Advertisement

Metabolism of Ethanol and the Effect of Ethanol on Metabolism

  • Frank Lundquist

Abstract

It may appear surprising in view of the spectacular advances made in biology in recent years that the chemically simple process, the oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetate, is still not sufficiently known with regard to biochemical mechanisms, localization in the body, and effects on the metabolism of other substances. In 1919, Mellanby showed that the concentration of ethanol in the blood of human subjects after a single dose decreased in a linear way for many hours (1). Widmark later made a careful study of the absorption, distribution and elimination kinetics of alcohol, which led to the extensive use in Scandinavia of blood alcohol determinations for forensic purposes (2). Lundsgaard showed that the liver is by far the most important organ for elimination of ethanol (3). Moreover, he faced the fact that ethanol is a nutrient which on average provides a considerable proportion of the energy needed for the human body, 10–15% in the case of Danish population. He also pointed out that only about 40% of the total metabolism can be met by the oxidation of alcohol. In the last decade or so interest in various aspects of alcohol metabolism has been increasing, partly because of the practical importance, but also because it involves some biochemically fundamental problems.

Keywords

Isotope Effect Glycerol Phosphate Ethanol Oxidation Ethanol Metabolism Specific Dynamic Action 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    MELLANBY E: Alcohol, its absorption into and disappearance from the blood under different conditions. Medical Research Committee, Special Report Series No. 31, London, 1919Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    WIDMARK EM: Die theoretischen Grundlagen und die praktische Verwendbarkeit der gerichtlich-medizinischen Alkoholbestimmung. Berlin, Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1932Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    LUNDSGAARD E: Alcohol oxidation as a function of the liver. C.R. Trav Lab Carlsberg, Ser Chim 22: 333–337, 1938Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    SELMER J, GRUNNET N: Ethanol metabolism and lipid synthesis by isolated liver cells from fed rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 428: 123–137, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    GANG H, CEDERBAUM AI, RUBIN E: Stereospecificity of ethanol oxidation. Bioch Biophys Res Comm 54: 264–269, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    DAMGAARD S: In preparationGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    SIMON H, PALM D: Isotopeneffekte in der organischen Chemie und Biochemie. Angewandte Chemie 78: 993–1028, 1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    GERSHMAN H, ABELES RH: Deuterium isotope effects in the oxidation of alcohols in vitro and in vivo. Arch Bioch Biophys 154: 659–674, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    DAMGAARD S, SESTOFT L, LUNDQUIST F: The use of tritium and lk C labelled ethanol in studies of ethanol metabolism at high ethanol concentrations. In Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal II. MM Gross (ed.). New York, Plenum Press, 1975. pp. 111–119Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    STOKE MJ, STUART JA: Thermic effects of ethanol in the rat and man. Nutr and Metab 17: 297–305, 1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    PIROL ARC, LIEBER CS: Energy wastage in rats given drugs that induce microsomal enzymes. J Nutr 105: 1544–1548, 1975Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    GRUNNET N: Oxidation of extramitochondrial NADH by rat liver mitochondria. Possible role of acyl-SCoA elongation enzymes. Bioch Biophys Res Comm 41: 909–917, 1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    MEIJER AJ, VAN WOERKOM GM, WILLIAMSON JR, TAGER JM: Rate-limiting factors in the oxidation of ethanol by isolated rat liver cells. Biochem J 150: 205–209, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    GRUNNET N: Mechanism for transfer of reducing equivalents (as NADH) from the cytosol to mitochondria and the need for such transfer in ethanol metabolism. In Regulation of Hepatic Metabolism. F Lundquist, N Tygstrup (eds.). Copenhagen, Munksgaard 1974. pp. 520–529Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    KREBS HA, FRIEDLAND RA, HEMS R, STUBBS M: Inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by ethanol. Biochem J 112; 117–124, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    KONDRUP J: In preparationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Lundquist
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry A, The Panum InstituteUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations