Advertisement

Physical Carcinogenesis: Radiation—History and Sources

  • Arthur C. Upton

Abstract

More than half a century has elapsed since the carcinogenic effects of radiation were first recorded. Study of such effects has since received continuing impetus from the early and expanding uses of radiation in diagnosis and therapy, and from the far-reaching applications of nuclear technology in science, medicine, and industry. In historical perspective, the effects of radiation have received greater study than those of any other physical agent of comparable environmental significance. As such, our experience with radiation is applicable to the study and control of other environmental carcinogens.

Keywords

Unite Nation Polycythemia Vera Linear Energy Transfer Atomic Radiation Radiation Worker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aub, J. C., Evans, R. D., Hempelmann, L. H., and Martland, H. S., 1952, The late effects of internally-deposited radioactive materials in man. Medicine 31 (3): 221–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bener, P., 1969, Spectral intensity of natural ultraviolet radiation and its dependence on various parameters, in: The Biologic Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation ( F. Urbach, ed.), pp. 351–358, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Brues, A. M., 1951, Carcinogenic effects of radiation, Advan. Biol. Med. Phys. 2: 171–191.Google Scholar
  4. Cade, S., 1957, Radiation induced cancer in man, Brit. J. Radiol. 30: 393–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Casarett, G. W., 1965, Experimental radiation carcinogenesis. Prog. Exp. Tumor Res. 7: 82.Google Scholar
  6. Cole L. J., and Nowell, P. C., 1965, Radiation carcinogenesis: The Sequence of events. Science 150: 1782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conard, R. A., Dobyns, B. M., and Sutow, W. W., 1970, Thyroid neoplasia as a late effect of acute exposure to radioactive iodines in fallout, JAMA 214: 316–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Corry, P. M., and Cole, A., 1968, Radiation-induced double strand scission of the DNA mammalian metaphase chromosomes. Radiation Res. 36: 528–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Court Brown, W. M., and Doll, R., 1957, Leukemia and Aplastic Anemia in Patients Irradiated for Ankylosing Spondylitis, Medical Research Special Report Series, No. 295, H.M.S.O., London.Google Scholar
  10. Court Brown, W. M., and Doll, R., 1965, Mortality from cancer and other causes after radiotherapy for ankylosing spondylitis, Brit. Med. J. 2: 1327–1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cronkite, E. P., Moloney, W., and Bond, V. P., 1960, Radiation leukemogenesis, an analysis of the problem. Am. J. Med. 5: 673–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Silva Horta, J., Abbat, J. D., Cayolla da Motta, L. A. R. C., and Roriz, M. L., 1965, Malignancy and other late effects following administration of thorotrast. Lancet 2: 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Evans, R. D., 1966, The effects of skeletally deposited alpha-ray emitters in man, Brit. J. Radiol. 39: 881–895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Federal Radiation Council, 1960, Report No. 1: Background Material for the Development of Radiation Protection Standards, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  15. Fox, B. W., and Lajtha, L. G., 1973, Radiation damage and repair, Brit. Med. Bull. 29: 16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Frieben, A., 1902, Demonstration lines cancroids des rechten Handrückens, das sich nach lang¬dauernder Einwirkung von Röntgenstrahlen entwickelt hatte, Fortschr. Geb. Röntgenstr. 6: 106.Google Scholar
  17. Fruth, J., and Lorenz, E., 1954, Carcinogenesis by ionizing radiations, in: Radiation Biology, Vol. 1 ( A. Hollaender, ed.), pp. 1145–1201, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Classer, O., 1944, Radiation spectrum, in: Medical Physics ( O. Classer, ed.), p. 1969, Year Book Publishers, Chicago.Google Scholar
  19. Hempelmann, L. H., 1969, Risk of thyroid neoplasms after irradiation in childhood. Science 160: 159–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hesse, O., 1911, Symptomatologie, Pathogenese und Therapie des Röntgenkarzinoms, J. A. Barth, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  21. Hutchinson, F., and Rauth, A. M., 1962, The characteristics of the energy loss of spectrum for fast electrons which are important in radiation biology. Radiation Res. 16: 598.Google Scholar
  22. International Commission On Radiological Protection, 1960, Report of Committee III: Protection Against X-Rays up to Energies of 3 Mev and Beta- and Gamma-Rays from Sealed Sources, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. International Commission On Radiological Protection, 1966, The evaluation of risks from radiation. Health Phys. 12: 239–302.Google Scholar
  24. International Commission On Radiological Protection, 1969, Publication 14: Radiosensitivity and Spatial Distribution of Dose, Reports prepared by Two Task Groups of Committee 1 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Ishimaru, T., Hoshimo, T., Ichimaru, M., Okada, A., Tomiyasu, T., Tsuchimoto, T., and Yamamoto, T., 1971, Leukemia in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1 October 1950–30 September, 1966, Radiation Res. 45: 216–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jablon, S., and Kato, H., 1970, Childhood cancer in relation to prenatal exposure to A-bomb radiation. Lancet 2: 1000–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kanazir, D. T., 1969, Radiation-induced alterations in the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid and their biological consequences, in: Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology, Vol. 9, pp. 117–122, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Lacassagne, A., 1945a, Les cancers produits par les rayonnements corpusculaires; mécanisme présumable de la cancerisation par les rayons, in Actualities Scientifiques et Industrielles, No. 981, Hermann et Cie, Paris.Google Scholar
  29. Lacassagne, A., 1945b, Les cancers produits par les rayonnements électromagnétiques, in Actualités Scientifiques et Industrielles, No. 975, Hermann et Cie, Paris.Google Scholar
  30. Lehman, A. R., and Ormerod, M. G., 1970, The replication of DNA in murine lymphoma cells (L5178Y). 1. Rate of replication, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 204: 128–143.Google Scholar
  31. Looney, W. B., 1958, Effects of radium in man, Science 127: 630–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lundin, F. E., Lloyd, J. W., Smith, E. M., Archer, V. E., and Holaday, D. A., 1969, Mortality of uranium miners in relation to radiation exposure, hard rock mining, and cigarette smoking—1950 through September, 1967, Health Phys. 16: 571–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lundin, F. E., Jr., Wagoner, J. K., and Archer, V. E., 1971, Radon Daughter Exposure and Respiratory Cancer: Quantitative and Temporal Aspects, NIOSH-HIEHS Joint Monograph No. 1, U.S. Public Health Service, Bethesda, Md.Google Scholar
  34. Mackenzie, I., 1965, Breast cancer following multiple fluoroscopies. Brit. J. Cancer 19: 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. MacMahon, B., and Hutchison, G. B., 1964, Prenatal X-ray and childhood cancer: A review. Acta Unio Int. Contra Cancrum 20: 1172–1174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Malling, H. V., and De Serres, E. J., 1969, Identification of the spectrums of X-ray-induced intragenic alterations at the molecular level in Neurospora crassa, Jap. J. Genet. 44: 61 (Suppl. 2).Google Scholar
  37. Marinelli, L. D., 1958, Radioactivity and the human skeleton. Am. J. Roentgenol. 80: 729–739.Google Scholar
  38. Martland, H. S., 1931, The occurrence of malignancy in radioactive persons: A general review of data gathered in the study of the radium dial painters, with special reference to the occurrence of osteogenic sarcoma and the interrelationship of certain blood diseases. Am. J. Cancer 15: 2435–2516.Google Scholar
  39. Medical Research Council, 1956, The Hazards to Man of Nuclear and Allied Radiations, H.M.S.O., London.Google Scholar
  40. Medical Research Council, 1960, The Hazards to Man of Nuclear and Allied Radiations: A Second Report to the Medical Research Council, H.M.S.O., London.Google Scholar
  41. Mohs, T. B., 1952, Roentgen-ray cancer of the hands of dentists, J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 45: 160–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Morgan, K. Z., 1967, History of damage and protection from ionizing radiation, in Principles of Radiation Protection: A Textbook of Health Physics ( K. Z. Morgan and J. E. Turner, eds.), pp. 1–75, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Myrden, J. A., and Hiltz, J. E., 1969, Breast cancer following multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 100: 1032–1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1956, The Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation: Summary Reports, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  45. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1960, The Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation: Summary Reports, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  46. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1972, The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, Report of the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  47. Palmiter, C. C., and Tompkins, P. C., 1965, Guides, standards, and regulations from the Federation Radiation Council point of view. Health Phys. 2: 865–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pochin, E. E., 1969, Long-term hazards of radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer in: Thyroid Cancer, UICC Monograph Series, Vol. 12, pp. 293–304, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  49. Pochin, E. E., 1972, Frequency of induction of malignancies in man by ionizing radiation, in: Encyclopedia of Medical Radiology ( A. Zuppinger and O. Hug, eds.), pp. 341–355, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  50. Spiess, H., and Mays, C. W., 1970, Bone cancers induced by 224 ra (Th X) in children and adults. Health Phys. 19: 713–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stair, R., 1969, Measurement of natural ultraviolet radiation: Historical and general introduction, in: The Biologic Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation ( F. Urbach, ed.), pp. 377–390, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Stewart, A., Webb, J., and Hewitt, D. A., 1958, A survey of childhood malignancies, Brit. Med. J. 1: 1495–1508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stone, R. S., 1957, Common sense in radiation protection applied to clinical practice, Am. J. Roentgenol. Radium Ther. Nuclear Med. 78: 993–999.Google Scholar
  54. Stone, R. S., 1959, Maximum permissible exposure standards, in: Protection in Diagnostic Radiology, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J.Google Scholar
  55. United Nations, 1958, Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, General Assembly, Official Records: 13th Session, Suppl. No. 17 (A/3838), New York.Google Scholar
  56. United Nations, 1962, Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, General Assembly, Official Records: 17th Session, Suppl. No. 16 (A/5216), New York.Google Scholar
  57. United Nations, 1964, Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, General Assembly, Official Records: 19th Session Suppl. No. 14 (A/5814), New York.Google Scholar
  58. United Nations, 1966, Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, General Assembly, Official Records: 21st Session, Suppl. No. 14 (A/6314), New York.Google Scholar
  59. United Nations, 1969, Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Official Records of the General Assembly, 24th Session, Suppl. No. 13 (A/7613), New York.Google Scholar
  60. United Nations, 1972, Ionizing Radiation: Levels and Effects, A Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, General Assembly, Official Records: 27th Session, Suppl. No. 25 (A/8725), New York.Google Scholar
  61. Upton, A. C., 1967, Comparative observations on radiation carcinogenesis in man and animals, in: Carcinogenesis: A Broad Critique pp. 631–675, University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  62. Upton, A. C., 1968, Radiation carcinogenesis, in: Methods in Cancer Research, Vol. IV ( H. Busch, ed.), pp. 53–82, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  63. von Jagie, N., Scwarz, G., and von Sienbenrock, L., 1911, Blutbefunde bei Rontgenologon, Berl. Klin. Wschr. 48: 1220–1222.Google Scholar
  64. Wald, N., Thoma, G. E., Jr., and Brown, G., 1962, Hematologic manifestations of radiation exposure in man, in: Progress in Hematology, Vol. 3, pp. 1–52, Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Weller, C. V., 1956, Causal Factors in Cancer of the Lung, pp. 43–47, Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur C. Upton
    • 1
  1. 1.Health Sciences CenterState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations