Ultrastructural Features of Human Urinary Calculi
In the past, a variety of techniques have been utilized to identify the constituents of urinary calculi. Chemical,1–2 optical,1 X-ray powder diffraction,1,3 and infrared spectrometry,3–4 procedures have been used for the routine analysis of stones. However, these studies have provided little insight into the ultrastructure of calculi. Heretofore, only a few electron microscopy studies of uroliths have been performed.5–7 A description of calculi constituents at the ultrastructural level is important for a number of reasons. The apatite constituent of calculi is present in the form of minute crystallites which are below the limit of resolution of optical techniques. In addition, potentially important morphogenic phenomena such as epitaxy 8–9 can best be revealed by ultrastructural studies.
KeywordsPosit Oxalate Apatite Glutaraldehyde Dihydrate
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