Advertisement

The Value of Artificial Feeding Techniques in Aphid-Host-Plant Studies

  • T. E. Mittler

Abstract

What can we learn about the association between aphids and their host plants by studying the behaviour, growth, and reproduction of these insects on artificial diets? This is a question that has frequently been asked. I will try to answer it from a variety of points of view, and try to show the applicability and value of this approach to our understanding of aphid—host-plant interactions.

Keywords

Host Plant Artificial Diet Aphid Species Acyrthosiphon Pisum Artificial Feeding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ADAMS, J. B. (1967): A physiological difference in aphids (Homoptera) raised on excised leaves and on intact plants. Can. J. Zool. 45, 588–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AKEY, D. H. and BECK, S. D. (1971): Continuous rearing of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, on a holidic diet. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 353–356.Google Scholar
  3. AKEY, D. H. and BECK, S. D. (1975): Programmable automated system for continuous rearing of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum on holidic diets. Ent.exp. & appl. 18, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ARN, H. and CLEERE, J. S. (1971): A double-label choice-test for the simultaneous determination of diet preference and ingestion by the aphid Amphorophora agathonica. Ent. exp. & appl 14, 377–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. AUCLAIR, J. L. (1967): Effects of light and sugars on rearing the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, on a germ-free and holidic diet. J. Insect Physiol. 13, 1247–1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. AUCLAIR, J. L., MALTAIS, J. B. and CARTIER, J. J. (1957): Factors in resistance of peas to the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harr.) (Homoptera: Aphididae). II. Amino acids. Can. Ent. 89, 457–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BANKS, C. J. and NIXON, H. L. (1958): Effects of the ant, Lasius nigerL., on the feeding and excretion of the bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop. J. exp. Biol. 35, 703–711.Google Scholar
  8. BORNMAN, C. H. and BOTHA, C. E. J. (1973): The role of aphids in phloem research. Endeavour, 32, 129–133.Google Scholar
  9. BRADLEY, R. H. E. (1956): Effects of depth of stylet penetration on aphid transmission of potato virus Y. Can. J. Microbiol. 2, 539–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BRAGDON, F. G. and MITTLER, T. E. (1963): Differential utilization of amino acids by Myzus persicae (Sulzer) fed on artificial diets. Nature, Lond. 198, 204–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. BRAMSTEDT, F. (1948): Über die Verdauungsphysiologie der Aphiden. Z. Naturf. 39, 14–24.Google Scholar
  12. CARTIER, J. J. (1966): Aphid responses to colors in artificial rearings. Bull. ent. Soc. Am. 12, 378–380.Google Scholar
  13. CARTIER, J. J. and AUCLAIR, J. L. (1965): Effets des couleurs sur le comportement de diverses races du puceron du pois, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), en élevage sur un régime nutritif de composition chimique connue. Proc. 12th Int. Congr. Ent., London 1964, 414.Google Scholar
  14. CHAWLA, S. S., PERRON, J. M. and CLOUTIER, M. (1974): Effects of different growth factors on the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae(Aphididae: Homoptera), fed on an artificial diet. Can. Ent. 106, 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. COOKE, J. and SANG, J. H. (1970): Utilization of sterols by larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. J. Insect Physiol. 16, 801–812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DADD, R. H. (1973): Insect nutrition: current developments and metabolic implications. Ann. Rev. Ent. 18, 381–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DADD, R. H. and KRIEGER, D. L. (1967): Continuous rearing of the Aphis fabae complex on sterile synthetic diet. J. econ. Ent. 60, 1512–1514.Google Scholar
  18. DADD, R. H., KRIEGER, D. L. and MITTLER, T. E. (1967): Studies on the artificial feeding of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). IV. Requirements for water soluble vitamins and ascorbic acid. J. Insect Physiol. 13, 249–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DADD, R. H. and MITTLER, T. E. (1966): Permanent culture of an aphid on a totally synthetic diet. Experientia, 22, 832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. EHRHARDT, P. (1966): Entwicklung und Symbionten geflügelter und ungeflügelter Virgines von Aphis fabae Scop. unter dem Einfluß künstlicher Ernährung. Z. Morph. Ökol. Tiere, 50, 295–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. EHRHARDT, P. (1968a): Nachweis einer durch symbiotische Microorganismen bewirkten Sterinsynthese in künstlich ernährten Aphiden (Homoptera, Rhynchota, Insecta). Experientia, 24, 82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. EHRHARDT, P. (1968b): Die Wirkung verschiedener Spurenelemente auf Wachstum, Reproduktion und Symbionten von Neomyzus circumflexus Bückt. (Aphidae, Homoptera, Insecta) bei künstlicher Ernährung. Z. vergl. Physiol. 58, 47–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. EHRHARDT, P., JAYARAJ, S. and SCHMUTTERER, H. (1966): Die Wirkung verschiedener, über die Pflanze zugeführter Antibiotica auf Entwicklung und Fertilität der schwarzen Bohnenblattlaus Aphis fabae. Ent. exp. & appl. 9, 332–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. EHRHARDT, P. and SCHMUTTERER, H. (1966): Die Wirkung verschiedener Antibiotica auf Entwicklung und Symbioten künstlich ernähter Bohnenblattläuse (Aphis fabae Scop.). Z. Morph. Ökol. Tiere, 56, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. FORREST, J. M. S. (1971): The growth of Aphis fabae as an indicator of the nutritional advantage of galling to the apple aphid Dysaphis devecta. Ent. exp. & appl. 14, 477–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. FORREST, J. M. S. and NOORDINK, J. P. W. (1971): Translocation and subsequent uptake by aphids of 32P introduced into plants by radioactive aphids. Ent. exp. & appl. 14, 133–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. FRIEND, W. G. and SMITH, J. J. B. (1972): Feeding stimuli and techniques for studying the feeding of haematophagous arthropods under artificial conditions, with special reference to Rhodnius prolixus. In: Insect and Mite Nutrition. North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  28. HAMILTON, M. A. (1935): Further experiments on the artificial feeding of Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Ann. appl. Biol. 22, 243–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. HARREWIJN, P. (1972): Wing production by the aphid Myzus persicae related to nutritional factors in potato plants and artificial diets. In: Insect and Mite Nutrition. North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  30. HARREWIJN, P. (1973): Functional significance of indole alkylamines linked to nutritional factors in wing development of the aphid Myzus persicae. Ent. exp. & appl. 16, 499–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. HARREWIJN, P. and NOORDINK, J. P. W. (1971): Taste perception of Myzus persicae in relation to food uptake and developmental processes. Ent. exp. & appl. 14, 413–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. HERTZIG, J. (1937): Ameisen und Blattläuse. Z. ang. Ent. 24, 367–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. KENNEDY, J. S. and MITTLER, T. E. (1953): A method of obtaining phloem sap via the mouth-parts of aphids. Nature, Lond. 171, 528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. KENNEDY, J. S. and STROYAN, H. L. G. (1959): Biology of aphids. Ann. Rev. Ent. 4, 139–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. KLEINJAN, J. E. (1969): The influence of ants (Formica spp.) on the growth and form of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop., reared on artificial diet. M. Sc. Thesis in Entomology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, 39.Google Scholar
  36. KLINGAUF, F. (1971): Die Wirkung des Glucosids Phlorizin auf das Wirtswahl verhalten von Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walk.) und Aphis pomi De Geer (Homoptera: Aphididae). Z. ang. Ent. 68, 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. KLINGAUF, F. SENGONCA, C. and BENNEWITZ, H., (1972): Einfluß von Sinigrin auf die Nahrungsaufnahme polyphager und oligophager Blattlausarten (Aphididae). Oecologia, 9, 53–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. KLOFT, W., EHRHARDT, P. and KUNKEL, H. (1968): Radioisotopes in the investigation of interrelationships between aphids and host plants. In: Isotopes and radiation in entomology, IAEA, 23–30.Google Scholar
  39. KRIEGER, D. L. (1971): Rearing several aphid species on synthetic diet. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 1176–1177.Google Scholar
  40. LAMB, K. P., EHRHARDT, P. and MOERICKE, V. (1967): Labelling of aphid saliva with rubidium-86. Nature, Lond. 214, 602–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. LECKSTEIN, P. M. and LLEWELLYN, M. (1973): Effect of dietary amino acids on the size and alary polymorphism of Aphis fabae. J. Insect Physiol. 19, 973–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. LECKSTEIN, P. M. and LLEWELLYN, M. (1974): The role of amino acids in diet intake and selection and the utilization of dipeptides by Aphis fabae. J. Insect Physiol. 20, 877–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. MALTAIS, J. B. (1952): A simple apparatus for feeding aphids aseptically on chemically defined diets. Can. Ent. 84, 291–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MCLEAN, D. L. (1971): Probing behaviour of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. V. Comparison of Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, and a chemically defined diet as food sources. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 499–503.Google Scholar
  45. von MEIER, W. and PANTANETTI, P. (1966): Über Bioteste mit Blattläusen zum Nachweis geringer Insektizidmengen in Zuckerlösungen. Schweiz. Landw. Forsch. 5, 469–480.Google Scholar
  46. MILES, P. W. (1968): Insect secretions in plants. Ann. Rev. Phytopath. 6, 137–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. MITTLER, T. E. (1970a): Uptake rates of plant sap and synthetic diet by the aphid Myzus persicae. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 1701–1705.Google Scholar
  48. MITTLER, T. E. (1970b): Effects of dietary amino acids on the feeding rate of the aphid Myzus persicae. Ent. exp. dk appl. 13, 432–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MITTLER, T. E. (1971): Dietary amino acid requirements of the aphid Myzus persicae affected by antibiotic uptaker J. Nutrition, 101, 1023–1028.Google Scholar
  50. MITTLER, T. E. (1972): Interactions between dietary components. In: Insect and Mite Nutrition. North Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  51. MITTLER, T. E. (1973): Aphid polymorphism as affected by diet. In: Perspectives in Aphid Biology. Bull. 2, Ent. Soc. New Zealand, 65–75.Google Scholar
  52. MITTLER, T. E. and DADD, R. H. (1964a): An improved method for feeding aphids on artificial diets. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 57, 139–140.Google Scholar
  53. MITTLER, T. E. and DADD, R. H. (1964b): Gustatory discrimination between liquids by the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Ent. exp. & appl. 7, 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. MITTLER, T. E. and DADD, R. H. (1965): Differences in the probing responses of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) elicited by different feeding solutions behind a parafilm membrane. Ent. exp. & appl. 8, 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. MITTLER, T. E. and PENNELL, J. T. (1964): Simple screening test for systemic aphicides. J. econ. Ent. 57, 302–303.Google Scholar
  56. MOON, M. S. (1967): Phagostimulation of a monophagous aphid. Oikos, 18, 96–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. NAULT, L. R. and STYER, W. E. (1972): Effects of sinigrin on host selection by aphids. Ent. exp. & appl. 15, 423–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. PARRY, W. H. and FORD, J. B. (1964): The artificial feeding of phosphamidon to Myzus persicae: I. Intraspecific differences exhibited by this aphid on feeding through a parafilm membrane. Ent. exp. & appl. 10, 437–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. PARRY, W. H. and FORD, J. B. (1971): Effects of phosphamidon on the longevity, fecundity and liquid uptake. Ent. exp. & appl. 14, 389–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. RACCAH, B. and TAHORI, A. S. (1971): Wing dimorphism influencing resistance or toxicity tests and food uptake in Myzus persicae. Ent. exp. & appl. 14, 310–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. RACCAH, B., TAHORI, A. S. and APPLEBAUM, S. W. (1971): Effect of nutritional factors in synthetic diet on increase of alate forms in Myzus persicae. J. Insect Physiol. 17, 1385–1390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. SRIVASTAVA, P. N. and AUCLAIR, J. L. (1963): Characteristics and nature of proteases from the alimentary canal of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harr.) (Homoptera, Aphididae). J. Insect Physiol. 9, 469–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. SRIVASTAVA, P. N. and AUCLAIR, J. L. (1971a): Influence of sucrose concentration on diet uptake and performance by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 739–743.Google Scholar
  64. SRIVASTAVA, P. N. and AUCLAIR, J. L. (1971b): An improved chemically defined diet for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 474–478.Google Scholar
  65. SUTHERLAND, O. R. W. and MITTLER, T. E. (1969): Sexual forms of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, produced on an artificial diet. Ent. exp. & appl. 12, 240–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. TSITSIPIS, J. A. and MITTLER, T. E. (1970): Convenient lighting system for inducing the production of sexual forms of aphids feeding on artificial diets. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 1665–1667.Google Scholar
  67. van HOOF, H. A. (1958): Onderzoekingen over de biologische overdracht van een non-persistent virus. Meded. Inst, plziektenk. Onderz. 161, 1–96.Google Scholar
  68. van EMDEN, H. F. (1967): An increase in the longevity of adult Aphis fabae fed artificially through parafilm membranes on liquids under pressure. Ent. exp. & appl. 10, 166–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. van EMDEN, H. F. and BASHFORD, M. A. (1971): The performance of Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae in relation to plant age and leaf amino acids. Ent. exp. & appl. 14, 349–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. WATSON, M. A. and PLUMB, M. A. (1972): Transmission of plant-pathogenic viruses by aphids. Ann. Rev. Ent. 17, 425–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. WEARING, C. H. (1968): Responses of aphids to pressure applied to liquid diet behind parafilm membrane. Longevity and larviposition of Myzus persicae (Sulz.) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) feeding on sucrose and sinigrin solutions. N. Z. J. Sci. 11, 105–121.Google Scholar
  72. WENSLER, R. J. D. (1962): Mode of host selection by an aphid. Nature, Lond. 195, 830–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. E. Mittler
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Entomology and ParasitologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations