• Paul D. Sturkie


The nutrients are commonly divided into the carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and—last but not least—water. The actual needs of the body, in addition to water, are for energy and certain amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Theoretically, either carbohydrates, fats, or proteins may serve as energy sources, the last-mentioned especially when consumed in excess of protein needs. There are, however, certain limitations to this freedom of choice. (1) Completely fat-free foods are not pleasing to the palate, and very high levels of fat are not well tolerated by many persons. (2) Protein as the major source of energy has the disadvantage that it requires an efficient mechanism for the removal of excess nitrogen. (3) Nutritionally speaking, small amounts of carbohydrates (about 50 g glucose daily) and of fat for the supply of essential fatty acids (especially linoleic acid) are needed. (4) Carbohydrate is generally the cheapest source of energy. As a result of these considerations, all three nutrients are supplying energy to man, with increased emphasis on carbohydrate in poorer societies and on fat and protein in more prosperous populations.


Seborrheic Dermatitis Recommend Daily Allowance Aliphatic Amino Acid Imino Acid Dietary Goal 
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Selected Readings

  1. Baker H, Frank O (1968) Clinical vitaminology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Goodhart RS, Shils ME (eds) (1979) Modern nutrition in health and disease, 6th edn. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Harper AE (1978) Dietary goals—a skeptical view. Amer J Clin Nutr 31: 310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hegsted DM (1978) Dietary goals—a progressive view. Amer J Clin Nutr 31: 1504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Mitchell HS, Rynbergen HJ, Anderson L, Dibble MV (1976) Nutrition in health and disease, 16th edn. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  6. The Nutrition Foundation, Inc. (1976) Present knowledge in nutrition. The Nutrition Foundation, Inc., WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Recommended Dietary Allowances. (1980) 9th revised. Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  8. Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs (1977) U. S. Senate. Dietary goals for the United States, 2nd edn. U. S. Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  9. Underwood EJ (1977) Trace elements in human and animal nutrition, 4th edn. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul D. Sturkie
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

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