Integrated Systems of Mollusk Culture



Mollusks have two environmental requirements for their growth and commercial culture that may often be mutually exclusive. First, the water temperature must be in the proper range for the animals to pump and filter water; second, the water must contain enough microscopic food organisms of the proper size and composition to provide food for the shellfish. These two prerequisites are often not present simultaneously in the same environment. Tropical and semitropical waters are naturally poor in nutrients and normally lack the level of primary productivity (i.e., phytoplankton growth) for substantial mollusk growth. The more eutrophic temperate and boreal waters have temperatures too low for feeding and growth of bivalves for at least part and often as much as half the year.


Cooling Water System Deep Ocean Water Coastal Marine Water Sewage Outlet Polyculture System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bardach, J. E., J. H. Ryther, and W. O. McLarney. 1972. Aquaculture. Wiley-Interscience, New York. 868 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Bumpus, D. F. 1957. Surface water temperatures along Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. Special Sci. Rep.-Fisheries No. 214, Fish Wildl. Serv., U.S.Dept. Interior. 153 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Loosanoff, V. L., and J. B. Engle. 1947. Effect of different concentrations of microorganisms on the feeding of oysters (O. virginica). U.S. Bur. Fish., Fish. Bull. 42 (51):31–57.Google Scholar
  4. Maine Dept. Sea and Shore Fisheries. 1972. Mason Station aquaculture, 1972. Fourth Annual Report Environmental Studies, Maine Yankee Atomic Power Co., Augusta, Maine.Google Scholar
  5. Oswald, W. J. 1970. Growth characteristics of microalgae cultured in domestic sewage: Environmental effects on production. Prediction and measurement of photsynthetic productivity. Proc. IBP/PP Tech. Mfg. Trebon. Sept. 14–21, 1969. Wageningen Center for Agric. Publ. and Document. N.V. Noord-Nederlandse Drykkers, Merdel, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  6. Roels, O. A., and R. D. Gerard. 1970. Artificial upwelling. Mar. Technol. Soc. Proc. Conf. Food-Drugs from the Sea, 102–122.Google Scholar
  7. Ryther, J. H. 1969. The potential of the estuary for shellfish production. Proc. Nat. Shellfish. Assoc. 59:18–22.Google Scholar
  8. Ryther, J. H., W. M. Dunstan, K. R. Tenore, and J. E. Huguenin. 1972. Controlled eutro- phication-Increasing food production from the sea by recycling human wastes. Bioscience 22:144–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Tenore, K. R., and W. M. Dunstan. 1973. Comparison of feeding and biodeposition of three bivalves at different food levels. Mar. Biol. 21:190–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Tenore, K. R., J. C. Goldman, and J. P. Clarner. 1973. The food chain dynamics of the oyster, clam and mussel in an acquaculture food chain. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 72:157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Woods Hole Oceanographie InstitutionWoods HoleUSA

Personalised recommendations