Glucose and Ketone-Body Utilization in Young Rat Brains: A Compartmental Analysis of Isotopic Data

  • Jill E. Cremer
  • Dennis F. Heath

Abstract

There have been only a few studies in which rates of glucose and ketone-body metabolism have been estimated in the brains of small, conscious animals. Most of these have used arterio-venous difference measurements, a method that requires a knowledge of the rate of blood flow through the brain, and in small, conscious animals that is difficult to determine. Moreover, the method only gives overall net uptake rates, and no estimates of the rates of the various intermediate steps can be obtained. Results of an alternative approach are described in this chapter, whereby estimates of rates of various intermediary steps of metabolism in the brain were based on a compartmental analysis of isotopic data. Animals were injected with the following labeled compounds: D-[2-14 C]-glucose, L(+)-[3-14 C]-lactate, and D(-)-3-hydroxy-[3-14C]-butyrate. These were chosen because they are the isomers preferred by the relevant enzymes in situ and the selected specific positions of the 14 C label have particular advantages for quantitative analyses (see Chapter 22 this volume).

Keywords

Permeability Lactate Glutathione Citrate Ketone 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Balázs, R., and Cremer, J. E., 1973, in “Metabolic Compartmentation in the Brain” (R. Balázs and J. E. Cremer, eds.), pp. 361 - 367, Macmillan, London and New York.Google Scholar
  2. Berl, S., and Clarke, D. D., 1969, Compartmentation of amino acid metabolism, in “Handbook of Neurochemistry,” Vol. 2 (A. Lajtha, ed.), pp. 447–472, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Betz, A. L., Gilboe, D. D., and Drewes, L. R., 1974, Effects of anoxia on net uptake and unidirectional transport of glucose into the isolated dog brain, Brain Res. 67: 307–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cremer, J. E., and Heath, D. F., 1974, The estimation of rates of utilization of glucose and ketone bodies in the brain of the suckling rat using compartmental analysis of isotopic data, Biochem. J. 142: 527–544.Google Scholar
  5. Daniel, P. M., Loew, E. R., Moorhouse, S. R., Pratt, O. E., and Wilson, P., 1971, Factors influencing utilisation of ketone-bodies by brain in normal rats and rats with ketoacidosis, Lancet (Sept. 1971): 637–638.Google Scholar
  6. Drahota, Z., Hahn, P., Kleinzeller, A., and Kostolánská, A., 1964, Acetoacetate formation by liver slices from adult and infant rats, Biochem. J. 93: 61–65.Google Scholar
  7. Dzubow, L. M., and Garfinkel, D., 1970, A simulation study of brain compartments. II. Atom-by- atom simulation of the metabolism of specifically labelled glucose and acetate, Brain Res. 23: 407–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gottstein, U., Müller, W., Berghoff, W., Gärtner, H., and Held, K., 1971, Zur utilisation von nicht-veresterten fettsäuren und Ketonkörper in Gehirn des Menschen, Klin. Wochenschr. 49: 406–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hawkins, R. A., Williamson, D. H., and Krebs, H. A., 1971, Ketone-body utilization by adult and suckling rat brain in vivo, Biochem. J. 122: 13–18.Google Scholar
  10. Kraus, H., Schlenker, S., and Schwedesky, D., 1974, Developmental changes of cerebral ketone body utilization in human infants, Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol Chem. 355: 164–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. O’Neal, R. M., and Koeppe, R. E., 1966, Precursors in vivo of glutamate, aspartate, and their derivatives of rat brain, J. Neurochem. 13: 835–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Owen, O. E., Morgan, A. P., Kemp, H. G., Sullivan, J. M., Herrera, M. G., and Cahill, G. F., 1967, Brain metabolism during fasting, J Clin. Invest. 46 (10): 1589–1595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Page, M. A., Krebs, H. A., and Williamson, D. H., 1971, Activities of enzymes of ketone-body utilization in brain and other tissues of suckling rats, Biochem. J. 121: 49–53.Google Scholar
  14. Patel, A. J., and Balázs, R., 1970, Manifestation of metabolic compartmentation during the maturation of the rat brain, J. Neurochem. 17: 955–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Persson, B., Settergren, G., and Dahlquist, G., 1972, Cerebral arterio-venous difference of acetoacetate and D-β-hydroxybutyrate in children, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 61: 273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Van den Berg, C. J., and Garfinkel, D., 1971, A simulation study of brain compartments, Biochem. J 123: 211–218.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jill E. Cremer
    • 1
  • Dennis F. Heath
    • 1
  1. 1.Biochemical Mechanisms and Experimental Pathology of Trauma SectionsMedical Research Council LaboratoriesCarshalton SurreyEngland

Personalised recommendations