Social Experience as a Determinant of Normal Behavior and Drug Effect

  • Luigi Valzelli

Abstract

Variability in response to drug treatment often makes it difficult to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of psychotropic drugs and to utilize them correctly in clinical practice. Over the past 30 years, such variability has led to a still-growing and rather confusing body of knowledge relating to such issues as environment, personality characteristics of patients and of doctors, attitude, expectations, and related concepts, all of which have been described as capable of influencing drug responses (Forrest et al., 1967; Freund et al., 1972; Klerman, 1963; Heimann, 1969; McNair et al, 1970a,b; Overall et al., 1969).

Keywords

Nicotine Schizophrenia Testosterone Caffeine Chlordiazepoxide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, M. W., Bendotti, C., Ghezzi, D., Samanin, R., and Valzelli, L., 1975a, Dependence on morphine in differentially housed rats, Psychopharmacologia41:15–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, M. W., Mauron, C., Samanin, R., and Valzelli, L., 1975b, Morphine analgesia in grouped and isolated rats, Psychopharmacologia41:11–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anand, B. K., and Dua, S., 1956, Electrical stimulation of the limbic system of brain (visceral brain) in the waking animals, Indian J. Med. Res.44:107–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Balazs, T., Murphy, J. B., and Grice, H. C., 1962, The influence of environmental changes on the cardiotoxicity of isoprenoline in rats, J. Pharm. Pharmacol.14:750–755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barratt, E. S., and Pray, S. L., 1965, Effect of a chemically depressed amygdala on the behavioral manifestations produced in cats by LSD-25, Exp. Neurol.12:173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baumel, I., Defeo, J. J., and Lal, H., 1969, Decreased potency of CNS depressants after prolonged social isolation in mice, Psychopharmacologia15:153–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bender, L., and Yarnell, H., 1941, An observation nursery. A study of 250 children on the psychiatric division of Bellevue Hospital, Amer. J. Psychiatry97:1158–1174.Google Scholar
  8. Bennett, E. L., and Rosenzweig, M. R., 1968, Brain chemistry and anatomy: Implications for theories of learning and memory, in: Mind As a Tissue (C. Rupp, ed.), pp. 63–86, Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, E. L., Diamond, M. C., Krech, D., and Rosenzweig, M. R., 1964, Chemical and anatomical plasticity of brain, Science146:610–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennett, E. L., Rosenzweig, M. R., and Diamond, M. C., 1969, Rat brain: Effects of environmental enrichment on wet and dry weights, Science163:825, 826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennett, E. L., Rosenzweig, M. R., and Diamond, M. C., 1970, Time courses of effects of differential experiences on brain measures and behavior of rats, in: Molecular Approaches to Learning and Memory (W. L. Byrne, ed.), pp. 55–89, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Bennett, E. L., Rosenzweig, M. R., and Wu, S. Y. C., 1973, Excitant and depressant drugs modulate effects of environment on brain weight and Cholinesterase, Psychopharmacologia33:309–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beres, D., and Obers, S., 1950, The effects of extreme deprivation in infancy on psychic structure in adolescence: A study in ego development, Psychoanal Study Child5:212–235.Google Scholar
  14. Bernstein, L. A., 1952, A note on Christie’s “Experimental naïveté and experiential naïveté,” Psychol. Bull.49:38–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buffery, A. W. H., 1967, Learning and memory in baboons with bilateral lesions of frontal or inferotemporal cortex, Nature London214:1054–1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Butterfield, E. C., and Zigler, E., 1965, The influence of differing institutional social climates on the effectiveness of social reinforcement in the mentally retarded, Amer. J. Ment. Defic.70:48–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Calhoun, J. B., 1973, Death squared: The explosive growth and demise of a mouse population, Proc. R. Soc. Med.66(2):80–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Casler, L., 1963, Maternal deprivation: A critical review of the literature, Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Dev.26:3–31.Google Scholar
  19. Chance, M. R. A., 1946, Aggregation as a factor influencing the toxicity of sympathomimetic amines in mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.87:214–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chance, M. R. A., 1947, Factors influencing the toxicity of sympathomimetic amines to solitary mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.89:289–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Charpentier, J., 1969, Analysis and measurement of aggressive behaviour in mice, in: Aggressive Behaviour (S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg, eds.), pp. 86–100, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  22. Clark, A. D. B., and Clarke, A. M., 1954, Cognitive changes in the feebleminded, Br. J. Psychol.45:173–179.Google Scholar
  23. Consolo, S., Garattini, S., and Valzelli, L., 1965a, Amphetamine toxicity in aggressive mice, J. Pharm. Pharmacol.17:53, 54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Consolo, S., Garattini, S., and Valzelli, L., 1965b, Sensitivity of aggressive mice to centrally acting drugs, J. Pharm. Pharmacol.17:594, 595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crissey, O. R., 1937, Mental development as related to institutional residence and educational achievement, Univ. Iowa Stud. Child Welfare13:1–81.Google Scholar
  26. Cross, H. A., and Harlow, H. F., 1965, Prologed and progressive effects of partial isolation on the behavior of macaque monkeys, J. Exp. Res. Pers.1:39–49.Google Scholar
  27. Dairman, W., and Balazs, T., 1970, Comparison of liver microsome enzyme systems and barbiturate sleep times in rats caged individually or communally, Biochem. Pharmacol.19:951–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davenport, R. K. Jr., and Menzel, E. W., Jr., 1963, Stereotyped behavior of the infant chimpanzee, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry8:99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Davenport, R. K. Jr., Menzel, E. W., Jr., and Rogers, C. M., 1961, Maternal care during infancy: Its effect on weight gain and mortality in the chimpanzee, Amer. J. Orthopsychiatry31:803–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Davenport, R. K. Jr., Menzel, E. W., Jr., and Rogers, C. M., 1966, Effects of severe isolation on “normal” juvenile chimpanzees. Health, weight gain, and stereotyped behaviors, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry14:134–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Delgado, J. M. R., 1966, Aggressive behavior evoked by radio stimulation in monkey colonies, A mer. Zool.6:669–681.Google Scholar
  32. Delgado, J. M. R., 1969, Offensive-defensive behaviour in free monkeys and chimpanzees induced by radio stimulation of the brain, in: Aggressive Behaviour (S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg, eds.), pp. 109–119, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  33. De Nelsky, G. Y., and Denenberg, V. H., 1967a, Infantile stimulation and adult exploratory behavior: Effects of handling upon tactual variation seeking, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.63:309–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Nelsky, G. Y., and Denenberg, V. H., 1967b, Infantile stimulation and adult exploratory behaviour in the rat: Effects of handling upon visual variation-seeking, Anim. Behav.15:568–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Denenberg, V. H., and Morton, J. R. C., 1962, Effects of environmental complexity and social groupings upon the modification of emotional behavior, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.55:242–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Denenberg, V. H., Morton, J. R., and Haltmeyer, G. C., 1964, Effect of social grouping upon emotional behaviour, Anim. Behav.12:205–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Denenberg, V. H., Wehmer, F., Werboff, J., and Zarrow, M. X., 1969, Effects of postweaning enrichment and isolation upon emotionality and brain weight in the mouse, Physiol. Behav.4:403–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Diamond, M. C., 1967, Extensive cortical depth measurements and neuron size increases in the cortex of environmentally enriched rats, J. Comp. Neurol.131:357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Diamond, M. C., Krech, D., and Rosenzweig, M. R., 1964, The effects of an enriched environment on the histology of the rat cerebral cortex, J. Comp. Neurol.123:111–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Diamond, M. C., Law, F., Rhodes, H., Lindner, B., Rosenzweig, M. R., Krech, D., and Bennett, E. L., 1966, Increases in cortical depth and glial numbers in rats subjected to enriched environment, J. Comp. Neurol.128:117–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Di Mascio, A., 1973, The effects of benzodiazepines on aggression: Reduced or increased?, in: The Benzodiazepines (S. Garattini, E. Mussini, and L. O. Randall, eds.), pp. 433–440, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Di Mascio, A., and Barret, J., 1965, Comparative effects of oxazepam in “high” and “low” anxious student volunteers, Psychosomatics6:298–302.Google Scholar
  43. Di Mascio, A., Rinkel, M., and Leiberman, J., 1961, Personality and psychotomimetic drugs, Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Psychiatry, Vol. 2, p. 933.Google Scholar
  44. Di Mascio, A., Shader, R. I., and Harmatz, J., 1969, Psychotropic drugs and induced hostility, Psychosomatics10:47–50.Google Scholar
  45. Dolfini, E., Garattini, S., and Valzelli, L., 1969, Different sensitivity to amphetamine of three strains of mice, Eur. J. Pharmacol.7:220–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Drtil, J., 1969, The disturbances of higher nervous activity preceding aggression of prisoners, Cesk. Psychol.13:238–248.Google Scholar
  47. Essman, W. B., 1966, The development of activity differences in isolated and aggregated mice, Anim. Behav.14:406–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Essman, W. B., 1968, Differences in locomotor activity and brain-serotonin metabolism in differentially housed mice, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.66:244–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Essman, W. B., 1969, “Free” and motivated behaviour and amine metabolism in isolated mice, in: Aggressive Behaviour (S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg, eds.), pp. 203–208, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  50. Essman, W. B., 1970, Some neurochemical correlates of altered memory consolidation, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci.32:948–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Essman, W. B., 1971a, Changes in cholinergic activity and avoidance behavior by nicotine in differentially housed mice, Int. J. Neurosa.2:199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Essman, W. B., 1971b, Neurochemical changes associated with isolation and environmental stimulation, Biol. Psychiatry3:141–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Essman, W. B., 1972, Contributions of differential housing to brain development: Some implications for sleep behavior, in: Sleep and the Maturing Nervous System (C. D. Clemente, D. P. Purpura, and F. E. Mayer, eds.), pp. 99–107, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Essman, W. B., and Frisone, J. F., 1966, Isolation-induced facilitation of gastric ulcerogenesis, J. Psychosomat. Res.10:183–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Essman, W. B., Heldman, E., Barker, L. A., and Valzelli, L., 1972, Development of microsomal changes in liver and brain of differentially housed mice, Fed. Proc. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol.31:121 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  56. Essman, W. B., Heldman, E., Valzelli, L., and Malick, E. J., 1973, Attenuation of isolation-induced aggressive behavior and testosterone synthesis in mice by electroconvulsive shock, Fed. Proc. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol.32:933 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  57. Ferchmin, P. A., Eterovic, V. A., and Caputto, R., 1970, Studies on brain weight and RNA content after short periods of exposure to environmental complexity, Brain Res.20:49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fingl, E., and Woodbury, D. M., 1965, General principles, in: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (L. S. Goodman and A. Gilman, eds.), pp. 1–3, 3rd. Ed., MacMillan, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Fisher, S., 1970, Nonspecific factors as determinants of behavioral response to drugs, in: Clinical Handbook of Psychopharmacology (A. Di Mascio and R. E. Shader, eds.), pp. 17–39, Science House Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  60. Folman, Y., and Drori, D., 1965, Normal and aberrant copulatory behaviour in male rats (R. norvegicns) reared in isolation, Anim. Behav.13:427–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fonberg, E., 1965, Effect of partial destruction of the amygdaloid complex on the emotional-defensive behaviour of dogs, Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci.13:429–432.Google Scholar
  62. Forgays, D. G., and Forgays, J. W., 1952, The nature of the effect of free-environmental experience in the rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.45:322–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Forrest, G. L., Bortner, T. W., and Barker, C. B., 1967, The role of personality variables in response to chlorpromazine, dextroamphetamine and placebo, J. Psychiatr. Res.5:281–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fox, K. A., and Snyder, R. L., 1969, Effect of sustained low doses of diazepam on aggression and mortality in grouped male mice, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.69:663–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fox, K. A., Tuckosh, J. R., and Wilcox, A. H., 1970, Increased aggression among grouped male mice fed chlordiazepoxide, Eur. J. Pharmacol.11:119–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fox, K. A., Webster, J. C., and Guerriero, F. J., 1972, Increased aggression among grouped male mice fed nitrazepam and flurazepam, Pharmacol. Res. Commun.4:157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Freud, A., and Burlingame, D. T., 1944, Infants Without Families, International University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Freund, J., Krupp, G., Goodenough, D., and Preston, L., 1972, The doctor-patient relationship and drug effect, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther.13:172–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Frostad, A. L., Forrest, G. L., and Barker, C. B., 1966, Influence of personality type on drug response, Amer. J. Psychiatry122:1153–1158.Google Scholar
  70. Fuller, J. L., 1966, Variation in effects of chlorpromazine in three strains of mice, Psychopharmacologia8:408–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fuller, J. L., and Wimer, R. E., 1966, Neural, sensory and motor functions, in: Biology of the Laboratory Mouse, 2nd. Ed. (E. L. Green, ed.), pp. 609–628, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Gabel, N. W., 1965, Excitability and the origin of life: A hypothesis, Life Sci.4:2085–2096.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Garattini, S., Giacalone, E., and Valzelli, L., 1969, Biochemical changes during isolation-induced aggressiveness in mice, in: Aggressive Behaviour (S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg, eds.), pp. 179–187, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  74. Gardos, G., di Mascio, A., Salzman, C., and Shader, R. I., 1968, Differential actions of chlordiazepoxide and oxazepam on hostility, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry18:757–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gerall, A. A., 1963, An exploratory study of the effect of social isolation variables on the sexual behavior of male guinea pigs, Anim. Behav.11:274–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gerall, H. D., Ward, I. L., and Gerall, A. A., 1967, Disruption of the male rat’s sexual behaviour induced by social isolation, Anim. Behav.15:54–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Goldberg, M. E., and Salama, A. I., 1969, Norepinephrine turnover and brain monoamine levels in aggressive mouse-killing rats, Biochem. Pharmacol.18:532–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Goldberg, S. C., Schooler, N. R., Davidson, E. M., and Kayce, M. M., 1966, Sex and race differences in response to drug treatment among schizophrenics, Psychopharmacologia9:31–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Greenough, W. T., Wood, W. E., and Madden, T. C., 1972, Possible memory storage differences among mice reared in environments varying in complexity, Behav. Biol.7:717–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gregory, K., 1968, The action of the drug prenylamine (Segontin) on exploratory activity in strains of rats selectively bred for differences in emotionality, Psychopharmacologia13:29–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gruendel, A. D., and Arnold, W. J., 1969, Effects of early social deprivation on reproductive behavior of male rats, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.67:123–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Guaitani, A., Marcucci, F., and Garattini, S., 1971, Increased aggression and toxicity in grouped male mice treated with tranquilizing benzodiazepines, Psychopharmacologia19:241–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gupta, B. D., and Holland, H. C., 1969, An examination of the effects of stimulant and depressant drugs on escape/avoidance conditioning in strains of rats selectively bred for emotionality/non-emotionality, Psychopharmacologia14:95–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Halstead, W. C., 1947, Brain and Intelligence, Chicago University Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  85. Harris, T. H., 1960, Mathaminodiazepoxide—preliminary communications, J. Amer. Med. Assoc.172:1162, 1163.Google Scholar
  86. Heimann, H., 1969, Effects of psychotropic drugs on normal man, Confin. Psychiatr.12:205–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Henderson, N. D., 1970, Brain weight increases resulting from environmental enrichment: A directional dominance in mice, Science169:776–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Henderson, N. D., 1973, Brain weight changes resulting from enriched rearing conditions: Adiallel analysis, Dev. Psychobiol.6:367–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Heninger, G., Di Mascio, A., and Klerman, G. L., 1965, Personality factors in variability of response to phenothiazines, Amer. J. Psychiatry121:1091–1094.Google Scholar
  90. Henry, J. P., Meeham, J. P., and Stephens, P. M., 1967, The use of psychosocial stimuli to induce prolonged systolic hypertension in mice, Psychosom. Med.29:408–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Heron, W., Doane, B., and Scott, T. H., 1956, Visual disturbances after prolonged perceptual isolation, Can. J. Psychol.10:13–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Heuschele, W. P., 1961, Chlordiazepoxide for calming zoo animals, J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc.139:996–998.Google Scholar
  93. Holland, H. C., and Gupta, B. D., 1966, The effects of different doses of methylpentynol on escape/avoidance conditioning in two strains, Psychopharmacologia9:419–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hollister, L. E., 1973, Antianxiety drugs in clinical practice, in: The Benzodiazepines (S. Garattini, E. Mussini, and L. O. Randall, eds.), pp. 367–377, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Horovitz, Z. P., 1967, The amygdala and depression, in: Antidepressant Drugs (S. Garattini and M. N. G. Dukes, eds.), pp. 121–129, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  96. Horovitz, Z. P., Piala, J. J., High, J. P., Burke, J. C., and Leaf, R. C., 1966, Effects of drugs on the mouse-killing (muricide) test and its relationship to amygdaloid function, Int. J. Neuropharmacol.5:405–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Horvath, F. E., 1963, Effects of basolateral amygdalectomy on three types of avoidance behavior in cats, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.56:380–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hymovitch, B., 1952, The effects of experimental variations on problem solving in the rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.45:313–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kaada, B. R., Andersen, P., and Jansen, J., Jr., 1954, Stimulation of the amygdaloid nuclear complex in unanesthetized cats, Neurology4:48–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Karczmar, A. G., and Scudder, C. L., 1969, Aggression and neurochemical changes in different strains and genera of mice, in: Aggressive Behavior (S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg, eds.), pp. 209–227, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  101. Karli, P., Vergnes, M., Eclancher, F., and Schmitt, P., 1975, Amygdala and aggressiveness in rodents; Neurochemical correlates. Behavioral and neurophysiological data, in: Neuropsychopharmacology (J. R. Boissier, H. Hippius, and P. Pichot, eds.), pp. 694–697, Excerpta Medica-American Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  102. Katz, D. M., and Steinberg, H., 1970, Long-term isolation in rats reduces morphine response, Nature London228:469–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kelleher, R. T., and Morse, W. H., 1968, Determinants of the specificity of behavioral effects of drugs, Ergeb. Physiol. Biol. Chem. Exp. Pharmakol.60:1–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kephart, N. C., 1940, Influencing the rate of mental growth in retarded children through environmental stimulation, Yearb. Nat. Soc. Study Educ.39:223–230.Google Scholar
  105. Klemm, W. R., 1972, Science, the Brain and Our Future, Pegasus, New York.Google Scholar
  106. Klerman, G. L., 1963, Assessing the influence of the hospital milieu upon the effectiveness of psychiatric drug therapy: Problems of conceptualization and of research methodology, J. Ment. Dis.137:143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Klerman, G. L., di Mascio, A., Greenblatt, M., and Rinkel, M., 1959, The influence of specific personality patterns on the reactions to phrenotropic agents, in: Biological Psychiatry (J. H. Masserman, ed.), p. 224, Grune & Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  108. Klerman, G. L., Davidson, E. M., and Kayce, M. M., 1964, Factors influencing the clinical responses of schizophrenic patients to phenothiazine drugs and the placebo, Psychiatr. Res. Rep.19:97–115.Google Scholar
  109. Kling, A., 1965, Behavioral and somatic development following lesions of the amygdala in the cat, J. Psychiatr. Res.3:263–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kling, A., 1968, Effects of amygdalectomy and testosterone on sexual behavior of male juvenile macaques, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.65:466–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Klüver, H., and Bucy, P. C., 1939, Preliminary analysis of function of the temporal lobes in monkeys, Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry42:979–1000.Google Scholar
  112. Kostowski, W., and Członkowski, A., 1973, The activity of some neuroleptic drugs and amphetamine in normal and isolated rats, Pharmacology10:82–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Kracke, W., 1967, The maintenance of the ego: Implications of sensory deprivation research for psychoanalytic ego psychology, Br. J. Med. Psychol.40:17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Krech, D., Rosenzweig, M. R., and Bennett, E. L., 1960, Effects of environmental complexity and training on brain chemistry, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.53:509–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Krech, D., Rosenzweig, M. R., and Bennett, E. L., 1962, Relations between brain chemistry and problem-solving among rats raised in enriched and impoverished environments, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.55:801–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Krech, D., Rosenzweig, M. R., and Bennett, E. L., 1966, Environmental impoverishment, social isolation and changes in brain chemistry and anatomy, Physiol. Behav.1:99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kršiak, M., and Janků, I., 1969, The development of aggressive behaviour in mice by isolation, in: Aggressive Behaviour (S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg, eds.), pp. 101–105, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  118. Lagerspetz, K. M. J., 1969, Aggression and aggressiveness in laboratory mice, in: Aggressive Behaviour (S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg, eds.) pp. 77–85, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  119. Lasagna, L., and Mccann, W. P., 1957, Effects of tranquilizing drugs on amphetamine toxicity in aggregated mice, Science125:1241, 1242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. la Torre, J. C., 1968, Effect of differential environmental enrichment on brain weight and on acetylcholinesterase and Cholinesterase activities in mice, Exp. Neurol.22:493–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Leaton, R. N., 1965, Exploratory behavior in rats with hippocampal lesions, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.59:325–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Leff, J. P., 1968, Perceptual phenomena and personality in sensory deprivation, Br. J. Psychiatry114:1499–1508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Levine, S., and Otis, L. S., 1958, The effects of handling before and after weaning on the resistance of albino rats to later deprivation, Can. J. Psychol.12:103–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Levitan, I. B., Mushynski, W. E., and Ramirez, G., 1972a, Effects of an enriched environment on amino acid incorporation into rat brain sub-cellular fractions in vivo, Brain Res.41:498–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Levitan, I. B., Mushynski, W. E., and Ramirez, G., 1972b, Effects of environmental complexity on amino acid incorporation into rat cortex and hippocampus in vivo, J. Neurochem.19:2621–2630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Linn, E., 1959, Drug therapy, milieu change and release from a mental hospital, Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry81:785–794.Google Scholar
  127. Luria, A. R., Simernitskaya, E. G., and Tubylevich, B., 1970, The structure of psychological processes in relation to cerebral organization, Neuropsychology8:13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Maclean, P. D., and Delgado, J. M. R., 1953, Electrical and chemical stimulation of fronto-temporal portion of limbic system in the waking animal, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.5:91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Malick, J. B., 1970, Effects of selected drugs on stimulus-bound emotional behavior elicited by hypothalamic stimulation in the cat, Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn.186:137–141.Google Scholar
  130. Malitz, S., 1963, Variables and drug effectiveness, in: Specific and Non-Specific Factors in Psychopharmacology (M. Rinkel, ed.), pp. 141–148, Philosophical Library, New York.Google Scholar
  131. Manosevitz, M., 1970, Early environmental enrichment and mouse behavior, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.71:459–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Manosevitz, M., and Joel, U., 1973, Behavioral effects of environmental enrichment in randomly bred mice, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.85:373–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Manosevitz, M., and Montemayor, R. J., 1972, Interaction of environmental enrichment and genotype, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.79:67–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Marcucci, F., Mussini, E., Valzelli, L., and Garattini, S., 1968, Decrease in N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid in brain of aggressive mice, J. Neurochem.15:53, 54.Google Scholar
  135. Marks, J., Garlington, W., Ganzer, V., Collins, L. G., and Johnson, D. R., 1968, Personal differences in perceptual deprivation, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry19:146–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Mcnair, D. M., Fisher, S., Kahn, R. J., and Droppleman, L. F., 1970a, Drug-personality interaction in intensive outpatient treatment, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry22:128–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Mcnair, D. M., Fisher, S., Sussman, C., Droppleman, L. F., and Kahn, R. J., 1970b, Persistence of a drug-personality interaction in psychiatric outpatients, J. Psychiatr. Res.7:299–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Mcpeake, J. D., and Di Mascio, A., 1965, Drug-personality interaction in the learning of a nonsense syllable task, J. Psychiatr. Res.3:105–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Meschersky, R. M., and Rozenschtein, G. S., 1969, Instability of the central nervous system, Brain Res.13:367–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Miller, S. C., 1962, Ego-autonomy in sensory deprivation, isolation, and stress, Int. J. Psycho-Anal.43:1–20.Google Scholar
  141. Miyamoto, S., 1960, Developmental changes of intelligence in mentally retarded children, Jpn. J. Child Psychiatry1:114–125.Google Scholar
  142. Modigh, K., 1973, Effects of isolation and fighting in mice on the rate of synthesis of noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain, Psychopharmacologia1:509–514.Google Scholar
  143. Mollenauer, S., Plotnik, R., and Snyder, E., 1973, Scopolamine effects dependent upon pretreatment level of emotionality, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.1:509–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Moyer, K. E., 1968, Kinds of aggression and their physiological basis, Commun. Behav. Biol.2(Pt. A):65–87.Google Scholar
  145. Oatley, K., 1970, Brain mechanisms and motivation, Nature London225:797–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Overall, J. E., Hollister, L. E., Kimbell, and Shelton, J., 1969, Extrinsic factors influencing responses to psychotherapeutic drugs, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry21:89–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Pallaud, B., 1969a, Influence d’un congénère sur l’apprentissage chez la souris, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser.D268:118–120.Google Scholar
  148. Pallaud, B., 1969b, Influence d’un congénère sur la performance chez la souris, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser.D269:1101–1104.Google Scholar
  149. Persky, H., Zucherman, M., Basu, G. K., and Thornton, D., 1966, Psycho-endocrine effects of perceptual and social isolation, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry15:499–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Pollard, J. C., Uhr, L., and Jackson, C. W., Jr., 1963, Studies in sensory deprivation, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry8:435–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Porsolt, R. D., Joyce, D., and Summerfield, A., 1970, Changes in behaviour with repeated testing under the influence of drugs: Drug-experience interactions, Nature London227:286, 287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Prescott, J. W., and Essman, W. B., 1969, The psychobiology of maternal-social deprivation and the etiology of violent-aggressive behavior: A special case of sensory deprivation, in: 2nd Annual Winter Conference on Brain Function, Snowmass-at-Aspen, January 12–17.Google Scholar
  153. Quay, W. B., Bennett, E. L., Rosenzweig, M. R., and Krech, D., 1969, Effects of isolation and environmental complexity on brain and pineal organ, Physiol. Behav.4:489–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Randall, L. O., 1960, Pharmacology of methaminodiazepoxide, Dis. Nerv. Syst.21(Suppl.):7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Randall, L. O., 1961, Pharmacology of chlordiazepoxide (Librium), Dis. Nerv. Syst.22(Suppl.):7–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Randall, L. O., and Schallek, W., 1968, Pharmacological activity of certain benzodiazepines, in: Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress 1957–1967 (D. H. Efron, ed.), pp. 153–184, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.G.Google Scholar
  157. Reis, D. J., and Gunne, L. M., 1965, Brain catecholamines: Relation to the defense reaction evoked by amygdaloid stimulation in cat, Science149:450, 451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Riege, W. H., and Morimoto, H., 1970, Effects of chronic stress and differential environments upon brain weights and biogenic amine levels in rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.71:396–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Robinson, E., 1963, Effect of amygdalectomy on fear-motivated behavior in rats, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.56:814–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rosenzweig, M. R., 1964, Effects of heredity and environment on brain chemistry, brain anatomy and learning ability in the rat, Kans. Stud. Educ.14:3–34.Google Scholar
  161. Rosenzweig, M. R., 1966, Environmental complexity, cerebral change, and behavior, Amer. Psychol.21:321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rosenzweig, M. R., and Bennett, E. L., 1969, Effects of differential environments on brain weights and enzyme activities in gerbil, rats and mice, Dev. Psychobiol.2:87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rosenzweig, M. R., Krech, D., Bennett, E. L., and Diamond, M. C., 1962, Effects of environmental complexity and training on brain chemistry and anatomy: A replication and extension, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.55:429–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Rosenzweig, M. R., Love, W., and Bennett, E. L., 1968, Effects of a few hours a day of enriched experience on brain chemistry and brain weights, Physiol. Behav.3:819–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rosenzweig, M. R., Bennett, E. L., Diamond, M. C., Wu, S.-Y., Slagle, R. W., and Saffran, E., 1969, Influences of environmental complexity and visual stimulation on development of occipital cortex in rat, Brain Res.14:427–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Rosenzweig, N., 1959, Sensory deprivation and schizophrenia: Some clinical and theoretical similarities, A mer. J. Psychiatry116:326–329.Google Scholar
  167. Rosenzweig, N., and Gardner, L. M., 1966, The role of input relevance in sensory isolation, Amer. J. Psychiatry122:920–928.Google Scholar
  168. Rushton, R., and Steinberg, H., 1966, Combined effects of chlordiazepoxide and dexam-phetamine on activity of rats in an unfamiliar environment, Nature London211:1312, 1313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Salama, A. I., and Goldberg, M. E., 1970, Neurochemical effects of imipramine and amphetamine in aggressive mouse-killing (muricidal) rats, Biochem. Pharmacol.19:2023–2032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Salzman, C., Di Mascio, A., Shader, R. I., and Harmatz, J. S., 1969, Chlordiazepoxide, expectation and hostility, Psychopharmacologia14:38–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sargant, W., 1964, Drugs and personality, Trans. Med. Soc. London80:92–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Satinder, K. P., 1971, Genotype-dependent effects of d-amphetamine sulphate and caffeine on escape-avoidance, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.76:359–364.Google Scholar
  173. Schallek, W., 1960, Neurophysiological studies with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Dis. Nerv. Syst.21(Suppl.):64–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Schallek, W., Kuhen, A., and Jew, N., 1962, Effects of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and other psychotropic agents on the limbic system of the brain, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.96:303–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Schallek, W., Zabransky, F., and Kuehn, A., 1964, Effects of benzodiazepines on central nervous sytem of cat, Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn.149:467–483.Google Scholar
  176. Schmitt, H., 1967, Selective action of antidepressant drugs on some rhinencephalic and related structures, in: Antidepressant Drugs (S. Garattini and M. N. G. Dukes, eds.), pp. 104–115, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  177. Scott, J. P., 1958a, Aggression, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  178. Scott, J. P., 1958b, Animal Behavior, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  179. Seward, J. P., 1946, Aggressive behavior in the rat. IV. Submission as determined by conditioning, extinction and disease, J. Comp. Psychol.39:51–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Sigg, E. B., 1969, Relationship of aggressive behaviour to adrenal and gonadal function in male mice, in: Aggressive Behaviour (S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg, eds.), pp. 143–149, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  181. Sokolov, E. N., 1963, Higher nervous functions: The orienting reflex, Annu. Rev. Physiol.25:545–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Sparber, S. B., and Tilson, H. A., 1971, Environmental influences upon drug-induced suppression of operant behavior, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.179:1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Sparber, S. B., Tilson, H. A., and Peterson, D. W., 1973, Environmental influences upon morphine or d-amphetamine induced suppression of operant behavior, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.1:133–136.Google Scholar
  184. Spevak, A. M., Quadagno, D. M., Knoeppel, D., and Poggio, J. P., 1973, The effects of isolation on sexual and social behavior in the rat, Behav. Biol.8:63–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Stein, L., 1967, Psychopharmacological substrates of mental depression, in: Antidepressant Drugs (S. Garattini and M. N. G. Dukes, eds.), pp. 130–140, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  186. Stenhouse, D., 1965, A general theory for the evaluation of intelligent behaviour, Nature London208:815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tinbergen, N., 1951, The Study of Instinct, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  188. Tobin, J. M., and Lewis, N. D. C., 1960, New psychotherapeutic agent, chlordiazepoxide. Use in treatment of anxiety states and related symptoms, J. Amer. Med. Assoc.174:1242–1249.Google Scholar
  189. Turner, C. H., Davenport, R. K., Jr., and Rogers, C. M., 1969, The effect of early deprivation on the social behavior of adolescent chimpanzees, Amer. J. Psychiatry125:1531–1536.Google Scholar
  190. Ursin, H., and Kaada, B. R., 1960, Functional localization within the amygdaloid complex in the cat, Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.12:1–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Valzelli, L., 1966, Considerazioni sul comportamento aggressivo indotto nell’animale da esperimento, Med. Clin. Sper.16:404–416.Google Scholar
  192. Valzelli, L., 1967a, Drugs and aggressiveness, Adv. Pharmacol.5:79–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Valzelli, L., 1967b, Biological and pharmacological aspects of aggressiveness in mice, in: Neuropsychopharmacology (H. Brill, J. O. Cole, P. Deniker, H. Hippius, and P. B. Bradley, eds.), pp. 781–788, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  194. Valzelli, L., 1969a, Aggressive behaviour induced by isolation, in: Aggressive Behaviour (S. Garattini and E. B. Sigg, eds.), pp. 70–76, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  195. Valzelli, L., 1969b, The exploratory behaviour in normal and aggressive mice, Psychopharmacologia15:232–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Valzelli, L., 1970, Variazioni biochimiche cerebrali nel ratto muricida, in: Atti della IIoRiunione Nazionale della Società Italiana di Neuropsicofarmacologia, Tirrenia, June 1969, pp. 20–25, Pacini Mariotti, Pisa.Google Scholar
  197. Valzelli, L., 1971a, Principi di psicofisiologia e neurochimica, Manfredi Publ., Milano.Google Scholar
  198. Valzelli, L., 1971b, Agressivité chez le rat et la souris: Aspects comportementaux et biochimiques, Actual. Pharmacol.24:133–152.Google Scholar
  199. Valzelli, L., 1971c, Further aspects of the exploratory behaviour in aggressive mice, Psychopharmacologia19:91–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Valzelli, L., 1971d, Interazioni tra psicofarmaci diversi e psicofarmaci e substrato emotivo, in: Tavola Rotonda sulle Associazioni Psicofarmacologiche “Il Ciocco” (F. Di Carlo and G. Germano, eds.), pp. 62–74, Pacini-Mariotti, Pisa.Google Scholar
  201. Valzelli, L., 1973a, The “isolation syndrome” in mice, Psychopharmacologia31:305–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Valzelli, L., 1973b, Environmental influences upon neurometabolic processes in learning and memory, in: Current Biochemical Approaches to Learning and Memory (W. B. Essman and S. Nakajima, eds.), pp. 29–47, Spectrum Publ., New York.Google Scholar
  203. Valzelli, L., 1973c, Activity of benzodiazepines on aggressive behavior in rats and mice, in: The Benzodiazepines (S. Garattini, E. Mussini, and L. O. Randall, eds.), pp. 405–417, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  204. Valzelli, L., and Bernasconi, S., 1971, Differential activity of some psychotropic drugs as a function of emotional level in animals, Psychopharmacologia20:91–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Valzelli, L., and Garattini, S., 1972, Biochemical and behavioral changes induced by isolation in rats, Neuropharmacology11:17–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Valzelli, L., and Garattini, S., 1974, Effect of electroshock on indoleamine metabolism and aggressive behavior, in: Psychobiology of Convulsive Therapy (M. Fink, S. Kety, J. McGaugh, and T. A. Williams, eds.), pp. 221–229, Winston & Sons, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  207. Valzelli, L., Giacalone, E., and Garattini, S., 1967, Pharmacological control of aggressive behavior in mice, Eur. J. Pharmacol.2:144–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Valzelli, L., Bernasconi, S., and Gomba, P., 1974, Effect of isolation on some behavioral aspects of three strains of mice, Biol. Psychiatry9:329–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Vogel, W., Kun, K. J., and Meshorer, E., 1967, Effects of environmental enrichment and environmental deprivation on cognitive functioning in institutionalized retardates, J. Consult. Clin. Psychol.31:570–576.Google Scholar
  210. Volkmar, F. R., and Greenough, W. T., 1972, Rearing complexity affects branching of dendrites in the visual cortex of the rat, Science176:1445–1447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Walsh, R. N., Budtz-Olsen, O. E., Penny, J. E., and Cummins, R. A., 1969, The effects of environmental complexity on the histology of the rat hippocampus, J. Comp. Neurol.137:361–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Walter, D. O., 1968, The indeterminancies of the brain, Perspect. Biol. Med.11:213–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Weininger, O., 1953, Mortality of albino rats under stress as a function of early handling, Can. J. Psychol.7:111–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Weininger, O., 1956, The effects of early experience on behavior and growth characteristics, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.49:1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Weiskrantz, L., 1956, Behavioral changes associated with ablation of the amygdaloid complex in monkeys, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.49:381–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Welch, A. S., and Welch, B. L., 1971, Isolation, reactivity and aggression: Evidence for an involvement of brain catecholamines and serotonin, in: Physiology of Aggression and Defeat (B. E. Eleftheriou and J. P. Scott, eds.), pp. 91–142, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  217. Welch, B. L., 1965, Psychophysiological response to the mean level of environmental stimulation: A theory of environmental integration, in: Symposium on Medical Aspects of Stress in the Military Climate (D. Mck. Rioch, ed.), pp. 39–96, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  218. Widdowson, E. M., 1951, Mental contentment and physical growth, Lancet1:1316–1318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Wilder, R. L., 1967, The role of intuition, Science156:605–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Wood, C. D., 1958, Behavioral changes following discrete lesions of temporal lobe structures, Neurology8:215–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Yarrow, L. J., 1961, Maternal deprivation: Toward an empirical and conceptual re-evaluation, Psychol. Bull58:459–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Yen, C. Y., Stanger, R. L., and Millman, N., 1959, Ataractic suppression of isolation-induced aggressive behavior, Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn.123:179–185.Google Scholar
  223. Zigler, E., and Williams, J., 1963, Institutionalization and the effectiveness of social reinforcement: A three-year follow-up study, J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol.66:197–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Ziskind, E., and Augsburg, T., 1967, Hallucinations in sensory deprivation (Method of madness?), Dis. Nerv. Syst.28:721–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Zuckerman, M., Persky, H., Hopkins, T. R., Murtaugh, T., Pasu, G. K., and Schilling, M., 1966, Comparison of stress effects of perceptual and social isolation, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry14:356–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luigi Valzelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”MilanItaly

Personalised recommendations