Evaporation from Solids

  • Gerd M. Rosenblatt

Abstract

Volatilization of solids in the broad sense includes any process which results in conversion of matter from the solid state to the vapor phase. Volatilization may occur in two principal ways. Solid may be converted into vapor by (1) evaporation, in which case the gaseous molecules formed consist entirely of atoms supplied by the solid, or (2) a chemical reaction between the solid and another species to form gaseous products. In the latter case the other species may be a gas, another solid, or a liquid. The additional species may be present inadvertently as part of the environmental gas or of the container material, or may be introduced purposely. Volatilization reactions of this second type are governed by considerations described in other chapters of this treatise (cf. Chapters 4, 5, 8, and 9 of Volume 4). However, although more complex, the reactions of solids with other phases, particularly with gases, to form volatile products are related to, and in some respects similar. to, direct evaporation of gases from solids. Gas-surface volatilization reactions are complicated by the need for interaction, adsorption, and reaction of the incoming gas with the solid, as described in Chapter 5 of Volume 6A and Chapter 8 of Volume 4. However, following, and perhaps during, formation of the product molecules the molecular processes are similar to those occurring during evaporation, as described in this chapter.

Keywords

Phosphorus Sulfide Convection Boron Iodine 

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Copyright information

© Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerd M. Rosenblatt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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