Advertisement

The Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes

  • Roy Robinson

Abstract

The genetics of the red fox are of interest because of the economic importance of this species. In this respect, the species has much in common with the American mink. The fox is bred on a large scale on ranches for the production of luxuriant pelts. A number of mutants have been seized upon by breeders for the development of novel and high-priced colors.

Keywords

Coat Color American Mink Color Phasis Guard Hair Melanic Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Andres, A. H., 1938 On the chromosome complex in several canidae. Cytologia (Tokyo) 9:35–37.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous, 1939 Norwegian ”angora foxes.” Deut. Pelztierz. 14:398–399.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous, 1947 Candian fur breeder announces new silver fox mutation. Am. Fur Breed., 20(1):62, 64.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous, 1959 [Atom fox.] Deut. Pelztierz. 33:235.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous, 1967 [White silver fox in Norway.] Vara Palsdjur 38:210.Google Scholar
  6. Ashbrook, F. G., 1937 The breeding of fur animals. Yearb. Agric. US Dept. Agric. 1379–1395.Google Scholar
  7. Asmus, N., 1940 [A new type of fox.] Sovet. Zooteh. 11/12:117–118.Google Scholar
  8. Beljaev, D. K. and L. N. Trut, 1963 The ways of reorganization of the reproductive function in seasonally reproducting mammals. Proc. XI Internatl. Congr. Genet. 1:250.Google Scholar
  9. Beljaev, D. K. and L. N. Trut, 1964a [Behavior and reproduction in animals. I. Correlation between behavior and breeding season and fertility.] Byull. Mosk. Priv. Otd. Biol. 69(3):5–19.Google Scholar
  10. Beljaev, D. K. and L. N. Trut, 1964b [Behavior and reproduction in animals. II. Changes in correlations due to selection for domestication.] Byull. Mosk. Priv. Otd. Biol 69(4):5–14.Google Scholar
  11. Buckton, K. E. and C. Cunningham, 1971 Variations of the chromosome number in the red fox. Chromosoma (Berl.) 33:268–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butler, L., 1945 Distribution and genetics of the color phases of the red fox. Genetics 30:39–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Butler, L., 1947 The genetics of the color phases of the red fox in the Mackenzie river locality. Can. J. Res. D 25:190–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butler, L., 1951 Population cycles and color phase genetics of the colored fox in Quebec. Can. J. Zool. 29:24–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calhoun, J. B., 1950 Population cycles and gene frequency fluctuations in foxes of the genus Vulpes in Canada. Can. J. Res. D 28:45–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chiarelli, B., 1965 Interesse sistematico ed evolutivo della cariologica dei Canidae. Boll. Zool. 32:435–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Churcher, C. S., 1959 The specific status of the New World red fox. J. Mammal. 40:513–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cole, L. J. and R. M. Shackelford, 1943 White spotting in the fox. Am. Nat. 77:289–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cole, L. J. and R. M. Shackelford, 1946 Fox hybrids. Trans. Wis Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 38:315–332.Google Scholar
  20. Cowan, I. M., 1938 Geographic distribution of color phases of the red fox and black bear in the Pacific Northwest. J. Mammal. 19:202–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cross, E. C, 1941 Color phases of the red fox. J. Mammal. 22:25–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Docke, F., 1959 Zahn und Bissanomalien beim Wild und Farmfuch. Arch. Tierz. 2:130–161.Google Scholar
  23. Dyrendahl, S. and B. Henricson, 1960a Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis of silver foxes. Acta Vet. Scand. 1:121–139.Google Scholar
  24. Dyrendahl, S. and B. Henricson, 1960b [Inherited hyperplastic gingivitis (“swollen flesh”) in the silver fox.] Vara Palsdjur 31:248–252.Google Scholar
  25. Elton, C. S., 1942 Voles, Mice and Lemmings, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  26. Gray, A. P., 1972 Mammalian Hybrids, Commonwealth Agriculture Bureaux, Farnham Royal, England.Google Scholar
  27. Gunn, C. K., 1945 Genetics of some new type foxes. Pub. Dept. Agric. Can. 748:1–14.Google Scholar
  28. Gustavsson, I., 1964 Karyotype of the fox. Nature (Lond.) 201:950–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gustavsson, I., 1970 Mitotic and meiotic behavior of the B chromosomes in the silver fox. Giessener Beitr. Erbpathel. Zuchthyg. Suppl. 1:34–342.Google Scholar
  30. Gustavsson, I. and C. O. Sundt, 1965 Chromosome complex of the family Canidae. Hereditas 54:249–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gustavsson, I. and C. O. Sundt, 1967 Chromosome elimination in the evolution of the silver fox. J. Hered. 58:74–78.Google Scholar
  32. Haldane, J. B. S., 1942 The selective elimination of silver foxes in eastern Canada. J. Genet. 44:296–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Iljina, E. D., 1934 [The inheritance of basic coat colors in the fox.] Zool. Zh. 13:701–713.Google Scholar
  34. Iljina, E. D., 1935 Osnovy Genetikii Selekcu Pusnyh Zverei. Glavpusnina Nkvt., Moscow.Google Scholar
  35. Jakovenko, A. V., 1970 [The inheritance of veiled color in silvery black foxes.] II Konf. Molod. Uchen. Genet. Razued. Zhwot. 1:215–217.Google Scholar
  36. Jakovenko, A. V., 1971 [Intensity of veil in silver black foxes.] Krolikov. Zverov. 1971 (1):10–12.Google Scholar
  37. Jakovenko, A. V. and G. A. Kuznecov, 1970 [Inheritance of some colour and pelt characters in silver black foxes.] Nauk. Trudy Inst. Push. Zverov. Krolikov. 9:45–49.Google Scholar
  38. Johansson, L, 1947 The inheritance of the platinum and the white face character in the fox. Hereditas 33:152–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Johansson, I., 1948 Further studies on the platinum and white face mutants in foxes. Festskv. Prof. Per Tuff: Grondahl Boktrykkeri.Google Scholar
  40. Keeler, C. E., 1947 Coat color, physique and temperament. J. Hered. 38:271–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Keeler, C. E., 1964 Coat colour gene synthesis of tame behaviour in the rat, mink and fox. Mind Over Matter 9:16–30.Google Scholar
  42. Keeler, C. E., J. Asteinza and E. Fromm, 1964 Psychosomatics of fear in foxes. Bull. Ga. Acad. Sci. 22:64–69.Google Scholar
  43. Keeler, C. E., S. Ridgeway, L. Lipscomb and E. Fromm, 1968 Genetics of adrenal size and tameness in colorphase foxes. J. Hered. 59:82–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Keeler, C. E., T. Mellinger, E. Fromm and L. Wade, 1970 Melanin, adrenalin and the legacy of fear. J. Hered. 61:81–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kellogg, C. E., 1941 Inheritance of degree of silvering in foxes. Wildlife Leaf I. US. Dept. Int. 178:1–8.Google Scholar
  46. Koch, W., 1950 [Short-headedness in silver fox.] Dtshe. Pelztierz. 24:86–96.Google Scholar
  47. Kolstad, K., 1954 The viability of the platinum and the white marked silver fox. Acta Agric. Scand. 4:272–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lande, O., 1958 Chromosome number in the silver fox. Nature (Lond.) 181:1353–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lande, O., 1960 Chromosome number of the blue fox. Nature (Lond.) 188:170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Landowski, J., 1960 [Preliminary observation on hybrids between the silver fox and the blue fox.] Roczn. Nauk. Pol. B 76:343–348.Google Scholar
  51. Lin, C. C, D. H. Johnston and R. O. Ramsden, 1972 Polymorphism and quinacrine fluorescence karyotypes of red foxes. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 14:573–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Little, C. C, 1958 Coat color genes in rodents and carnivores. Quart. Rev. Biol. 33:103–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Low, R. J. and K. Benirschke, 1972 Microchromosomes in the American red fox. Cytologia (Tokyo) 37:1–11.Google Scholar
  54. Makino, K., 1969 Notes on the variation of chromosome number in the fox. Jap. J. Genet. 44 (Suppl.):93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Makino, S., 1944 Contribution to the study of chromosomes of domestic animals. Zool. Mag. 56:8–15 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  56. Makino, S., 1948 Notes on the chromosomes of four species of small mammals. J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. 9:345–357.Google Scholar
  57. Mohr, O. L. and P. Tuff, 1939 The Norwegian platinum fox. J. Hered. 30:227–234.Google Scholar
  58. Moore, W., and R. L. Elder, 1965 Chromosomes of the fox. J. Hered. 56:142–143.Google Scholar
  59. Nes, N. N., 1972 [Crosses between the silver fox and the blue fox.] Novsk Pelsdyrb. 46:502–503.Google Scholar
  60. Oksala, T., 1954a Genetics of the dark phases of the red fox in experiments and in nature. Pap. Game Res. Helsingf. 11:3–16.Google Scholar
  61. Oksala, T., 19546 On the samson character in the red fox. Pap. Game Res. Helsingfs. 11:17–23.Google Scholar
  62. Pavlov, M. K. and V. I. Kirjuhina, 1959 [Culling silver black foxes for defects in the coat.] Krolikov. Zverov. 2(3):25–27.Google Scholar
  63. Reinhardt, F., 1936 Kreuzungsfuchse. Berl. Tierarz. Wschr. 52:222–223.Google Scholar
  64. Renzoni, A. and P. Omodeo, 1972 Polymorphic chromosome system in the fox. Caryologia 25:173–187.Google Scholar
  65. Rochmann, R., 1969 [Shadow blue fox-Characters and origin.] Norsk Pelsdyrbl. 43:288–290.Google Scholar
  66. Romasov, D. D. and E. D. Iljina, 1942 [Analysis of fox populations after Hardy’s formula.] C. R. (Dokl.) Akad. Sci. USSR 37:193–196.Google Scholar
  67. Sasaki, M., H. Shimba, M. Itoh, S. Makino, K. Hattoi and G. Shiota, 1968 A preliminary note on the chromosome polymorphism in the fox. Proc. Jap. Acad. 44:847–851.Google Scholar
  68. Searle, A. G., 1968 Comparative Genetics of Coat Colour in Mammals, Logos Press, London.Google Scholar
  69. Shackelford, R. M., 1948 The nature of coat color differences in mink and foxes. Genetics 33:311–336.Google Scholar
  70. ackelford, R. M., 1949 Mutations affecting coat color in ranch bred mink and foxes. Proc. VIII Interntl. Congr. Genet.: 660–661.Google Scholar
  71. Shiota, G., 1962 Inheritance of silver and platinum characters in the fox. Jap. J. Genet. 37:248–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Starkov, I. D., 1940 [Fox hybrid.] Sovet. Zooteh. 11/12:119.Google Scholar
  73. Trut, L. N., 1969 [New data in selection of silver black foxes on the characteristics of their defensive behaviour.] In Genetika Povedeniya, Nauka, Leningrad.Google Scholar
  74. Trut, L. N. and D. K. Beljaev, 1969 Role of behaviour in regulation of the reproductive function in some representatives of the canidae family. VI Congr. Interntl. Reprod. Anim. Insem. Artif. Paris 79 2:1677–1680.Google Scholar
  75. Vogt, D. W. and D. T. Arakaki, 1971 Karyotype of the American red fox. J. Hered. 62:318–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Voipio, P., 1950 Evolution at the population level, with special reference to game animals. Pap. Game Res. Helsingf. 5:1–176.Google Scholar
  77. Wahlund, S., 1928 Zusammensetzung von Population und Korrelationserscheinungen vom Standpunkt der Vererbungslehre aus betrachtet. Hereditas 11:65–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wipf, L. and R. M. Shackelford, 1942 Chromosomes of the red fox. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 28:265–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wipf, L. and R. M. Shackelford, 1949 Chromosomes of a fox hybrid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 35:468–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zuckerman, S., 1953 The breeding seasons of mammals in captivity. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 122:827–950.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roy Robinson
    • 1
  1. 1.St. Stephen’s Road NurseryLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations