Recent Research in Spinal Cord Injuries

  • George M. Bedbrook


In recent years, the long-held beliefs that regeneration in the central nervous system does not occur have been questioned. As early as 1915, regeneration within the central nervous system of amphibia was reported. The regenerative capacity of central nervous tissue has been shown to be greater in embryonic and new born animals. Evidence of intraspinal sprouting in the dorsal root axons with the development of new collaterals and preterminals following partial denervation of the spinal cord was shown in the cat by Lui and Chambers (1958).


Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Injury Acute Spinal Cord Injury Spinal Cord Trauma Myoelectric Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Suggested Readings

  1. Aikawa Y (1967) Experimental study on the spinal cord injury. Iryo 21:542–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Albin MS (1978) Resuscitation of the spinal cord. Crit Care Med 6:270–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albin MS, White RJ, Locke GS, Kretchmer HE (1966) Spinal cord hypothermia by localised perfusion cooling. Nature 210:1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albin MS, White RJ, Locke GS, et al. (1967) Localised spinal cord hypothermia: Anaesthetic effects and application to traumatic injury. Anaesth Analg 46:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albin MS, White RJ, Yashon D, et al. (1968a) Functional and electrophysiologic limitations of delayed spinal cord cooling after impact injury. Surg Forum 19:423–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Albin MS, White RJ, Acosta-Rau G, et al. (1968b) Study of functional recovery produced by delayed localised cooling after spinal cord injury in primates. J Neurosurg 29:113–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Albin MS, White RJ, Yashon D, et al. (1969) Effects of localised cooling on spinal cord trauma. J Trauma 9:1000–1008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alexander S (1968) Research and clinical experience in the treatment of the neurogenic bladder by electronic implant and prosthesis. Paraplegia 6:183–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen AR (1911) Surgery of experimental lesion of spinal cord equivalent to crush injury of fracture dislocation of spinal column: a preliminary report. JAMA 57:878–880Google Scholar
  10. Allen AR (1914) Remarks on the histopathological changes in the spinal cord due to impact. An experimental study. J Nerv Ment Dis 41:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Amako T (1936) Surgical treatment of spinal cord injury by blunt forces: experimental study. J Jap Surg Soc 37:1843–1874Google Scholar
  12. Anderson DK, Prockop LD, Means ED, Hartley LE (1976) Cerebrospinal fluid lactate and electrolyte levels following experimental spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg 44:715–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Anderson DK, Nicolosi GR, Means ED, Hartley LE (1978) Effects of laminectomy on spinal cord blood flow. J Neurosurg 48:232–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Assenmacher DR, Ducker TB (1971) Experimental traumatic paraplegia: the vascular and pathological changes seen in reversible and irreversible spinal cord lesions. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 53:671–680Google Scholar
  15. Ayer JB (1919) Cerebrospinal fluid in experimental compression of the spinal cord. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 2:158–164Google Scholar
  16. Barnes R (1948) Paraplegia in cervical spinal injuries. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 30:234–244Google Scholar
  17. Battye CK, Nightingale A, Whillis J (1955) The use of myoelectric currents in the operation of prostheses. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 37:506–510Google Scholar
  18. Bedbrook GM (1966) Pathological principles in the management of spinal cord trauma. Paraplegia 4:43–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bedbrook G (1978) Spinal injuries and hyperbaric oxygen. Med J Aust 2:618–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bergstrom DA (1965) Report on a conference for wheelchair manufacturers. Bull Prosthet Res 3, Spring: 60–89Google Scholar
  21. Bigland B, Lippold OCJ (1954) Relation between force, velocity and integrated electrical activity in human muscles. J Physiol 123:214–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bikeles G (1895) Zur pathologischen Anatomie der Hirn and Ruckenmarkserschutterung. Neurol Centralbl 14:463–463Google Scholar
  23. Bingham WG, RufFalo R, Friedman SJ (1975) Catecholamine levels in the injured spinal cord of monkeys. J Neurosurg 42:174–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bingham WG, Sirinek L, Crutcher K, Mohnacky C (1977) Effect of spinal cord injury on cord and cerebral blood flow in the monkey. Acta Neurolog Scand (Suppl) 56:238–239Google Scholar
  25. Black P, Markowitz RS (1971) Experimental spinal cord injury in monkeys: comparison of steroids and local hypothermia. Surg Forum 22:409–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bors E, Comarr AE (1971) Neurological urology. S. Karger, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  27. Bresnahan JC (1978) An electron-microscopic analysis of axonal alterations following blunt contusion of the spinal cord of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). J Neurolog Sci 37:59–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Briccoli A, Dalle Ore G, Da Pian R, Faccioli F (1976) Local cooling in spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 6:101–105Google Scholar
  29. Campbell JB, DeCrescito V, Tomasula JJ, et al. (1971) Bio-electric prediction of permanent posttraumatic paraplegia. Read before the 1971 Meeting, Assoc Neurolog Surg, Houston, April 20Google Scholar
  30. Claus-Walker JL, Carter RE, Lipscomb HS, Vall-bona C (1969) Daily rhythms of adrenal function in men with tetraplegia due to spinal cord section. Paraplegia 6:195–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Claus-Walker JL, Campos RJ, Carter RE, Lips-combe HS, Vallbona C (1972) Longitudinal analysis of daily excretory rhythms in men with tetraplegia due to cervical cord transection. Paraplegia 10:142–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Coe JE, Calvin TH Jr, Rudenberg FH, et al. (1967) Concussion-like state following cervical cord injury in the monkey. J Trauma 7:512–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Collmann H, Wüllenweber R, Sprung C, Duisberg R (1978) Spinal cord blood flow after experimental trauma in the dog. II. Early changes of spinal cord blood flow in the surrounding area of a traumatic lesion. Adv Neurol 20:443–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Comarr AE (1966) Observations on menstruation and pregnancy among female spinal cord injury patients. Paraplegia 3:263–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Craig WM (1932) Pathology of experimental compression of the spinal cord. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin. 7:680–682Google Scholar
  36. Cusick JF, Myklebust JB, Larson SJ, Sances A (1979) Spinal cord evaluation by cortical evoked responses. Arch Neurol 36:140–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. D’Abundo G (1916) Alterazioni nel sistma nervosa centrale consecutive a particolari commonzioni traumatiche. Riv Ital Neuropat 9:145–171Google Scholar
  38. Delbeke J, McComas AJ, Kopec SJ (1978) Analysis of evoked lumbosacral potentials in man. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 41: 293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Di Chiro G, Wener L (1973) Angiography of the spinal cord: A review. J Neurosurg 39:1–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dohrmann GJ, Allen WE (1975) Microcirculation of traumatized spinal cord. A correlation of microangiography and blood flow patterns in transitory and permanent paraplegia. J Trauma 15:1003–1013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dohrmann GJ, Wick KM (1971b) Electron micros-spinal cord trauma: Biomechanical parameters and lesion volume. Surg Neurol 6:263–267Google Scholar
  42. Dohrmann GJ, Wick KM (1971a) Demonstration of the microvasculature of the spinal cord by an intravenous injection of the fluorescent dye, thioflavine S. Stain Technol 46:421–422Google Scholar
  43. Dohrmann, GJ, Wick KM (1971b) Electron microscopy and blood flow studies in experimental spinal cord trauma. Read before the All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India, April 29.Google Scholar
  44. Dohrmann GJ, Wick KM (1973) Intramedullary blood flow patterns in transitory traumatic paraplegia. Surg Neurol 1:209–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dohrmann GJ, Wagner FC Jr, Bucy PC (1971a) Fine structure of myelinated nerve fibers in transitory traumatic paraplegia. Fed Proc 30:287Google Scholar
  46. Dohrmann GJ, Wagner FC Jr, Bucy PC (1971b) The microvasculature in transitory traumatic paraplegia: An electron microscopic study in the monkey. J Neurosurg 35:263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dohrmann GJ, Wagner FC Jr, Bucy PC (1971c) Transitory traumatic paraplegia: An electron microscopic study in the monkey. Proc NZ Soc Electron Microsc 4:19Google Scholar
  48. Dohrmann GJ, Wagner FC Jr, Wick KM, et al. (1971d) Final structural alterations in transitory traumatic paraplegia. Proc Veterans Adm Spinal Cord Inj Conf 18:6–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dohrmann GJ, Wagner FC Jr, Bucy PC (1972) Transitory traumatic paraplegia: Electron microscopy of early alterations in myelinated nerve fibres. J Neurosurg 36:407–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dohrmann GJ, Wick KM, Bucy PC (1973) Spinal cord blood flow patterns in experimental traumatic paraplegia. J Neurosurg 38:52–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dohrmann GJ, Panjabi MM, Wagner FC (1976) An apparatus for quantitating experimental spinal cord trauma. Surg Neurol 5:315–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Donaghy RMP, Numoto M (1969) Prognostic significance of sensory evoked potential in spinal cord injury. Proc Annu Clin Spinal Cord Inj Conf 17:251–257Google Scholar
  53. Ducker TB, Assenmacher D (1969a) The pathological circulation in experimental spinal cord injury. Proc Annu Clin Spinal Cord Inj Conf 17:10–11Google Scholar
  54. Ducker TB, Assenmacher DR (1969b) Microvascular response to experimental spinal cord trauma. Surg Forum 20:428–430Google Scholar
  55. Ducker TB, Hamit HF (1969) Experimental treatments of acute spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg 30:693–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ducker TB, Kindt GW, Kempe LG (1971) Pathological findings in acute experimental spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 35:700–708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ducker TB, Perot PL Jr (1971) Spinal cord oxygen and blood flow in trauma. Surg Forum 22: 413–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ducker TB, Saleman M, Perot PL, Ballantine D (1978) Experimental spinal cord trauma; I. Correlation of blood flow, tissue oxygen and neurologic status in the dog.Google Scholar
  59. Ducker TB, Saleman M, Perot PL, Ballantine D (1978) II. Blood flow, tissue oxygen, evoked potentials in both paretic and plegic monkeys.Google Scholar
  60. Ducker TB, Saleman M, Perot PL, Ballantine D (1978) III. Therapeutic effect of immobilization and pharmacologic agents. Surg Neurol 10:60–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Eidelberg E, Sullivan J, Brigham A (1975). Immediate consequences of spinal cord injury: Possible role of potassium in axonal conduction block. Surg Neurol 3:317–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Eidelberg E, Staten E, Watkins CJ, Smith JS (1976a) Treatment of experimental spinal cord injury in ferrets. Surg Neurol 6:234–246Google Scholar
  63. Eidelberg E, Staten E, Watkins JC, McGraw D, Mc-Fadden C (1976b) A model of spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 6:35–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Engen TJ, Spencer WA (1969) Development of Externally Powered Upper Extremity Orthotics. Texas Institute of Rehabilitation, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  65. Fairholm D, Turnbull I (1970) Micro-angiographic study of experimental spinal injuries in dogs and rabbits. Surg Forum 21:453–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fairholm DJ, Turnbull IM (1971) Microangiography: study of experimental spinal cord injuries. J Neurosurg 35:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ferraro A (1927) Experimental medullary concussion of the spinal cord in rabbits. Histological study of the early stages. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 18:357–373Google Scholar
  68. Franks RC (1967) Diurnal variation of plasma 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in children. J Clin Endocrinol 27(l):75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Freeman LW, Wright TW (1953) Experimental observations of concussion and contusion of the spinal cord. Ann Surg 137:433–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Fried LC, Goodkin R (1971) Micro-angiographic observations in the experimentally traumatised spinal cord. J Neurosurg 35:709–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gelfan S, Tarlov IM (1956) Physiology of spinal cord nerve root and peripheral nerve compression. Am J Physiol 185:217–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gooding MR, Wilson CB, Hoft JT (1976) Experimental cervical myelopathy: Autoradiographic studies of spinal cord blood flow patterns. Surg Neurol 5:233–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Goodkin R, Campbell JB (1969) Sequential pathological changes in spinal cord injury. A preliminary report. Surg Forum 20:430–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Goodman JH, Bingham WG, Hunt WE (1976) Ultrastructural blood-brain barrier alterations and edema formation in acute spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 44:418–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Grant JMF, Yeo JD (1968) Studies on the level of 17-hydroxycorticoid in 24-hour specimens of urine from 5 tetraplegic patients and 2 paraplegic patients. Paraplegia, 6:29–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Green BA, Wagner FR Jr, Bucy PC (1971) Edema formation within the spinal cord. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 96:244–245Google Scholar
  77. Greenberg J, McKeever PE, Balentine JD (1978) Lysosomal activity in experimental spinal cord trauma: an ultrastructural cytochemical evaluation. Surg Neurol 9:361–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Griffiths IR (1976) Spinal cord blood flow after acute experimental cord injury in dogs. J Neurol Sci 27:247–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Griffiths IR (1978) Ultrastructural changes in spinal grey matter microvasculature after impact injury. Adv Neurol 20:415–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Griffiths IR, Burns N, Crawford AR (1978a) Early vascular changes in the spinal grey matter following impact injury. Acta Neuropath (Berl) 41:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Griffiths IR, McCulloch M, Crawford RA (1978b) Ultrastructural appearances of the spinal microvasculature between 12 hours and 5 days after impact injury. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 43:205–211Google Scholar
  82. Griffiths IR, Trench JG, Crawford RA (1979) Spinal cord blood flow and conduction during experimental cord compression in normotensive and hypotensive dogs. J Neurosurg 50:353–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Groat RA, Ramback WA Jr, Windle WF (1945) Concussion of the spinal cord. Surg Gynaecol Obstet 81:63–74Google Scholar
  84. Grossman M, White R, Taslitz N, et al. (1968) Electrophysiological responses immediately after experimental injury to the spinal cord. Anat Ree 160:473Google Scholar
  85. Guttmann L, Mehra NC (1973) Experimental studies on the value of archery in paraplegia. Paraplegia 2:159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Guttmann L, Whitteridge D (1947) Effects of bladder distension on autonomic mechanisms after spinal cord injuries. Brain 70:361–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Habib HN (1963) Electrical pacemaker of the neurogenic bladder. Proc 12th Annu Clin Spinal Cord Inj Conf Veterans Administration Hospital, Heinz, Ill.Google Scholar
  88. Harris PJ (1970) Studies of the peripheral vascular system in man. Ph.D. Thesis, Oxford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  89. Hartzog JT, Fisher RG, Snow C (1969) Spinal cord trauma: effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Proc Annu Clin Spinal Cord Inj Conf 17:70–71Google Scholar
  90. Harvey JE, Sribnik HH (1967) Locomotor activity and axon regeneration following spinal cord compression in rats treated with L-thyroxine. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 26:661–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Head H, Riddock G (1917) The automatic bladder, excessive and some other reflex conditions in gross injuries of the spinal cord. Brain 40:188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hedeman LS, Shellenberger MD (1973) Experimental spinal cord trauma catecholamine levels and treatment with low molecular weight dextran and various catecholamine blockers. Presented to the 41st Annu Meeting Am Assoc Neurolog Surg, Los Angeles, AprilGoogle Scholar
  93. Hedeman LS, Rahajit SK (1974) Studies in experimental spinal cord trauma. 2. Comparison of treatment with steroids, low molecular weight dextran and catecholamine blockade. J Neurosurg 40:44–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hinwood B, Yeo JD, Kidman AD (1974) Catecholamine levels in the sheeps spinal cord following trauma. Proc Aust Biochem Soc 7:7Google Scholar
  95. Holbach KH, Wassmann H, Hoholuchter KL, Linke D, Ziemann B (1975) Cliniconeurological development of spinal lesions under hyperbaric oxygen treatment (H.O.) Adv Neurosurg 2:262–267Google Scholar
  96. Holback KH, Wassmann H, Linke D (1977) The use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the treatment of spinal cord lesions. Eur Neurol 16:213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hughes JT (1966) Pathology of the Spinal Cord. Lloyd-Luke, LondonGoogle Scholar
  98. Hung TK, Albin MS, Brown TD, Bunegin L, Albin R, Janetta PJ (1975) Biomechanical responses to open experimental spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 4:271–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Inman VT, Ralston HJ, Saunders JB, Feinstein B, Wright E (1952) Relation of human electromyogram to muscular tension. Electroenceph Clin Neurophys 4:187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ito T, Allen N, Yashon D (1978) A mitochondrial lesion in experimental spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 48:434–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Jones RF, Unsworth IP, Marosszeky JE (1978) Hyperbaric oxygen and acute spinal cord injuries in humans. Med J Aust 2:573–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Jonsson HT, Daniell HB (1976) Altered levels of PGF in cat spinal cord tissue following traumatic injury. Prostaglandins 11:51–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Joyner J, Freeman LW (1963) Urea and spinal cordtrauma. Neurology 13:69–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kajiwara K (1961) An experimental study on the spinal cord injuries. Juntendo Med J 7:612–618Google Scholar
  105. Kamiya T (1967) Experimental study on anterior spinal cord compression with special emphasis on vascular disturbance. Nagoya J Med Sci 31: 171–190Google Scholar
  106. Kano S (1960) Experimental studies on paralysis caused by compression of the spinal cord. J Nagoya Med Assoc 82:641–656Google Scholar
  107. Kao CC, Chang LW (1977) The mechanism of spinal cord cavitation following spinal cord transection. Part 1: A correlated histochemical study. J Neurosurg 46:197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kao CC, Chang LW, Bloodworth JMB (1977a) The mechanism of spinal cord cavitation following spinal cord transection. Part 2: Electron microscopic observations. J Neurosurg 46:745–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kao CC, Chang LW, Bloodworth JMB (1977b) The mechanism of spinal cord cavitation following spinal cord transection. Part 3: Delayed grafting with and without spinal cord retransection. J Neurosurg 46:757–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kelly DL, Lassiter KRL, Calogero JA, et al. (1970) Effects of local hypothermia and tissue oxygen studies in experimental paraplegia. J Neurosurg 33:554–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kelly DL, Lassiter KRL, Vongsvivut A, et al. (1972) Effects of hyperbaric oxygenation and tissue oxygen studies in experimental paraplegia. J Neurosurg 36:425–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kirchgasser G (1897) Experimentalle Untersuchungen über Ruckenmarkserschutterung. Dtsch Z Nervneh 11:408–419Google Scholar
  113. Kobrine AI (1975) The neuronal theory of experimental traumatic spinal cord dysfunction. Surg Neurol 3:261–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kobrine AI, Doyle TF (1976) Role of histamine in post traumatic spinal cord hyperemia and the luxury perfusion syndrome. J Neurosurg 44:16–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kobrine AI, Doyle TF, Newby N, Rizzoli HV (1976a) Preserved autoregulation in the rhesus spinal cord after high cervical cord section. J Neurosurg 44:425–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kobrine AI Doyle TF, Rizzoli HV (1976b) Further studies on histamine in spinal cord injury and post traumatic hyperaemia. Surg Neurol 5:101–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Kobrine AI, Doyle TF, Rizzoli HV (1976c) The effect of antihistamines on experimental posttraumatic edema of the spinal cord Surg Neurol 5:307–309Google Scholar
  118. Kobrine AI, Evans DE, Rizzoli HV (1977) The effect of alpha adrenergic blockade on spinal cord autoregulation in the monkey. J Neurosurg 46:336–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kobrine AI, Evans OE, Rizzoli HV (1979) The effects of ischemia on long tract neural conduction in the spinal cord. J Neurosurg 50:639–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Koenig G, Dohrmann GJ (1977) Histopathological variability in “standardized” spinal cord trauma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 40:1203–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Koozekanani SH, Vise WM, Hashemi RM, McGee RB (1976) J Neurosurg 44:429–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kuchner EF, Hansebout RR (1976) Combined steroid and hypothermia treatment of experimental spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 6:371–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Linke D, Holback KH, Wassmann H, Hoheluchter KL (1975) Electromyographic surveillance of hyperbaric oxygenation treatment (H.O.) of spinal lesions. Adv Neurosurg 2:268–271Google Scholar
  124. Locke GE, Yashon D, Feldman RA, et al. (1971) Ischemia in primate spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg 34:614–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Lozac’h Y (1971) Myo-electric control of externally powered orthosis. Annu Rep Dep Res, Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal, Vol. 7Google Scholar
  126. Lui CN, Chambers WW (1958) Intraspinal sprouting of dorsal root axons: Development of new collaterals and preterminals following partial denervation of the spinal cord in the cat. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 79:46–61Google Scholar
  127. Lyons EV (1969) Multichannel myoelectric control. Bull Prosth Res 12:106–117Google Scholar
  128. Marcus ML, Heistad DD, Ehrhardt JC, Abboud FM (1977) Regulation of total and regional spinal cord blood flow. Circ Res 41:129–134Google Scholar
  129. Marinesco G (1918) Lesions commotionelles experimentales. Rev Neurol 34:329–331Google Scholar
  130. Martin SH, Bloedel JR (1973) Evaluation of experimental spinal cord injury using cortical evoked potentials. JAMA 129:152–153Google Scholar
  131. McVeight JF (1923) Experimental cord crushes with especial reference to the mechanical factors involved and subsequent changes in the areas of the cord affected. Arch Surg 7:573–600Google Scholar
  132. Molt JT, Poulos DA, Bourke RS (1978) Evaluation of experimental spinal cord injury by measuring spontaneous spinal cord potential. J Neurosurg 48:985–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Naftchi NE, Demeny M, Decrescito V, Tomasula J, Flamm E, Campbell J (1974) Biogenic amine concentration in traumatised spinal cords of cats. J Neurosurg 40:52–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Nelson E, Gertz SD, Rennels ML, Ducker TB, Beaumanis OR (1977) Spinal cord injury. The role of vascular damage in the pathogenesis of central hemorrhagic necrosis. Arch Neurol 34:332–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Nemecek S (1978) Morphological evidence of microcirculatory disturbances in experimental spinal cord trauma. Adv Neurol 20:395–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Osterholm JL (1974) The pathophysiological response to spinal cord injury—current status. J Neurosurg 40:5–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Osterholm JL, Mathews GJ (1971) A proposed biochemical mechanism for traumatic spinal cord haemorrhagic necrosis: Successful therapy for severe injuries by metabolic blockade. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 96:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Osterholm JL, Mathews GJ (1972a) Altered norepinephrine metabolism following experimental spinal cord injury. I. Relationship to haemorrhagic necrosis and post-wounding neurological deficits. J Neurosurg 36:386–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Osterholm JL, Mathews GJ (1972b) Altered norepinephrine metabolism following experimental spinal cord injury. II. Protection against traumatic spinal cord haemorrhagic necrosis by norepinephrine synthesis blockade with alpha methyl tyrosine. J Neurosurg 36:395–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Osterholm JL, Mathews GJ, Irvin JD et al (1971) A review of altered norepinephrine metabolism attending severe spinal injury: Results of alpha methyl trosine tratment and preliminary histofluorescent studies. Proc Veterans Adm Spinal Cord Inj Conf 18:17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Peizer E, Wright DW (1969) Wheelchair evaluation. Bull Prosthet Res 11:9–37Google Scholar
  142. Peizer E, Wright D, Freiberger H (1964) Bio- engineering methods of wheelchair evaluation. Bull Prosthet Res 1:77–100Google Scholar
  143. Perlman SG (1974) Spinal cord injury—a review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 55:81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Rae JW, Cockrell JL (1971) Clinical applications in myo-electrical control. Bull Prosthet Res, Fall: 24–37Google Scholar
  145. Rawe SE, Perot PL (1979) Pressor response resulting from experimental contusion injury to the spinal cord. J Neurosurg 50:58–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rawe SE, Roth RH, Boadle-Biber M, Collins WF (1977) Norepinephrine levels in experimental spinal cord trauma. Part I: Biochemical study of hemorrhagic necrosis. Part II: Histopathological study of hemorrhagic necrosis. J Neurosurg 46:342–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Richardson HD, Nakamura S (1971) An electron microscopic study of spinal cord edema and the effect of treatment with steroids, mannitol and hypothermia. Proc Veterans Adm Spinal Cord Inj Conf 18:10–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Rivlin AS, Tator CH (1979) Effect of vasodilators and myelotomy on recovery after acute spinal cord injury in rats. J Neurosurg 50:349–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Roussy G, L’Hermitte J, Cornil L (1920) Etude experimental des lesions commotionnelles de la moelle epiniere. Ann Med 8:335–353Google Scholar
  150. Rowed DW, McLean JAG, Tator CH (1978) Somatosensory evoked potentials in acute spinal cord injury: prognostic value. Surg Neurol 9:203–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Sandler AN, Tator CH (1976a) Regional spinal cord blood flow in primates. J Neurosurg 45:647–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Sandler AN, Tator CH (1976b) Review of the measurement of normal spinal cord blood flow. Brain Res 118:181–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Sandler AN, Tator CH (1976c) Effect of acute spinal cord compression injury on regional spinal cord blood flow in primates. J Neurosurg 45:660–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sandler AN, Tator CH (1976d) Review of the effect of spinal cord trauma on the vessels and blood flow in the spinal cord. J Neurosurg 45:638–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sasaki S, Schneider H, Renz S (1978) Microcirculatory disturbances during the early phase following experimental spinal cord trauma in the rat. Adv Neurol 20:423–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Saunders D, Yeo JD (1968) Pregnancy and tetraplegia—the problems of autonomic dysreflexia. Aust NZ Obstet Gynaecol 8:152–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Scagliosi G (1898) Ueber die Gehirnerschütterung und die daraus im Gehirn und Ruckenmark hervorgerufenen histologischen Veränderungen. Virchows Arch 152:487–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Schmaus H (1890) Beiträge zur pathologischen Anatomie der Ruckenmarkserschutterung. Virchows Arch 122:470–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Schmaus H (1897) Commotio spinalis. In: Lubarsch O, Ostertag R, (eds) Ergenbnisse der allgemeinen Pathologie und pathologischen Anatomie des Menschen und der Tiere. J.F. Bergman, Wiesbaden, pp 674–713Google Scholar
  160. Schneider RC (1958) The syndrome of acute central cervical spinal cord injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 21:216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Scholte W (1967) Plasmatische Infiltration der extra-und Intracellularraume der grauen Substanz (plasmatische Infiltrationsnekrose) nach experimentallen Trauma. Acta Neuropath 8:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Schoultz TW (1977) Microscopic analysis of early histopathological spinal cord alterations following trauma in normal and catecholamine depleted cats. J Neurolog Sci 32:283–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Schramm J, Hashizume K, Fukushima T, Takaha-shi H (1979) Experimental spinal cord injury produced by slow, graded compression. Alterations of cortical and spinal evoked potentials. J Neurosurg 50:48–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Scott RN (1966) Myo-electric control of prostheses. Arch Phys Med 47:174–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Senter HJ, Venes JL (1978) Altered blood flow and secondary injury in experimental spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 49:569–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Senter HJ, Venes JL (1979) Loss of autoregulation and post traumatic ischemia following experimental spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 50:198–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Senter HJ, Venes JL, Kauer JS (1979) Alteration of post traumatic ischemia in experimental spinal cord trauma by a central nervous system depressant. J Neurosurg 50:207–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Shapiro K, Shulman K, Marmarou, A, Poll W (1977) Tissue pressure gradients in spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 7:275–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Singer JM, Russell GV, Coe JE (1970) Changes in evoked potentials after experimental cervical spinal cord injury in the monkey. Exp Neurol 29:449–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Smith AJK, McCreery DB, Bloedel JR, Chou SN (1978) Hyperemia, CO2 responsiveness, and autoregulation in the white matter following experimental spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg 48:239–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Spiller WG (1899) A critical summary of recent literature on concussion of the spinal cord with some original observations. Am J Med Sci 118:190–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Spira R (1967) Influence of sporting activities on the rehabilitation of paralystic subjects—Study of the physical and psychological Impacts. (Monograph) Phys Med Dept, Assaf Harofe Hospital, Univ Tel Aviv Medical SchoolGoogle Scholar
  173. Stcherbak A (1907) Des alterations de la moelle epiniere chez le lapin sous l’influence de la vibration intensive: valeur diagnostique due clonus vibratoire: contribution a l’étude de la commotion de la moelle epiniere. Encephale 2:521–535Google Scholar
  174. Stoboy H, Rieh BW, Lee M (1971) Workload and energy expenditure during wheelchair propelling. Paraplegia 8:(4):223–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Tarlov IM (1954) Spinal cord compression studies: III—Time limits for recovery after gradual compression in dogs. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 71:588–597Google Scholar
  176. Tarlov IM (1957) Spinal Cord Compression: Mechanism of Paralysis and Treatment. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IllGoogle Scholar
  177. Tarlov IM (1972) Acute spinal cord compression paralysis. J Neurosurg 36:10–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Tarlov IM, Klinger H (1954) Spinal cord compression studies: II—Time limits for recovery after acute compression in dogs. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 71:271–290Google Scholar
  179. Tarlov IM, Klinger H, Vitale S (1953) Spinal cord compression studies: I—Experimental techniques to produce acute and gradual compression. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 70:813–819Google Scholar
  180. Tator CH (1971) Experimental circumferential compression injury of primate spinal cord. Proc 18th Veterans Admin Spinal Cord Inj ConfGoogle Scholar
  181. Tator CH, Deecke L (1973) Value of normothermic perfusion and durotomy in the treatment of experimental acute spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 39:52–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Thompson JE (1923) Pathological changes occurring in the spinal cord, following fracture dislocation of the vertebrae. Ann Surg 78:260–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Tomasula JJ, DeCrescito V, Goodkin R et al. (1969) A survey of the management of experimental spinal cord trauma. Proc Annu Clin Spinal Cord Inj Conf 71:12–16Google Scholar
  184. Turnbull IM (1971) Microvasculature of the human spinal cord. J Neurosurg 35:141–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Vise WM, Yashon D, Hunt, WE (1974) Mechanisms of norepinephrine accumulation within sites of spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg 40:76–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Vlajic I (1978) Microangiographic observations of morphological vessel changes after experimental spinal cord trauma. Adv Neurol 20:451–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Wagner FC, Dohrmann GJ (1975) Alterations in nerve cells and myelinated fibres in spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 3:125–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Wagner FC Jr, Dohrmann GJ, Taslitz N, et al. (1969a) Histopathology of experimental spinal cord trauma. Proc Annu Clin Spinal Cord Inj Conf 17:8–10Google Scholar
  189. Wagner F, Taslitz N, White RJ, et al. (1969b) Vascular phenomena in the normal and traumatised spinal cord. Anat Ree 163:281Google Scholar
  190. Wagner FC Jr, Dohrmann GJ, Bucy PC (1970) Early alterations in spinal cord morphology following experimental trauma. Fed Proc 29:289Google Scholar
  191. Wagner FC Jr, Dohrmann GJ, Bucy PC (1971) Histopathology of transitory traumatica paraplegia in the monkey. J Neurosurg 35:272–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Wagner FC, Van Gilder JC, Dohrmann, GJ (1978) Pathological changes from acute to chronic in experimental spinal cord trauma. J Neurosurg 48:92–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Wakefield CL, Eidelberg E (1975) Electron microscopic observations of the delayed effects of spinal cord compression. Exp Neurol 48:637–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Waring W (1968) Investigation of myo-electric control of functional braces. (Monograph) Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  195. Watson BA (1891) An experimental study of lesions arising from severe concussions. Centralbl Allgem Pathol 2:74Google Scholar
  196. Weiss M, Beck J (1973) Sport as part of therapy and rehabilitation of paraplegics. Paraplegia, 11(2): 166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Wells JD, Hansebout RR (1978) Local hypothermia in experimental spinal cord trauma. Surg Neurol 10:200–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. White RJ, Albin MS (1970) Spine and spinal cord injury. In: Gurdjian ES, Lane WA, Patrick LM (eds) Impact Injury and Crash Protection. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IllGoogle Scholar
  199. White RJ, Albin MS, Harris LS, et al. (1969) Spinal cord injury: sequential morphology and hypothermic stabilization. Surg Forum 20:432–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Windle WF (1955) Regeneration in the central nervous system. In: French JD, Potter RW (eds) Basic Research in Paraplegia. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IllGoogle Scholar
  201. Windle WF (1962) In: French JD, Potter RW (eds) Basic Research in Paraplegia. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IllGoogle Scholar
  202. Wolman L (1964) The neuropathology of traumatic paraplegia. A critical historical review. Paraplegia 1:322–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wolman L (1966) Axon regeneration after spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 4:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Wiillen weber R, Ebhardt G, Collmann H, Duisberg R (1978) Spinal cord blood flow after experimental trauma in the dog. I. Morphological findings after standardized trauma. Adv Neurol 20:407–414Google Scholar
  205. Yashon D, Bingham WG, Friedman SJ, Faddoul EM (1975) Intracellular enzyme liberation in primate spinal cord injury. Surg Neurol 4:43–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Yeo JD, (1969) The medical care and rehabilitation of the paralysed patient who has suffered from a spinal cord injury. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellowship Report, 4: AprilGoogle Scholar
  207. Yeo JD (1972) Care of the paraplegic and tetraplegic patient who has suffered a spinal cord injury. Bull Post Grad Commun Med Univ Sydney, June: 86–92Google Scholar
  208. Yeo JD (1976) A review of experimental research in spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 14:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Yeo JD, Collins L (1974) The place of isotope myelography in the definition of spinal cord swelling following trauma. Aust NZ J Surg 44:292–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Yeo JD, Payne WH (1975) Sequential pathological changes seen in controlled trauma to the spinal cord of the sheep. Ann Meet R Coll Pathol Aust, Auckland NZ. J Pathol 7:66Google Scholar
  211. Yeo JD, Payne W, Collins LT (1971) Controlled experimental contusion of the spinal cord of sheep. Proc Surg Res Soc Australasian Sci Meeting. Aust NZ J Surg 41:89–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Yeo JD, Payne W, Hinwood B, Kidman AD (1975a) The experimental contusion injury of the spinal cord in sheep. Paraplegia 12:275–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Yeo JD, Payne W, Hinwood B, Kidman AD (1975b) Experimental spinal cord contusion. Proc Aust Soc Med Res Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2:78Google Scholar
  214. Yeo JD, McKenzie B, Hinwood B, Kidman A (1976) Treatment of paraplegic sheep with hyperbaric oxygen. Med J Aust 1:538–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Yeo JD, Payne W, Hinwood B, Kidman AD (1975a) The experimental contusion injury of the spinal cord in sheep. Paraplegia 12:275–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Yeo, JD, Stabback S, McKenzie B (1977b) A study of the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on the experimental spinal cord injury. Med J Aust 2:145–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Yeo JD, Lowry C, McKenzie B (1978) Preliminary report on ten patients with spinal cord injuries treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Med J Aust 2:572–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Zivin JA, Doppman JL, Reid JL, Tappaz ML, Saavedra JM, Kopin IS, Jacobowitz DM (1976) Biochemical and histochemical studies of biogenic amines in spinal cord trauma. Neurology 26:99–107PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • George M. Bedbrook
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryRoyal Perth HospitalAustralia
  2. 2.Royal Perth Rehabilitation HospitalShenton ParkWestern Australia

Personalised recommendations