Integrated Systems of Mollusk Culture
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Mollusks have two environmental requirements for their growth and commercial culture that may often be mutually exclusive. First, the water temperature must be in the proper range for the animals to pump and filter water; second, the water must contain enough microscopic food organisms of the proper size and composition to provide food for the shellfish. These two prerequisites are often not present simultaneously in the same environment. Tropical and semitropical waters are naturally poor in nutrients and normally lack the level of primary productivity (i.e., phytoplankton growth) for substantial mollusk growth. The more eutrophic temperate and boreal waters have temperatures too low for feeding and growth of bivalves for at least part and often as much as half the year.
KeywordsCooling Water System Deep Ocean Water Coastal Marine Water Sewage Outlet Polyculture System
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