Uremia: Strategies in the Search for Toxins

  • Jared J. Grantham
  • Frederick Whittier
  • Dennis Diederich


The kidneys may be affected selectively by diseases that cause either gradual or sudden impairment of function. When the injury decreases the glomerular filtration rate below a critical value the subject develops manifestations of a systemic disorder, the uremic syndrome. Uremia, defined literally, means urine in the blood, and in this context the clinical condition has been viewed as a toxic or poisonous condition resulting from the inadequate excretion of metabolic wastes. Early researchers attempted to isolate a single uremic toxin. In the progress of study more than one toxin was postulated so that currently a plethora of diverse agents have been indicted as potentially responsible for the wretched clinical state. Because chronic renal insufficiency alters the function of so many organs in so many different ways, we have chosen to focus our attention only on those features of the uremic condition which can be readily reversed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.


Hippuric Acid Uremic Patient Frog Skin Uremic Toxin Chronic Uremia 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jared J. Grantham
    • 1
  • Frederick Whittier
    • 2
  • Dennis Diederich
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Health Sciences and Hospital, Department of Medicine, Nephrology DivisionUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Nephrology DivisionVeterans Administration HospitalKansas CityUSA

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