Advertisement

Specialization and the Varieties of Environmental Experience

Empirical Studies within the Personality Paradigm
  • Brian R. Little

Abstract

The integrative and reflexive capabilities of the personality research paradigm are here reviewed in the context of applying specialization theory to issues in man-environment research. A primary specialist typology is described along with the notion of specialization loops. Assessment techniques for measuring the cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of specialization loops are outlined and a developmental model of environmental construing proposed. The specialization model in its expanded form, which includes expressive and environmental barriers to the completion of loops, is shown to apply to students, scientists, and schizophrenics. A plea is made for an environmental psychology that is empirically reflexive. Hopefully, it will soon be difficult to find an environmental psychologist who has not been put soundly in his place—at least in his own theorizing.

Keywords

Psychological Construct Personal Construct Repertory Grid Personality Psychology Primary Domain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adelson, J. Personality. In P. H. Müssen and M. R. Rosenzweig (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology. Palo Alto, California: Annual Reviews, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, C. The city as a mechanism for sustaining human contact. In W. Ewald (Ed.),Environment for man. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  3. Bakan, D. Behaviorism and American urbanization. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 1966, 2, 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bannister, D. and Mair, J. M. M. The evaluation of personal constructs. London: Academic Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  5. Burley, P. Unpublished masters thesis, University of New South Wales, Australia, 1972.Google Scholar
  6. Campbell, D. P. The vocational interests of American Psychological Association presidents American Psychologist, 1965, 20, 636–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlson, R. Where is the person in personality research? Psychological Bulletin, 1971, 75, 203–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpenter, B. Birthplaces and schools of experimental and clinical psychologists. American Psychologist, 1954, 9, 637–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coan, R. W. Dimensions of psychological theory. American Psychologist, 1968, 23, 715–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Craik, K. H. The prospects for an environmental psychology. IPAR Research Bulletin. Berkeley, California: University of California, 1966.Google Scholar
  11. Craik, K. H. Environmental psychology. In K. H. Craik, et al., New directions in psychology 4. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970. (a)Google Scholar
  12. Craik, K. H. The environmental dispositions of environmental decision-makers. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1970, 389, 87–94. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Craik, K. H. The assessment of places. In P. Meynolds (Ed.), Advances in psychological assessment (Vol. 2). Palo Alto, California: Science and Behavior Books, 1971.Google Scholar
  14. Craik, K. H. The individual and the physical environment: Assessment strategies in environmental psychology. In W. M. Smith (Ed.), Behavior, design and policy: Aspects of human habitats. Green Bay, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, 1972.Google Scholar
  15. Craik, K. H. Environmental psychology. In P. H. Müssen and M. R. Rosenzweig (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology. Palo Alto, California: Annual Reviews, 1973.Google Scholar
  16. Dixon, P. M. Reduced emotional responsiveness in schizophrenia. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of London, 1968.Google Scholar
  17. Duck, S. W. Personal relationships and personal constructs: A study of friendship formation. London: Wiley, 1973.Google Scholar
  18. Duck, S. W. and Spencer, C. P. Personal constructs and friendship formation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1972, 23, 40–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gough, H. G. Conceptual analysis of psychological test scores and other diagnostic variables. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 294–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hogan, R. T. Moral development: An assessment approach. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1967.Google Scholar
  21. Kaplan, A. The conduct of inquiry. San Francisco: Chandler, 1964.Google Scholar
  22. Kelly, G. A. The psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton, 1955.Google Scholar
  23. King, G. F. Withdrawal as a dimensions of schizophrenia: An exploratory study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1956, 12, 373–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Little, B. R. Factors affecting the use of psychological vs. nonpsychological constructs on the Rep. test. Paper presented at the London Conference of the British Psychological Society, December, 1967.Google Scholar
  25. Little, B. R. Psychospecialization: Functions of differential interest in persons and things. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 1968, 21, 113.Google Scholar
  26. Little, B. R. Sex differences and comparability of three measures of cognitive complexity. Psychological Reports, 1969, 24, 607–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Little, B. R. Some methods for the assessment of environmental construing and orientation. Report for Environment Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1971.Google Scholar
  28. Little, B. R. Person-thing orientation: A provisional manual for the T-P scale. Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University, 1972. (a)Google Scholar
  29. Little, B. R. Psychological man as scientist, humanist and specialist. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1972,6, 95–118. (b)Google Scholar
  30. Little, B. R. Person-thing orientation: Manual for the T-P scale (2nd ed.). Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 1974.Google Scholar
  31. Little, B. R., and Kane, M. Person-thing orientation and privacy. Man-Environment Systems. 1974, 4, 361–364.Google Scholar
  32. Little, B. R., and Stephens, E. Psychological construing and selective attention to content versus expressive aspects of speech. Unpublished paper, Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University, 1972.Google Scholar
  33. Mechnie, G. E. Manual for the Environmental Response Inventory. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1974. (a)Google Scholar
  34. Mechnie, G. E. Explorations in environmental dispositions: Notes for extending a paradigm (unpublished manuscript), University of California, Berkeley, 1974. (b)Google Scholar
  35. Mainnon, D. W. The nature and nurture of creative talent. American Psychologist, 1962, 17, 484–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mherson, F. M., Barden, V., Hay, A. J., Johnstone, D. W., and Kushner, A. W. Flattening of affect and personal constructs. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1970, 116, 39–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mherson, F. M., Buckley, F., and Draffan, J. “Psychological” constructs, thought process disorder and flattening of affect. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1971, 10, 267–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Marshall, N. Privacy and environment. Human Ecology, 1972, 1, 93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mehrabian, A. An analysis of personality theories. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1968.Google Scholar
  40. Mehrabian, A., and Russell, J. A. An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  41. Milgram, S. The experience of living in cities. Science, 1970, 167, 1461–1468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Moos, R. H. Conceptualizations of human environments. American Psychologist, 1973, 28, 652–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sewell, W. R. D., and Little, B. R. Specialists, laymen and the process of environmental appraisal. Regional Studies, 1973, 7, 161–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Strawson, P. F. Individuals: An essay in descriptive metaphysics. London: Methuen, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wapner, S. Organismic-developmental theory: some applications to cognition. In P. Müssen, J. Langer, and M. Covington, (Eds.), Trends and issues in developmental psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969.Google Scholar
  46. Werner, H. Comparative psychology of mental development. Chicago, Illinois: Follet, 1948.Google Scholar
  47. Wiggins, J. S. In defense of traits. Invited address to the Ninth Annual Symposium on Recent Developments in the use of the MMPI; Los Angeles, February 28, 1974.Google Scholar
  48. Williams, E., and Quirke, C. Psychological construing in schizophrenics. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 1972, 45, 79–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wohlwill, J. F. The emerging discipline of environmental psychology. American Psychologist, 1970, 25, 303–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wohlwill, J- F., and Kohn, I. The environment as experienced by the migrant: An adaptation-level view. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 1973, 4, 135–164.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian R. Little
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of British ColumbiaCanada

Personalised recommendations