Advertisement

Abstract

Detrusor Urine Muscle. The bladder is a receptacle for holding urine as it is excreted by the kidneys until it is convenient to void. The wall of this hollow organ consists of bundles of smooth muscle cells that form a meshwork called the detrusor urinae muscle (Hunter 1954).

Keywords

Spinal Cord Injury Sexual Function Bladder Neck Lower Motoneuron Intermittent Catheterization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Readings

  1. Ascoli RR (1967) Radiological study of the vesical neck in paraplegia secondary to spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 4:235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashbaugh DG, Bigelow DB, Petty TL, Levine BE (1967) Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet ii:319–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashbaugh DG, Petty TL, (1973) Positive end-expiratory pressure: Physiology indications, and contraindications. J Thorac Cardio Vase Surg 65:165–170Google Scholar
  4. Astrup P, Jorgenson K, Siggard-Anderson OS, Engel K (1960) The acid base metabolism: A new approach. Lancet 1:1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey RR, Roberts AP, Gower PE, De Wardener HE (1971) Prevention of urinary-tract infection with low-dose nitrofurantoin. Lancet 2:1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergofsky EH, Turine GM, Fishman AP (1959) Cardiorespiratory failure in kyphoscoliosis. Medicine 38:263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bors E (1957) Neurogenic bladder. Urol Surv 7:177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bors E, Comarr AE (1960) Neurological disturbances of sexual function with special reference to 529 patients with spinal cord injury. Urol Surv 10:191–222Google Scholar
  9. Brown M, Wickham JEA (1969) The urethral pressure profile. Br J Urol 41:211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell EJM (1974) In: Campbell EJM, Dickinson CJ, Slater JDH (eds) Clinical Physiology, 4th ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Chandhary NA, Truelove SC (1961) Human colonic mobility. Gastroenterology 40:1Google Scholar
  12. Civetta JM, Barnes TA, Smith LO (1975) “Optimal PEEP” and intermittent mandatory ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory failure. Resp. Care. 20 551–557Google Scholar
  13. Comarr AE (1954) Transurethral vesical neck resection; an adjunct in the management of the neurogenic bladder. J Urol 72:849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Comarr AE (1958) Management of defaecation for the patient with spinal cord injury. J Indian Med Prof 5:2150–2152Google Scholar
  15. Connell AM (1965) The mobility of the pelvic colon. Gut 2:175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Connell AM, Frankel H, Guttmann L (1963) Mobility of the pelvic colon following complete lesions of the spinal cord. Paraplegia 1:98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crosby EC, Humphrey T, Laver EW (1962) Correlative Anatomy of the Nervous System. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Damanski M (1967) The paraplegic bladder. Hosp Med 2:39Google Scholar
  19. Davidson A, Morales P, Becker M (1966) Micturition patterns in paraplegia: a cinefluorographic study. J Urol 96:189Google Scholar
  20. Davidson A, Sleisenger MH, Almy TD, Levine AM (1956) Studies on distal colon mobility in children. Paediatrics 17:807–820Google Scholar
  21. Denny-Brown D, Robertson EG (1933) On the physiology of micturition. Brain 56:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dollfus P, Mole L (1969) The treatment of the paralysed bladder after spinal injury in the Accident Unit of Colmar. Paraplegia 7:204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Duca CJ, Scudi JV (1947) Some antibacterial properties of Mandelamine (methenamine mande- late). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 66:123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dultire HC, Watts JM (1965) Contribution of external anal sphincter to the pressure zone in the anal canal. Gut 6:64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. England EJ, Pearman JW (1976) Urological surgery in 99 spinal cord injured patients initially managed by intermittent catheterization. Br J Urol Paper read at 18th Congress of International Society of Urology Johannesburg. Rep. of South Africa, July 25–30, 1976. Abstract published in Proceedings p. 39.Google Scholar
  26. Fitzpatrick WF (1974) Sexual function in the paraplegic patient. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 55:221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Freeman RB, Bromer L, Brancato F, Cohen SI, Garfield CF, Griep RJ, Hinman EJ, Richardson JA, Thurm RH, Urner C, Smith WM (1968) Prevention of recurrent bacteriuria with continuous chemotherapy. Ann Intern Med 69:655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gandelman AL (1967) Methenamine mandelate: antimicrobial activity in urine and correlation with formaldehyde levels. J Urol 97:533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Garry RC (1934) The movements of the large intestine. Physiol Rev 14:103Google Scholar
  30. Garry RC, Roberts TDM, Todd JK (1959) Reflexes involving the external urethral sphincter in the cat. J Physiol 149:653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gibbon NOK, Ross JC, Damanski M (1965) Bladder-neck resection in the paraplegic—report on over 100 cases. Paraplegia 2:264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Glen WWL, Holcomb WG, Shaw RK, Hogan J, Holschuk KR (1976) Long-term ventilatory support by diaphragm pacing in quadriplegia. Ann Surg 183:566–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Goodman LS, Gilman A (1970) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 4th edn. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Govan DE, Butler ED, Engelsjerd GL (1968) Pathogenesis of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Urol Digest 7:16Google Scholar
  35. Griffiths J (1895) Observations on the urinary bladder and urethra. Part II. The nerves. J Anat Physiol 29:61Google Scholar
  36. Gucker T (1962) Changes in vital capacity in scoliosis. Preliminary report on effects of treatment. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 44, 3:469Google Scholar
  37. Guttmann L (1949) Paralysis-management of. Br Surg Pract 6:445Google Scholar
  38. Guttmann L (1973) Spinal Cord Injuries. Blackwell Scientific Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Guttmann L, Frandel H (1966) The value of intermittent catheterisation in the early management of traumatic paraplegia and tetraplegia. Paraplegia 4:63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hamilton F, Thomas MP, Peralta MM (1970) Ventilation effects of the Harrington procedure for the treatment of scoliosis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 130:1067–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hardy AG (1966) Experiences with intermittent catheterization in acute paraplegia. Med Serv J Can 22:538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hinman F Jr, Miller GM, Nickel E, Miller ER (1954) Vesical physiology demonstrated by cineradiography and serial roentgenography. Radiology 62:713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hunter, De Witt T Jr (1954) A new concept of urinary bladder musculature. J Urol 71:695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hutch JA (1966) A new theory of the anatomy of the internal urinary sphincter and the physiology of micturition. II. The base plate. J Urol 96:182Google Scholar
  45. Hutch J A (1967) A new theory of the anatomy of the internal urinary sphincter and the physiology of micturition. IV. The urinary sphincteric mechanism. J Urol 97:705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Iggo A (1955) Tension receptors in the stomach and the urinary bladder. J Physiol (London) 128:593Google Scholar
  47. Jones RF, Burke D, Marosszeky JE, Gillies JD (1970) A new agent for the control of spasticity. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 33:464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kass EH (1957) Bacteriuria and the diagnosis of infections of the urinary tract. Arch Intern Med 100:709Google Scholar
  49. Kleeman FJ (1970) The physiology of the internal urinary sphincter. J Urol 104:549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kleyntjens F, Langworthy OR (1937) Sensory nerve endings on the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder. J Comp Neurol 67:367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Krane RJ, Olsson CA (1973) Phenoxybenzamine in neurogenic bladder dysfunction. 1. A theory of micturition. J Urol 110:650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kuru M, Yamamoto H (1964) Fiber connections of the pontine detrusor nucleus (Barrington). J Comp Neurol 123:161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lamb DW, Landry RM (1972) The hand in quadri-plegia. Paraplegia 9:204–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lapides J (1958) Structure and function of the internal vesical sphincter. J Urol 80:341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lapides J, Ajemian EP, Stewart BH, Breakey BA, Lichtwardt JR (1960) Further observations on the kinetics of the urethrovesical sphincter. J Urol 84:86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lapides J, Friend CR, Ajemian EP, Sonda LP (1963) Comparison of action of oral and parenteral bethanechol chloride upon the urinary bladder. Invest Urol 1:94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lapides J, Sweet RB, Lewis LW (1957) Role of striated muscle in urination. J Urol 77:247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Laurence DR (1973) Clinical Pharmacology, 4th edn. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  59. Lee LW (1949) The clinical use of urecholine in dysfunctions of the bladder. J Urol 62:300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lindan R, Keane AT (1964) The catheter team. AmJ Nurs 64:128Google Scholar
  61. Lindan R (1969) The prevention of ascending, catheter-induced infections of the urinary tract. J Chronic Dis 22:321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lindan R, Bellomy V (1971) The use of intermittent catheterization in a bladder training program; preliminary report. J Chronic Dis 24:727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lindan R (1972) Sources of urinary sepsis in urethral catheterization. Symposium International Sobre Infeccion Del Tracto Urinario. Ji- minez Diaz Foundation, MadridGoogle Scholar
  64. Lloyd-Davies RW, Clark AE, Prout WG, Shuttle-worth RED, Tighe JR (1970) The effects of stretching the rabbit bladder. Invest Urol 8:145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Marosszeky JE, Farnsworth RH, Jones RF (1973) The indwelling urethral catheter in patients with acute spinal cord trauma. Med J Aust 2:62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. McDowell CL, Moberg EA, Smith AG (1979) International conference on surgical rehabilitation of the upper limb in tetraplegia. J Hand Surg 4:387–390Google Scholar
  67. McLeod JW, Mason JM, Neill RWK (1965) Survey of the different urinary infections which develop in the paraplegic and their relative significance. Paraplegia 3:124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McNabb TG, Hall SV (1976) Weaning from respirator support. Int Anesthesiol Clin 14:214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McNeal JE (1972) The prostate and prostatic urethra: a morphological synthesis. J Urol 107:1008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Miller H, Phillips E (1970) Antibacterial correlates of urine drug levels of hexamethylenetetramine and formaldehyde. Invest Urol 8:21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mitchell JH, Wildenthal K, Johnson RL (1972) The effects of acid-base disturbances on cardiovascular and pulmonary function. Kidney Int 1:375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moberg E (1975) Surgical treatment for absent single-hand grip and elbow extension in quadri- plegia. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 57:196–206Google Scholar
  73. Moberg E (1978) The upper limb in tetraplegia. Georg Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  74. Mooney TO, Cole TM, Chilgren RA (1975) Sexual Options for Paraplegics and Quadriplegics. Little, Brown and Co, BostonGoogle Scholar
  75. Nathan PW, Smith MC (1951) The centripetal pathway from the bladder and urethra within the spinal cord. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 14:262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nathan PW, Smith MC (1958) The centrifugal pathway for micturition within the spinal cord. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 21:177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nicolaier A (1895) Uber die therapeutische Verwendung des Urotropin (Hexamethylentetramin) Dtsch Med Wochenschr 21:541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Grady F, Cattell WR (1966) Kinetics of urinary tract infection 11. The bladder. Br J Urol 38:156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. O’Grady F, Chamberlain DA, Stark JE, Cattell WR, Sardeson JM, Fry IK, Spiro FI, Waters AH (1969) Long-term, low-dosage, trimethoprim- sulphonamide in the control of chronic bacteriuria. Postgrad Med J 45 (Suppl Nov): 61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ott R, Rossier AB (1971) The importance of intermittent catheterization in bladder re-education of acute traumatic spinal cord lesions. Proc. Eighteenth Veterans Administration Spinal Cord Injury Conference, pp 139–148, Boston, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  81. Pearman JW (1971a) Prevention of urinary tract infection following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 9:95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pearman JW (1971b) Urological results of all traumatic cases admitted to the Royal Perth Hospital Spinal Unit during the period February 1, 1968 through December 31, 1969. In: Proc. Eighteenth Veterans Administration Spinal Cord Injury Conference, pp 115–124, BostonGoogle Scholar
  83. Pearman JW (1976a) A combined clinical and laboratory approach to the prevention and control of urinary tract infection in paraplegics and tet- raplegics. Doctor of Medicine Thesis, University of Western AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  84. Pearman J W (1976b) Urological follow-up of 99 spinal cord injured patients initially managed by intermittent catheterization. Br J Urol 48:297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pearman JW, England EJ (1973) The Urological Management of the Patient Following Spinal Cord Injury. Charles C Thomas, Springfield 111Google Scholar
  86. Pearman JW, Low Al, Fisher A A (1974) The iced cystogram—a new technique for distinguishing obstruction at the level of the external sphincter from obstruction at the bladder neck. Paraplegia 12:153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pearman JW, Shah SK (1973) A new adaptor which obviates problems associated with condom external urinary drainage of male patients. Paraplegia 11:25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pearman JW (1977) The catheter team: An essential service for rehabilitating neurogenic bladders. Aust N Z J Surg 47:339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Phillips SF, Edwards DA (1965) Some aspects of anal continence and defaecation. Gut 6:386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pontoppidan H, Geffin B, Lowenstein E (1972) Acute respiratory failure in the adult. N Engl J Med 287:690, 743, 799Google Scholar
  91. Reinke DA, Rosenbaum AH, Bennett DR (1967) Patterns of dog gastro-intestinal contracile activity. Am J Dig Dis 12:113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ritchie JA, Ardran GM, Truelove S (1962) Motor activity of the sigmoid colon of humans. Gastroenterology 43:642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ross JC, Gibbon NOK, Damanski M (1967) Division of the external sphincter in the treatment of the neurogenic bladder. Br J Surg 54:627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Safar P, Grenvik A (1975) Speaking cuffed tracheostomy tube. Crit Care Med. 3:23–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schuster MM, Hookman P, Hendrix RT, Mendeloff Al (1965) Simultaneous manometric recordings of internal and external anal sphincter reflexes. Bull Hopkins Hos 116:79Google Scholar
  96. Scott FB, Bradley WE, Timm GW (1973) Management of erectile impotence. Use of implantable inflatable prosthesis. Urology 2:80–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Seddon HJ (ed) (1954) Peripheral Nerve Injuries. Medical Research Council Special Report Series,No. 282. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  98. Shannon DC, Riseborough EJ, Kazemi H (1971) Ventilation perfusion relationship following correction of kyphoscoliosis. JAMA 217:579–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shapiro SR, Santamarina A, Harrison JH (1974) Catheter-associated urinary tract infections; incidence and a new approach to prevention. J Urol 112:659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Smith JC (1968) Urethral resistance to micturition. Br J Urol 40:125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Stamey TA (1972) Urinary Infections. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  102. Suter PM, Fairley HB, Isenberg MD (1975) Optimum end-expiratory airway pressure in patients with acute pulmonary failure. N Engl J Med 292:284–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tanagho EA, Smith DR (1966) The anatomy and function of the bladder neck. Br J Urol 38:54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tanagho EA, Smith DR (1968) Mechanism of urinary continence. 1. Embryologic, anatomic and pathologic considerations. J Urol 100:640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Tang PC, Ruch TC (1955) Non-neurogenic basis of bladder tonus. Am J Physiol 181:249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Texter EC, Chou CC, Laruella HC, Van Trappen GR (1968) Physiology of the gastro-intestinal tract. Annals of NY Acad Sci 734–743.Google Scholar
  107. Thomas DG, Smallwood R, Graham D (1975) Urodynamic observations following spinal cord trauma. Br J Urol 47:161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Thompson IM, Dingsor ET (1963) Management of the neurogenic bladder. Geriatrics 18:85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Truelove SC (1966) Movements of the large intestine. Physiol Rev 46:457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Turner-Warwick R (1975) Urodynamics. J Urol 113:539Google Scholar
  111. Walsh JJ (1968) Further experience with intermittent catheterisation. Paraplegia 6:74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Waterworth PM (1962) A misapplication of the sensitivity test: mandelamine discs. J Med Lab Tech- nol 19:163Google Scholar
  113. Winter PM, Smith G (1972) The toxicity of oxygen. Anesthesiology 37:210Google Scholar
  114. Woodburne RT (1960) Structure and function of the urinary bladder. J Urol 84:79Google Scholar
  115. Woodburne RT (1967) Anatomy of the bladder. In: Boyarsky S (ed) The Neurogenic Bladder. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore WGoogle Scholar
  116. orthley LIG (1976) A diagram to facilitate the understanding and therapy of mixed acid base disorders. Anaesth Intensive Care 4:245Google Scholar
  117. Zancolli E (1975) Surgery for the quadriplegic hand with active, strong wrist extension preserved. Clin Orthopaed 112:101–113Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • George M. Bedbrook
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryRoyal Perth HospitalAustralia
  2. 2.Royal Perth Rehabilitation HospitalShenton ParkWestern Australia

Personalised recommendations