The Intracratonic Karoo Basin
A broad spectrum of paleoenvironments ranging from glacial through coarse bedload and mixed-load streams, deltaic, beach, proximal terrigenous shelf, and distal subsiding basin is preserved in the Karoo Supergroup. This sequence records a changing tectonic framework and the migration of Gondwana from polar to tropical latitudes over a span of 200 Ma. This Late Paleozoic to Mid-Mesozoic succession is best developed in the Karoo basin (Figs. 11-1 and 11-2), which covers half of South Africa. Subsidiary basins to the north include the southern terminus of the East African Rift system, represented by the north-trending Lebombo and the east-trending rifts in the northern Transvaal. In addition, there are the thin but widespread Karoo deposits of the Kalahari basin and Warmbad-Springbok Flats area. These southern African deposits formed the nucleus of the great Gondwana succession of the southern hemisphere continents and India, long recognized as irrefutable evidence of continental drift (Du Toit, 1937).
KeywordsClay Zeolite Sedimentation Beach Gravel
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