Resonance Methods

  • D. Haneman


In this article we will discuss the application to surfaces of two powerful techniques used widely for bulk studies: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). EPR detects the presence of unpaired electrons through their magnetic moments; NMR detects nuclei with net (spin) magnetic moments. the detection sensitivity of EPR, however, is about 106 times that of NMR. This tends to make it a more useful tool in surface studies, where the number of entities is so limited by the available surface area that NMR is often insufficiently sensitive. Hence the major portion of this article will be devoted to EPR studies. There is also a technique known as cyclotron resonance which picks up effects due to surfaces, but it has not been exploited much for surfaces to date since these effects are due to relatively thick layers (50 Å and more) through which an electron describes substantial parts of orbits. There are few detailed specific surface results, and we shall not go into this technique here.


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectrum Unpaired Electron Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Signal 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Haneman
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PhysicsUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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