Motor Control pp 113-137 | Cite as

Supraspinal Mechanisms of Motor Control

  • P. G. Kostyuk


The control of spinal reflex mechanisms from supraspinal structures is exerted in the most developed form (in mammals) by four descending systems (cortico-, rubro-, reticulo- and vestibulo-spinal). Other descending systems (for instance, tecto- and interstitio-spinal) being obviously quite important in the early stages of the evolutionary development of the vertebrate nervous system have become in mammals of secondary importance comparing to the above-mentioned systems. Probably because of that they usually remain outside the field of morphological and electrophysiological investigations. All these systems are tightly functionally interconnected during natural reflex activity, and it is usually very difficult to separate the contribution of each of them to the mechanism of the motor act. Nevertheless using an analytical approach it is still possible to define certain specific features in the activity of each descending system.


Ventral Horn Lateral Funiculus Propriospinal Neurone Ventral Funiculus Dorsolateral Funiculus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ANDEN N.-E., JUKES M. G. N., LUNDBERG A. and VYKLICKY L. (1966). The effect of DOPA on the spinal cord. I. Influences on transmission from primary afferents. Acta Physiol.scand., 67: 373–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ANDERSEN P., ECCLES J. C. and SEARS T. A. (1964). Cort- ically evoked depolarization of primary afferent fibers in the spinal cord. J.Neurophysio1., 27: 63–77.Google Scholar
  3. BAYEV K. V. and KOSTYUK P. G. (1972 a). Investigation of the modes of connections of cortico- and rubrospinal tracts with neuronal elements of the servical spinal cord in the cat. Neurophysiology (Kiev), 4: 1 58–167.Google Scholar
  4. BAYEV K. V. and KOSTYUK P. G. (1972 b). Convergence of cortico- and rubrospinal influences on interneurones of cat cervical spinal cord. Brain Res.,in press.Google Scholar
  5. BEZHENARU I. S., GOKIN A. P., Zadorozhny A. G. and Pre- Obrazhensky N. N. (1972). Synaptic activation of thoracic interneurones by reticulospinal pathways. Neurophysiology (Kiev), 4s in press.Google Scholar
  6. BRUGGENCATE G. Ten, BURKE R., LUNDBERG A. and UDO N. (1969). Interaction between the vestibulo-spinal tract, contralateral flexor reflex afferents and la afferents. Brain Res., 14: 529–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. CARPENTER D., LUNDBERG A. and NORRSELL U. (1963). Primary afferent depolarization evoked from the sensorimotor cortex. Acta physiol.scand., 59: 126–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. ENGBERG I., LUNDBERG A. and RYALL R. W. (1968). Reticulospinal inhibition of transmission in reflex pathways. J.Physiol.(Lond.), 194: 201–223.Google Scholar
  9. GRLLLNER S., HONGO T. and LUND S. (1966). Interaction between the inhibitory pathways from the Deiters nucleus and la afferents to flexor motoneurones. Acta physiol.scand., 68: suppl. 277.Google Scholar
  10. GRILLNER S. and LUND S. (1966). A descending pathway with monosynaptic action ih flexor motoneurones. Ex- perientia,22:390.Google Scholar
  11. GRILLNER SAND LUND S, (1958). The origin of a descending pathway with monosynaptic action on flexor motoneurones. Acta phvsiol.scand., 74: 274–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. HONGO T. and JANKOWSKA E. (1967). Effects from the sensorymotor cortex on the spinal cord in cats with transsected pyramids. Exp.Brain Res., 3: 117–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. JANKOWSKA E., LUKES M. G. M., LUND S. and LUNDBERG A.(1967). The effects of DOPA on the spinal cord. V. Reciprocal organization of pathways transmitting excitatory action to alpha motoneurones of flexors and extensors. Acta phvsiol.scand., 70: 369–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. JANKOWSKA E., LUND S., LUNDBERG A. and Pompeiano O.(1968). Inhibitory effects evoked through ventral reticulo-spinal pathways. Archs.ital.Biol., 106: 124–140.Google Scholar
  15. KOSTYUK P. G. and MAISKY V. A. (1972). Propriospinal projections in the lumbar spinal cord of the cat. Brain Res., 39: 530–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. KOSTYUK P.G., POGORELAYA N. Ch. and DYACHKOVA L. N. (1972). Structural features of cortico-spinal connections in the cat. Neurophysiology (Kiev), in press.Google Scholar
  17. KOSTYUK P. G. and PREOBRAZHENSKY N. N. (1966). Differentiation of reciprocal and unspecific descending synaptic influences during stimulation of the bulbar reticular formation. Fiziologichny zhurnal (Kiev), 12: 712–720.Google Scholar
  18. KOSTYUK P. G. and SKIBO G. G. (1972 a). Structural characteristics of the connections of the medial descending systems with spinal cord neurons. Neurophysiology (Kiev), 4, in press.Google Scholar
  19. KOSTYUK P. G. and SKIBO G. G. (1972 b). An electron microscopic analysis of rubro-spinal tract terminations in the spinal cord of the cat. Exp.Brain Res., in press.Google Scholar
  20. KOSTYUK P. G., VASILENKO D. A. and LANG E. (1971). Prppriospinal pathways in the dorso-latera 1 funiculus and their effects on lumbosacral motoneuronal pools. Brain Res., 28:233–249.Google Scholar
  21. KUYPERS H. G. J. M. (1964). The descending pathways to the spinal cord, their anatomy and function. Progress in Brain Research, 11: 178–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. LLINAS R. and TERZUOLO C. A. (1964). Mechanisms of supraspinal actions upon spinal cord activities. Reticular inhibitory mechanisms in alpha extensor motoneurones. 3.Neurophysiol., 27: 579–590.Google Scholar
  23. LLINAS R. and TERZUOLO C. A. (1965). Mechanisms of supraspinal actions upon spinal cord activities. Reticular inhibitory mechanisms upon flexor motoneu- rones. J.Neurophysio1., 28: 413–422.Google Scholar
  24. LLOYD D. (1941). The spinal mechanism of the pyramidal system in cats. J.Neurophysiol., 4: 525–546.Google Scholar
  25. LUND S. and POMPEIANO O. (1965). Descending pathways with monosynaptic action on motoneurones. Experientia, 21: 602–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. LUNDBERG A., NORRSELL U. and VOORHOEVE P. (1962). Pyramidal effects on lumbosacral interneurones activated by somatic afferents. Acta Physiol.gcand., 56: 220–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. NYBERG-HANSEN R. (1966). Functional organization of descending supraspinal fibre systems to the spinal cord. Anatomical observations and physiological correlations. Ergeb.Anat.Entwickl.-Gesch., 39: 1–48.Google Scholar
  28. NYBERG-HANSEN R. and BRODAL A. (1963). Sites of termination of corticospinal fibers in the cat. J.Comp.Neurol. 120: 369–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. NYBERG-HANSEN R, and BRODAL A. (1964). Sites and mode of termination of rubro-spinal fibers in cat. An experimental study with silver impregnation method. J.Anatomy, 98: 235–253.Google Scholar
  30. ORLOVSKY G. N. and PAVLOVA G. A. (1972). Vestibular responses of neurones of different descending pathways in cats with intact cerebellum and in decerebellated ones. Neurophysiology (Kiev), 4: 303–310.Google Scholar
  31. PILYAVSKY A. I. and SKIBO G. G. (1969). Relation of the rubro-spinal tract with various neurones of the lumbar section of the spinal cord. Bull.Eksp.Biol.Ned.(USSR), 68: 3–6.Google Scholar
  32. PREOBRAZHENSKY N. N., BEZHENARU I. S. and GOKIN A. P. (1969). Monosynaptic EPSP in thoracic motoneurones under reticu1o-spina1 effect. Neurophysiology (Kiev), 1: 243–252.Google Scholar
  33. SHAPOVALOV A. I., GRANTYN A. A. and KURCHAVYI G. G. (1967). Shortlatency reticulo-spinal synaptic projections to alphamotoneurones. Bull.Eksp.Biol.Med. (USSR), 64: 3–9.Google Scholar
  34. SHAPOVALOV A. I., KURCHAVYI G. G. and STROGONOVA M. P. (1966). Synaptic mechanisms of vestibulo-spina1 influences on alpha-motoneurones. Sechenov Physiol.J. USSR, 52: 1401–1409.Google Scholar
  35. VASILENKO D. A. and KOSTYUK P. G. (1965). Activation of various groups of spinal neurones in response to stimulation of the sensory-motor cortical area in cats. Zh.Vysh.Nerv.Deiat.(Moskva), 15: 695–704.Google Scholar
  36. VASILENKO D. A., KOSTYUKOV A. I. and PILYAVSKY A. I.(1972). Cortico- and rubrofugal activation of proprio- spinal interneurones sending axons into the dqrso- lateral funiculus of the cat spinal cord. Neurophysiology (Kiev), 4: 489–500.Google Scholar
  37. VASILENKO, D. A., ZADOROZHNY A. G. and KOSTYUK P. G. (1967). Synaptic processes in the spinal neurones, monosynaptically activated by the pyramidal tract. Bull.Eksp.Biol.Med. (USSR), 64: 20–25.Google Scholar
  38. WILSON V. J. and YOSHIDA M. (1969 a). Comparison of effects of stimulation of Deiters’ nucleus and medial longitudinal fasciculus on neck, forelimb and hind- limb motoneurones. J.Neurophysiol., 32: 743–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. WILSON, V. J. and YOSHIDA M. (1969 b). Monosynaptic inhibition of neck motoneurones by the medial vestibular nucleus. Exp.Brain Res., 9: 365–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. ZADOROZHNY A. G., VASILENKO D. A. and KOSTYUK P. G. (1970). Pyramidal influences on interneurones of spinal reflex arcs in cat. Neurophysiology (Kiev), 2: 17–25.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. G. Kostyuk
    • 1
  1. 1.S.S.Bogomoletz Institute of PhysiologyKievUSSR

Personalised recommendations