Living Fossils pp 232-235 | Cite as

The Giant Creeper, Campanile symbolicum Iredale, an Australian Relict Marine Snail

  • Richard S. Houbrick
Part of the Casebooks in Earth Sciences book series (CASEBOOKS)


During the Early Tertiary, prosobranch gastropods of the family Campanilidae Douville 1904 comprised an extensive group of many large-shelled species that were common in the Tethys Sea. Some species such as Campanile giganteum (Lamarck 1804), the type-species of the genus Campanile, attained a length of 1 m and are among the largest gastropods on record. The family is represented today by a single living species from southwestern Australia, Campanile symbolicum Iredale 1917.


Living Species Fossil Species Anterior Canal Body Whorl Shell Axis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, R. T. 1960. The genus Strombus in the Indo-Pacific. Indo-Pacific Mollusca 1(2):33–146.Google Scholar
  2. Cossmann, M. 1896. Catalogue illustré des coquilles fossiles de l’Éocene des environs de Paris faisant suite aux travaux paléontologiques de G. P. Deshayes. Ann. Soc. Roy. Malac. Belg. 31:1–94.Google Scholar
  3. Delpey, G. 1941. Histoire du genre Campanile. Ann. Paléont. 24:3–25.Google Scholar
  4. Fleming J. 1828. Mollusks. Encyclopedia Brittanica, Supp. 4–6, Vol. 3, Part 1. Edinburg.Google Scholar
  5. Houbrick, R. S. 1981. Anatomy, biology and systematics of Campanile symbolicum Iredale with reference to adaptive radiation of the Cerithiacea (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Malacologia 21(1–2): 263–289.Google Scholar
  6. Ludbrook, N. 1971. Large gastropods of the families Diastomatidae and Cerithiidae (Mollusca:Gastropoda) in southern Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 95:29–42.Google Scholar
  7. Wrigley, A. 1940. The English Eocene Campanile. Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond. 24(3):97–112.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard S. Houbrick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Invertebrate Zoology (Mollusks), Smithsonian InstitutionNational Museum of Natural HistoryUSA

Personalised recommendations