Advertisement

Reserpine: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology

  • Parkhurst A. Shore
  • Antonio Giachetti

Abstract

The introduction, somewhat more than two decades ago, of reserpine as a purified alkaloid of Rauwolfia has contributed greatly to the remarkable advances in the emerging field of psychopharmacology. Notwithstanding the disappearance of the use of reserpine in clinical psychiatry, owing largely to its overshadowing by better drugs, reserpine has made its mark in the stimulation of investigative work and in its continuing use as a tool in the understanding of the mode of action of psychoactive drugs and of the functioning of central monoaminergic neuronal systems and the peripheral adrenergic nervous system. Reserpine rightly deserves historical recognition as one of those key drugs, like nicotine or muscarine, which has allowed a “quantum jump” in our knowledge of the nervous system.

Keywords

Biogenic Amine SYRINGIC Acid Adrenergic Neuron Reserpine Treatment Amine Uptake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ALPERS, H. S., and SHORE, P. A., 1969, Specific binding of reserpine: Association with norepinephrine depletion, Biochem. Pharmacol. 18:1363–1372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ARMSTRONG, B., STEVENS, N., and DOLL, R., 1974, Retrospective study of the association between use of rauwolfia derivatives and breast cancer in English women, Lancet 2:672–675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AYD, F. J., 1958, Drug-induced depression—fact or fallacy?, N.Y. State J. Med. 58:354–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. BARRETT, W. E., PLUMMER, A. J., EARL, A. E., and ROGIE, B., 1955, Effect of reserpine on gastric secretion of the dog, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Pharmacol. 113:3.Google Scholar
  5. BARSA, J. A., and KLINE, N. S., 1955, Treatment of two hundred disturbed psychotics with reserpine, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 158:110–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BARSA, J. A., and KLINE, N. S., 1956, Use of reserpine in disturbed psychotic patients, Am. J. Psychiatry 112:684–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. BEIN, H. J., 1953, Zur Pharmakologie des Reserpin, eines neuen Alkaloids, aus Rauwolfia serpentina Benth, Experientia 9:107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. BEIN, H. J., 1956, The pharmacology of Rauwolfia, Pharmacol. Rev. 8:435–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. BEIN, H. J., GROSS, F., TRIPOD, J., and MEIER, R., 1953, Experimentelle Unterschungen über “Serpasil” (Reserpine), eine neues, sehr wirksames Rauwolfia alkaloid mit neuratiger Zentraler Wirkung, Schweiz. Med. Wochenscher. 82:1007–1012.Google Scholar
  10. BENSON, G. K., 1958, Effect of reserpine on mammary gland involution, and other organs in the rat, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 99:550–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. BERTI, F., and SHORE, P. A., 1967, Interaction of reserpine and ouabain on amine concentrating mechanisms in the adrenergic neurone, Biochem. Pharmacol. 16:2271–2274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. BERTLER, A., 1961, Effect of reserpine on the storage of catecholamines in brain and other tissues, Acta Physiol. Scand. 51:75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. BERTLER, A., CARLSSON, A., and ROSENGREN, E., 1956, Release by reserpine of catecholamines from rabbit heart, Naturwissenschaften 43:521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. BIRKMAYER, W., and HORNYKIEWICZ, O., 1964, Weitere experimentelle Unterschungen uber L-DOPA beim Parkinson-Syndrom und Reserpine Parkinsonismus, Arch. Psychiatr. Nervenkr. 206:367–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. BLASCHKO, H., and CHRUSCIEL, T. L., 1960, The decarboxylation of amino acids related to tyrosine and their awakening action in reserpine-treated mice, J. Physiol. 151:272–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Boston Collaborative Drug Program, 1974, Reserpine and breast cancer, Lancet 2:669–671.Google Scholar
  17. BRODIE, B. B., SHORE, P. A., SILVER, S. L., and PULVER, R., 1955a, Potentiating action of chlorpromazine and reserpine, Nature 175:1133–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. BRODIE, B. B., PLETSCHER, A., and SHORE, P. A., 1955b, Evidence that serotonin has a role in brain function, Science 122:968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. BRODIE, B. B., TOMICH, E. G., KUNTZMAN, R., and SHORE, P. A., 1957, On the mechanism of action of reserpine: Effect of reserpine on capacity of tissues to bind serotonin, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 119:461–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. BRODIE, B. B., FINGER, K. F., ORLANS, F. B., QUINN, G. P., and SULSER, F., 1960, Evidence that tranquilizing action of reserpine is associated with changes in brain serotonin and not in brain norepinephrine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 129:250–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. BRODIE, B. B., MAICKEL, R. P., and WESTERMANN, E., 1961, Action of reserpine on pituitary-adrenocortical system through possible action on hypothalamus, in: Regional Neurochemistry (S. S. Kety and J. Elkes, eds.), pp. 351–361, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  22. CARLSSON, A., 1959, The occurrence, distribution, and physiological role of catecholamines in the nervous system, Pharmacol. Rev. 11:490–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. CARLSSON, A., SHORE, P. A., and BRODIE, B. B., 1957a, Release of serotonin from blood platelets by reserpine in vitro, J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 120:334–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. CARLSSON, A., ROSENGREN, E., BERTLER, A., and NILSSON, J., 1957b, Effect of reserpine on the metabolism of catecholamines, in: Psychotropic Drugs (S. Garattini and V. Ghetti, eds.), pp. 363–372, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  25. CARLSSON, A., LINDQVIST, M., and MAGNUSSON, T., 1957c, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists, Nature 180:1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. CARLSSON, A., LINDQVIST, M., MAGNUSSON, T., and WALDECK, B., 1958, On the presence of 3-hydroxytyramine in brain, Science 127:471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. CARLSSON, A., HILLARP, N.-A., and WALDECK, G., 1962, A Mg++-ATP-dependent storage mechanism in the amine granules of the adrenal medulla, Med. Exp. 6:47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. CARLSSON, A., HILLARP, N.-A., and WALDECK, B., 1963, Analysis of the Mg++-ATP dependent storage mechanism in the amine Granules of the adrenal medulla, Acte Physiol Scand. 59(Suppl. 215): 1–38.Google Scholar
  29. CARLSSON, A., DAHLSTROM, A., FUXE, K., and LINDQVIST, M., 1965a, Histochemical and biochemical detection of monoamine release from brain neurons, Life Sci. 4:809–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. CARLSSON, A., DAHLSTROM, A., FUXE, K., and HILLARP, N.-A., 1965b, Failure of reserpine to deplete noreadrenaline neurons of α-methylnoradrenaline formed from α-methyl DOPA, Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 22:270–276.Google Scholar
  31. CHALMERS, J. P., and REID, J. L., 1972, Participation of central noradrenergic neurons in arterial baroreceptor reflexes in the rabbit, Circ. Res. 31:788–804.Google Scholar
  32. CHEN, G., ENSOR, C. R., and BOHENER, B., 1954, A facilitation action of reserpine on the central nervous system, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol Med. 86:507–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. CHESSIN, M., KRAMER, E. R., and SCOTT, C. C., 1957, Modifications of the pharmacology of reserpine and serotonin by iproniazed, J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 119:453–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Colpaert, E. E., Lenearts, F. M., Niemegeers, C.J. E., and Janssen, P. A., 1975, A critical study on RO-4–1284 in mice, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 215:40–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. DEGWITZ, R., FROWEIN, R., KULENKAMPFF, C., and MOHS, U., 1960, Uber die Wirkungen des L-DOPA beim Menschen und deren Beeinflussung durch Reserpin, Chlorpromazin, Iproniazid und Vitamin B6, Klin. Wochenschr. 38:120–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dews, P. B., and Morse, W. H., 1961, Behavioral pharmacology, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol 1:145–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. ENNA, S. J., and SHORE, P. A., 1971, Regional distribution of persistently bound reserpine in rat brain, Biochem. Pharmacol 20:2910–2912.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. FIELDEN, R., and GREEN, A. L., 1965, Validity of ptosis as a measure of the central depressant action of reserpine, J. Pharm. Pharmacol 17:185–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. FLACH, F. F., 1955, Clinical effectiveness of reserpine, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 61:161–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. GANONG, W. F., 1974, The role of catecholamines and acetylcholine in the regulation of endocrine function, Life Sci. 15:1401–1414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. GARATTINI, S., MORTARI, A., VALSECCHI, A., and VALZELLI, L., 1959, Reserpine derivatives with specific hypotensive or sedative activity, Nature 183:1273–1274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. GARATTINI, S., GIACHETTI, A., PIERI, L., and RE, R., 1960, Antagonists of reserpine-induced eyelid ptosis, Med. Exp. 3:315–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. GARATTINI, S., GIACHETTI, A., JORI, A., PIERI, L., and VALSELLI, L., 1962, Effect of imipramine, amitriptyline and their monomethyl derivatives on reserpine activity, J. Pharm. Pharmacol 14:509–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. GAUNT, R. A., RENZI, A. A., ANTONCHAK, N., MILLER, G. I., and GILMAN, M., 1954, Endocrine aspects of the pharmacology of reserpine, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 59:22–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gaunt, R., Chart, J. J., and Renzi, A. A., 1963, Interactions of drugs with endocrines, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol 3:109–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. GIACHETTI, A., and SHORE, P. A., 1966, Studies in vitro of amine uptake mechanisms in heart, Biochem. Pharmacol 15:607–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. GIACHETTI, A., and SHORE, P. A., 1970, Permeability changes induced in the adrenergic neurone by reserpine, Biochem. Pharmacol 19:1621–1626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. GIACHETTI, A., and SHORE, P. A., 1975, On the formation of adrenergic amine storage granules as measured by reserpine labeling, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol 288:345–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. GIACHETTI, A., HOLLENBECK, R. A., and SHORE, P. A., 1974, Localization and binding of reserpine in the membrane of adrenomedullary amine storage granules, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol 283:263–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Glazkq, A. J., Dill, W., Wolf, L. M., and Kazenko, A., 1956, Studies on the metabolism of reserpine, J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 118:377–387.Google Scholar
  51. Goodwin, F. K., Murphy, D. L., Brodie, H. K. W., and Bunney, W. E., Jr., 1970, L-DOPA, catecholamines and behavior: A clinical and biochemical study in depressed patients, Biol. Psychiatry 2:341–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. GOODWIN, F. K., EBERT, M. H., and BUNNEY, W. E., JR., 1972, Mental effects of reserpine in man: A review, in: Psychiatric Complications of Medical Drugs (R. I. Shader, ed.), pp. 73–101, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Green, A. F., 1962, Antihypertensive drugs, Adv. Pharmacol. 1:161–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. HAEUSLER, G., GEROLD, M., and THOENEN, H., 1972, Cardiovascular effect of 6-hydroxydopamine injected into lateral brain ventricle in the rat, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 274:211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. HAKANSON, R., LIEDBERG, G., REHEFELD, J. F., SUNDLER, F., and ERICSON, L. E., 1974, Effect of reserpine on serum gastrin concentration and on mucosal amines and amino acid decarboxylase activities in rat stomach, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 189:603–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. HAVERBACK, B. J., and WIRTSCHAFTER, S. K., 1962, The gastrointestinal tract and naturally occurring pharmacologically active amines, Adv. Pharmacol. 1:300–344.Google Scholar
  57. Heinonen, O. P., Shapiro, S., and Tuonimen, L., 1974, Reserpine use in relation to breast cancer, Lancet 2:675–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. HESS, S. M., SHORE, P. A., and BRODIE, B. B., 1956, Persistence of reserpine action after the disappearance of drug from brain: Effect on serotonin, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 118:84–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. HOLZBAUER, M., and VOGT, M., 1956, Depression by reserpine of the noradrenaline concentration in the hypothalamus of the cat, J. Neurochem. 1:8–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. IGGO, A., and VOGT, M., 1960, Preganglionic sympathetic activity in normal and in reserpine-treated cats, J. Physiol. 150:114–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. IZUMA, F., OKA, M., YOSHIDA, H., and IMAIZUMI, R., 1969, Stimulating effect of reserpine on monoamine oxidase in guinea pig heart, Biochem. Pharmacol 18:1739–1748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. KILLIAN, M., and FREY, M. M., 1973, Central monoamines and convulsive thresholds in mice and rats, Neuropharmacology 12:681–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. KIM, K. S., and SHORE, P. A., 1963, Mechanism of action of reserpine and insulin on gastric amines and gastric secretion and the effect of monoamine oxidase inhibition, J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 141:321–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. KIRSHNER, N., 1962, Uptake of catecholamines by a particulate fraction of the adrenal medulla, J. Biol Chem. 237:2311–2317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. KRAMER, S. G., 1971, Dopamine: A retinal neurotransmitter, Invest. Ophthalmol 16:438–452.Google Scholar
  66. LEMIEUX, G., DAVIGNON, A., and GENEST, J., 1956, Depressive states during Rauwolfia therapy for arterial hypertension, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 74:522–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lundborg, P., 1967, Studies on the uptake and subcellular distribution of catecholamines and their α-methylated analogues, Acta Physiol Scand. (Suppl. 302).Google Scholar
  68. MAASS, A. R., JENKINS, B., SHEN, Y., and TANNENBAUM, P., 1969, Studies on absorption, excretion, and metabolism of 3H-reserpine in man, Clin. Pharmacol Ther. 10:366–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. MACK, T. M., HENDERSON, B. E., GERKINS, V. R., ARTHUR, M., BAPTISTA, J., and PIKE, M. D., 1975, Reserpine and breast cancer in a retirement community, N. Engl J. Med. 292:1366–1371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. MALMFORS, T., 1963, Evidence of adrenergic neurons with synaptic terminals in the retina of rats demonstrated with fluorescence and electron microscopy, Acta Physiol Scand. 58:99–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. MANARA, L., and GARATTINI, S., 1967, Time course of 3H-reserpine levels in brains of normal and tetrabenazine pretreated rats, Eur.J. Pharmacol 2:139–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. MARONDE, R. F., HAYWOOD, J., FEINSTEIN, D., and SOBEL, C., 1963, The monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline, and reserpine, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 184:7–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. MCCANN, S. M., and Moss, R. L., 1975, Putative neurotransmitters involved in discharging gonadotropin-releasing neurohormones and the action of LH-releasing hormone on the CNS, Life Sci. 16:833–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. MEITES, J., 1958, Effect of reserpine on prolactin content of rabbit pituitary, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 97:742–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. MOON, R. C., and TURNER, C. W., 1959, A mode of action for thyroid inhibiton by reserpine, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol Med. 102:134–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. MüLLER, J. M., SCHLITTLER, E., and BEIN, H. J., 1952, Reserpin, der sedative Wirkstoff aus Rauwolfia serpentina Benth, Experientia 8:338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. MUSCHOLL, E., and VOGT, M., 1957, The action of reserpine on sympathetic ganglia, J. Physiol. 136:7 P.Google Scholar
  78. MUSCHOLL, E., and VOGT, M., 1958, The action of reserpine on the peripheral sympathetic system, J. Physiol. 141:132–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. NORN, S., and SHORE, P. A., 1971a, Further studies on the nature of persistent reserpine binding: Evidence for reversible and irreversible binding, Biochem. Pharmacol. 20:1291–1295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. NORN, S., and SHORE, P. A., 1971b, Failure to affect tissue reserpine concentrations by alteration of adrenergic nerve activity, Biochem. Pharmacol. 20:2133–2135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. PLETSCHER, A., SHORE, P. A., and BRODIE, B. B., 1955, Serotonin release as a possible mechanism of reserpine action, Science 122:374–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. PLETSCHER, A., SHORE, P. A., and BRODIE, B. B., 1956, Serotonin as a mediator of reserpine action in brain, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 116:84–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. PLETSCHER, A., BESENDORF, H., and BACHTOLD, H. P., 1958, Benzo(a)chinolizine, eine neue Korperklasse mit Wirkung auf den 5-Hydroxytryptamin-und Noradrenalin-Stoffwech-sel des Gehirns, Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmacol. 232:499–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Plummer, A. J., Earl, A., Schneider, J. A., Trapold, J., and Barrett, W., 1954, Pharmacology ofRauwolfia alkaloids, including reserpine, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 59:8–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. PLUMMER, A. J., SHEPPARD, H., and SCHULERT, A. R., 1957, The metabolism of reserpine, in: Psychotropic Drugs (S. Garattini and V. Ghetti, eds.), pp. 350–362, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  86. PROCKOP, D. J., SHORE, P. A., and BRODIE, B. B., 1959, An anticonvulsant effect of monoamineoxidase inhibitors, Experientia 15:145–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. QUETSCH, R. M., ACHOR, R. W. P., LITIN, E. M., and FAUCETT, R. L., 1959, Depressive reactions in hypertensive patients. A comparison of those treated with Rauwolfia and those receiving no specific antihypertensive treatment, Circulation 19:366–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. QUINN, G. P., SHORE, P. A., and BRODIE, B. B., 1959, Biochemical and pharmacological studies of RO 1–9569 (tetrabenazine), a non-indole tranquilizing agent with reserpine-like effects, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 127:103–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. SHEPPARD, H., and TSIEN, W. H., 1955, Metabolism of reserpine-C14: Species differences as studied in vitro, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 90:437–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sheppard, H., Lucas, R. C., and Tsien, W. H., 1955, The metabolism of reserpine-C14, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 103:256–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. SHORE, P. A., and BRODIE, B. B., 1957a, LSD-like effects elicited by reserpine in rabbits pretreated with iproniazid, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 94:433–435.Google Scholar
  92. SHORE, P. A., and BRODIE, B. B., 1957b, Influence of various drugs on serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain, in: Psychotropic Drugs (S. Garattini and V. Ghetti, eds.), pp. 423–427, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  93. SHORE, P. A., SILVER, S. L., and BRODIE, B. B., 1955, Interaction of reserpine, serotonin, and lysergic acid diethylamide in brain, Science 122:284–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shore, P. A., Pletscher, A., Tomich, E. G., Carlsson, A., Kuntzmann, R., and Brodie, B. B., 1957, Role of brain serotonin in reserpine action, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 66:609–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. SLOTKIN, T. A., and EDWARDS, K., 1973, Effects of reserpine on the content and properties of rat adrenal medullary storage vesicles, Biochem. Pharmacol. 22:549–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. SUGRUE, M., and SHORE, P. A., 1969, The mode of sodium dependency of the adrenergic neuron amine carrier. Evidence for a second, sodium-dependent, optically specific and reserpine-sensitive systerp, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 170:239–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. SUGRUE, M., and SHORE, P. A., 1971, Further evidence for a sodium-dependent, optically-specific and reserpine-sensitive amine carrier mechanism at the adrenergic neuron, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 177:389–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. SUN, S.-C., SOHAL, R. S., COLCOLOUGH, H. L., and BURCH, G. E., 1968, Histochemical and electron microscopic studies of the effects of reserpine on the heart muscle of mice, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 161:210–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. TRAPOLD, J. H., PLUMMER, A. J., and YONKMAN, F. F., 1954, Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of Serpasil, a new crystalline alkaloid from Rauwolfia serpentina Benth in the dog, J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 110:205–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. TRIPOD, J., BEIN, H. J., and MEIER, R., 1954, Characterization of central effects of Serpasil (reserpin, a new alkaloid of Rauwolfia serpentina B.) and their antagonistic reaction, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 96:406–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. WEISSMAN, A., KOE, B. K., and TENEN, S. S., 1966, Antiamphetamine effects following inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase, J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 151:339–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. WENGER, G. R., STITZEL, R. E., and CRAIG, C. R., 1973, The role of biogenic amine in the reserpine induced alteration of minimal electroshock seizure thresholds in the mouse, Neuropharmacology 12:693–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Woodson, R. E., Jr., Youngken, H. W., Schlittler, E., and Schneider, J. A., 1957, Rauwolfia: Botany, Pharmacognosy, Chemistry and Pharmacology, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  104. Woodward, R. B., Bader, F. E., Bickel, H., Frey, A. J., and Kierstead, R. W., 1956, The total synthesis of reserpine, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78:2023–2025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. ZAIMIS, E., 1961, Reserpine-induced circulatory failure, Nature 192:521–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Parkhurst A. Shore
    • 1
  • Antonio Giachetti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations