality: Central and peripheral routes to persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Raynor, J.O. (1974). Future orientation in the study of achievement motivation. In J.W. Atkinson & J.O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp. 121–154). Washington, DC: Winston.Google Scholar
  29. Raynor, J.O. & McFarlin, D.B. (1986). Motivation and the self system. In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 1 (pp. 315–349). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Rogers, R.W. (1983). Cognitive and physiological processes in attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. In J. Cacioppo & R. Petty (Eds.), Social psychophysiology (pp. 153–176). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  31. Rokeach, M. (1960). The open and closed mind: Investigations into the nature of belief systems and personality systems. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  32. Roney, C.J.R. & Sorrentino, R.M. (1987). Uncertainty orientation and person perception: Individual differences in categorization. Social Cognition, 5, 369–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roney, C.J.R. & Sorrentino, R.M. (1992). Self-discrepancy, affect, and uncertainty orientation. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  34. Roney, C.J.R. & Sorrentino, R.M. (1992). Uncertainty orientation, the self, and others: Individual differences in value and social comparison. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  35. Schwarz, N. (1990). Feelings as information: Informational and motivational functions of affective states. In E.T. Higgins & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 2 (pp. 527–561). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  36. Skinner, B.F. (1984) Behaviorism at fifty. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 615–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Slade, L.A. & Rush, M.C. (1991). Achievement motivation and the dynamics of task difficulty choices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sorrentino, R.M., Bobocel, D.R., Gitta, M.Z., Olson, J.M., & Hewitt, E.C. (1988). Uncertainty orientation and persuasion: Individual differences in the effects of personal relevance on social judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 357–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sorrentino, R.M. & Hewitt, E.C. (1984). Uncertainty-reducing properties of achievement tasks as a function of uncertainty-orientation and achievement-related motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 884–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sorrentino, R.M., Hewitt, E.C., & Raso-Knott, P.A. (1992). Risk-taking in games of chance and skill: Informational and affective influences on choice behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 522–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sorrentino, R.M. & Higgins, E.T. (1986a). Motivation and cognition: Warming up to synergism. In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 1 (pp. 3–19). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  42. Sorrentino, R.M. & Higgins, E.T. (Eds.) (1986b). Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 1 New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Sorrentino, R.M., Holmes, J.G., Hanna, S.E., & Sharp, A. (1992). Trust and uncertainty orientation: The role of individual differences in close relationships. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  44. Sorrentino, R.M., Raynor, J.O., Zubek, J.M., & Short, J.C. (1990). Personality functioning and change: Informational and affective influences on cognitive, moral, and social development. In E.T. Higgins & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 2 (pp. 193–228). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  45. Sorrentino, R.M. & Roney, C.J.R. (1986). Uncertainty orientation, achievement-related motivation, and task diagnosticity as determinants of task performance. Social Cognition, 4, 420–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sorrentino, R.M. & Roney, C.J.R. (1990). Uncertainty orientation: Individual differences in the self-inference process. In J.M. Olson & M.P. Zanna (Eds.) Self-inference processes: The Ontario symposium, Vol. 6. pp. 239–257.Google Scholar
  47. Sorrentino, R.M. & Short, J.C. (1986). Uncertainty-orientation, motivation, and cognition. In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 1 (pp. 379–403). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  48. Sorrentino, R.M., Short, J.C., & Raynor, J.O. (1984). Uncertainty orientation: Implications for affective and cognitive views of achievement behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 189–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Srull, T.K., Lichenstein, M., & Rothbart, M. (1985). Associative storage and retrieval processes in person memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11, 316–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Strube, M.J. & Sylvester, A. (1990, August). Self-appraisal motivation and the detection of covariation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston.Google Scholar
  51. Trope, Y. (1986). Self-enhancement and self-assessment in achievement behavior. In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 1 (pp. 350–378). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  52. Trope, Y. (1975). Seeking information about one’s own ability as a determinant of choice among tasks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 1004–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Trope, Y. & Brickman, P. (1975). Difficulty and diagnosticity as determinants of choice among tasks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 918–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weinberger, J. & McClelland, D.C. (1990). Cognitive versus traditional motivational models. In E.T. Higgins & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.) Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vol. 2.), (pp. 562–597). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  55. Weiner, B. (1972). Theories of achievement: From mechanism to cognition. Chicago: Markham.Google Scholar
  56. Weiner, B. (1986). Attribution, emotion, and action. In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior: Vol. 1 (pp. 281–312). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations