Information Processing and the Cerebral Hemispheres

  • Morris Moscovitch
Part of the Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology book series (HBNE, volume 2)

Abstract

An information-processing approach to cerebral function is not altogether new. It would not be distorting the truth too much to say that the initial functional wiring diagrams of the cortex that appeared in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries bear more than a superificial resemblance to the flow diagrams that are still in vogue in many circles in cognitive psychology (see Fig. 1). Admittedly, some of the early neurological “localizers” or “diagram makers” had, by our standards, unsophisticated views of psychology and a simplistic notion of the physiological and philsophical problems regarding the localization of function in the nervous system. In fact, some of the functional subsystems, such as writing, reading, and music centers, which they localized in the cortex may remind us more of phrenology than of current information-processing systems. Nevertheless, if we ignore the surface details and terminology of those early functional-anatomical models and attend, instead, to the general assumptions concerning the organization of cognitive processes that underlie them, we will notice a kinship to modern information-processing theory. The early neurologists viewed cognition as the outcome of interactions among functionally and structurally separable subsystems whose operations, to put it in today’s terms, transform, decode, classify, interpret, store, retrieve, and produce information. The purpose of their enterprise was to fractionate cognitive behavior into the appropiate subsystems, describe their mode of operation, and determine the nature of their interaction. These assumptions and program of research apply equally well to proponents of the information-processing approach to cognition.

Keywords

Dementia Convolution Encephalitis Rosen Schiff 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aitken, L. M., and Webster, W. R. Medial geniculate body of the cat: Organization and responses to tonal stimuli of neurons in ventral division. Journal of Neurophysiology, 1972, 35, 365Google Scholar
  2. Allport, D. A., Antonis, B., and Reynolds, P. On the division of attention: A disproof of the single channel hypothesis. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychobgy, 1972, 24, 225–235Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. R. Language and Thought. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1976Google Scholar
  4. Anderson J. R., and Bower, G. H. Human Associative Memory. New York: Wiley, 1974Google Scholar
  5. Anzola, G. P., Bertolini, G., Buchtel, H. A., and Rizzolatti, G. Spatial compatibility and anatomical factors in simple and choice reaction times. Neuropsychobgia, 1977, 75, 295–302Google Scholar
  6. Baddeley, A. D. The Psychology of Memory. New York: Basic Books, 1976Google Scholar
  7. Baron, J. Mechanisms for pronouncing printed words: Use and acquisition. In D. La Berge and S. J. Samuels (eds.), Basic Processes in Reading: Perception and Comprehension. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1978Google Scholar
  8. Bartlett, J. C., and Tulving, E. Effects of temporal and semantic encoding in immediate recall and upon subsequent retrieval. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1974, 13, 297–309Google Scholar
  9. Bastian, H. C. Aphasia and Other Speech Defects. London: H. K. Lewis, 1898, p. 235Google Scholar
  10. Bay, E. Aphasia and non–verbal disorders of language. Brain, 1962, 85, 411–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Benton, A. L., Levin, H. S., and Varney, N. R. Tactile perception of direction in normal subjects. Neurology, 1973, 25, 1248–1250Google Scholar
  12. Berlin, C. L, and McNeil, M. R. Dichotic listening. In N.J. Lass (ed.), Contemporary Issues in Experimental Phonetics. New York: Academic Press, 1976Google Scholar
  13. Berlin, C. I., Lowe–Bell, S. S., Cullen, J. K. Jr., Thompson, C. L., and Stafford, M. R. Is speech “special”? Perhaps the temporal lobectomy patient can tell us. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1972, 52, 702–705Google Scholar
  14. Berlucchi, G. Anatomical and physiological aspects of visual functions of the corpus collosum. Brain Research, 1972, 57, 371–392Google Scholar
  15. Berlucchi, G. Cerebral dominance and interhemispheric communication in normal man. In F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden (eds.), The Neurosciences: Third Study Program. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974, pp. 65–69Google Scholar
  16. Berlucchi, G., Heron, W., Hyman, R., Rizzolatti, G., and Umiltà, C. Simple reaction times of ipsilateral and contralateral hand to lateralized visual stimuli. Brain, 1971, 94, 419–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Berlucchi, G., Brizzolara, D., Marzi, C., Rizzolatti, G., and Umiltà, C. Can lateral asymmetries in attention explain interfield differences in visual perception? Cortex, 1974, 10, 177–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bever, T. G. The nature of cerebral dominance in speech behaviour of the child and adult. In R. Huxley and E. Ingram (eds.). Language Acquisition: Model and Methods. New York: Academic Press, 1971Google Scholar
  19. Bever, T. G., and Chiarello, R. Cerebral dominance in musicians and non-musicians. Science, 1974, 185, 537–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bever, T. G., Hurtig, R. R., and Handel, A. B. Analytic processing elicits right ear superiority in monaurally presented speech. Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 175–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Blakemore, C. Central visual processing. In M. S. Gazzaniga and C. Blakemore (eds.). Handbook of Psychobiology. New York: Academic Press, 1975Google Scholar
  22. Blechner, M. J., Day, R. S., and Cutting, J. E. Processing two dimensions of nonspeech stimuli: The auditory phonetic distinction reconsidered. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1976, 2, 257–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Blumstein, S. E., Baker, E., and Goodglass, H. Phonological factors in auditory comprehension in aphasia. Neuropsychologia, 1911a, 15, 19–30Google Scholar
  24. Blumstein, S. E., Cooper, W. E., Zurif, E. B., and Caramazza, A. The perception and production of voice–onset time in aphasia. Neuropsychologia, 1911 b, 15, 371–384Google Scholar
  25. Bogen, J. E. The other side of the brain. II. An appositional mind. Bulletin of the Los Angeles Neurological Societies 1969,54, 135–162Google Scholar
  26. Boles, D. B. Laterally biased attention with concurrent verbal load: multiple failures to replicate. Paper based on an M.A. thesis submitted to the Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, 1977Google Scholar
  27. Bowers, D., and Heilman, K. Material specific hemispheric arousal. Neuropsychologia 1976, 14 123– 127Google Scholar
  28. Bradshaw, J. L., and Gates, E. A. Visual field differences in verbal tasks: Effects of task familiarity and sex of subject. Brain and Language, 1978, 5, 166–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bradshaw, J. L., and Perriment, A. D. Laterality effects and choice reaction time in a unimanual two– finger task. Perception and Psychophysics, 1970, 7, 185–188Google Scholar
  30. Bradshaw, J. L., Nettleton, N. C., and Geffen, G. Ear differences and delayed auditory feedback: Effects on a speech and music task. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 91, 85–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bradshaw, J. L., Nettleton, N. C., and Geffen, G. Ear asymmetry and delayed auditory feedback: Effect of task requirements and competitive stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 94, 269–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Breitmeyer, B. G., and Ganz, L. Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing. Psychological Review, 1976, 83, 1–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Brodal, A. Self observations and neuroanatomical considerations after a stroke. Brain 1973, 96 675– 694Google Scholar
  34. Brown, J. Aphasia, Apraxia, and Agnosia: Clinical and Theoretical Aspects. Springfield, 111.: Thomas, 1972Google Scholar
  35. Brown, J. W., and Jaffe, J. Hypothesis on cerebral dominance. Neuropsychologia, 1975, 13, 107–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Brown, R. How shall a thing be called? Psychological Review, 1958, 65, 14–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bryden, M. P., and Allard, F. Visual hemifield differences depend on typeface. Brain and Language, 1976, 5, 191–200Google Scholar
  38. Butters, N., and Cermak, L. S. Some comments on Warrington and Baddeley’s report of normal short– term memory in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia, 1974, 12, 283–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Butters, N., and Cermak, L. S. Some analyses of amnesic syndromes in brain-damaged patients. In R. L. Isaacson and K. H. Pribram (eds.). The Hippocampus, Vol. 2. New York: Plenum, 1975Google Scholar
  40. Caramazza, A., and Zurif, E. B. Dissociation of algorithmic and heuristic processes in language comprehension: Evidence from aphasia. Brain and Language, 1976, 5, 572–582Google Scholar
  41. Carmon, A., and Benton, A. L. Tactile perception of direction and number in patients with unilateral cerebral disease. Neurology, 1969, 19, 525–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Carmon, A., and Nachshon, I. E. Effect of unilateral brain damage on perception of temporal order. Cortex, 1971, 7, 410–418Google Scholar
  43. Catlin, J., and Neville, H. The laterality effect in reaction time to speech stimuli. Neuropsychobgia, 1976, 14, 141–143Google Scholar
  44. Catlin, J., Van Derveer, N. J., and Teicher, R. D. Monaural right-ear advantage in a target identification task. Brain and Language, 1977, 3, 470–481Google Scholar
  45. Cermak, L. S. The encoding capacity of a patient with amnesia due to encephalitis. Neuropsychobgia, 1976, 14, 311–326Google Scholar
  46. Cermak, L. S., and Reale, L. Depth of processing and retention of words by alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1978, 4, 165–174Google Scholar
  47. Cermak, L. S., Butters, N., and Moreines, J. Some analysis of the verbal encoding deficits in alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Brain and Language, 1974, 1, 141–150Google Scholar
  48. Cermak, L. S., Reale, L., and Baker, E. Alcoholic Korsakoff patients’ retrieval from semantic memory. Brain and Language, 1978, 5, 215–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Charcot, cited in W.James, Principles of Psychology, Vol. 2. New York: Dover, 1950, pp. 58–60Google Scholar
  50. Chase, W. G., and Clark, H. H. Mental operations in the comparison of sentences and pictures. In L. Gregg (ed.). Cognition in Learning and Memory. New York: Wiley, 1972Google Scholar
  51. Chow, S. L., and Murdock, B. B. Jr. Concurrent memory load and the rate of readout from iconic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychobgy: Human Perception and Performance, 1976, 2, 179–190Google Scholar
  52. Cohen, G. Hemispheric differences in a letter classification task. Perception and Psychophysics, 1972, 11, 137–142Google Scholar
  53. Cohen, G. Hemispheric differences in serial versus parallel processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 97, 349–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Cohen, G. Hemispheric differences in the utilization of advance information. In P. M. Rabbit and S. Dornic (eds.). Attention and Performance V. London: Academic Press, 1975Google Scholar
  55. Cohen, G. Components of the laterality effect in letter recognition: Asymmetries in iconic storage. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychobgy, 1976, 28, 105–114Google Scholar
  56. Cohen, G., and Martin, M. Hemisphere differences in an auditory Stroop Test. Perception and Psychophysics, 1975, 17, 79–83Google Scholar
  57. Collins, A. M., and Loftus, E. A spreading activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 1975, 82, 407–428Google Scholar
  58. Coltheart, M. Visual information–processing. In P. C. Dodwell (ed.). New Horizons in Psychobgy, Vol. 2. London: Penguin Books, 1972Google Scholar
  59. Coltheart, M. Iconic memory: A reply to Professor Holding. Memory and Cognition, 1975, 3, 42–48Google Scholar
  60. Conrad, C. Context effects in sentence comprehension. Memory and Cognition, 1974, 2, 130–138Google Scholar
  61. Cooper, L., and Shepard, R. N. Chronometric studies of the rotation of mental images. In W. G. Chase (ed.) Visual Information Processing. New York: Academic Press, 1973Google Scholar
  62. Corkin, S., Milner, B., and Rasmussen, T. Somotosensory thresholds: Contrasting effects of postcentral gyrus and posterior parietal-lobe excisions. Archives of Neurobgy, 1970, 23, 41–58Google Scholar
  63. Corkin, S., Milner, B., and Taylor, L. Bilateral sensory loss after unilateral cerebral lesion in man. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 1973, 98, 25–29Google Scholar
  64. Craik, F. I. M. Depth of processing in recall and recognition. In S. Dornic and P. M. A. Rabbitt (eds.). Attention and Performance VL New York: Academic Press, 1977Google Scholar
  65. Craik, F. I. M., and Lockhart, R. S. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 1972, 11, 671–684Google Scholar
  66. Craik, F. I. M., and Tulving, E. Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychobgy: General, 1975, 104, 268–294Google Scholar
  67. Craik, F. I. M., and Watkins, M. J. The role of rehearsal in short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1973, 12, 599–607Google Scholar
  68. Crowder, R. G. Representation of speech sounds in precategorical acoustic storage. Journal of Experi– m£ntal Psychobgy, 1973, 98, 14–24Google Scholar
  69. Crowder, R. G. Principles of Learning and Memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1976Google Scholar
  70. Crowder, R. G., and Morton, J. Precategorical acoustic storage (PAS). Perception and Psychophysics, 1969, 5, 365–373Google Scholar
  71. Cullen, J. K., Jr., Berlin, C. I., Hughes, L. F., Thompson, C. L., and Samson, D. S. Speech information flow: A model. Proceedings of a Symposium on Central Auditory Processing Disorders. Omaha: University of Nebraska Medical Center, 1974, pp. 108–127Google Scholar
  72. Darwin, C. J. Ear differences and hemispheric specialization. In F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden (eds.), The Neurosciences: Third Study Program. Cambridge, MIT Press, 1974, pp. 57–63Google Scholar
  73. Darwin, C.J. Speech perception. In E. C. Carterette and M. P. Freedman (eds.), Handbook of Perception, Vol. 7. New York: Academic Press, 1975Google Scholar
  74. Davidoff, J. B. Hemispheric differences in the perception of lightness. Neuropsychologia 1975, 13, 121– 124Google Scholar
  75. Davis, A. E., and Wada, J. A. Hemispheric asymmetry: Frequency analysis of flash and click evoked responses to non-verbal stimuli. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1974, 37, 1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Day, J. Right-hemisphere language processing in normal right-handers. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1977, 3, 518–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Dee, H. L., and Fontenot, D.J. Cerebral dominance and lateral differences in perception and memory. Neuropsychologia, 1973, 11, 167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Dennis, M. Dissociated naming and locating of body parts after left anterior temporal lobe resection: An experimental case study. Brain and Language, 1976, 5, 147–163Google Scholar
  79. De Renzi, E. Nonverbal memory and hemispheric side of lesion. Neuropsychologia, 1968, 6, 181–189Google Scholar
  80. DeRenzi, E., and Faglioni, P. The comparative efficiency of intelligence and vigilence tests in detecting cerebral damage. Cortex, 1965, 1, 410–433Google Scholar
  81. DeRenzi, E., Faglioni, P., and Spinnler, H. The performance of patients with unilateral brain damage on face recognition. Cortex, 1968, 4, 17–33. IGoogle Scholar
  82. DeRenzi, E., and Scotti, G. The influence of spatial disorders in impliring tactual discrimination of shapes. Cortex, 1969, 5, 53–62. IGoogle Scholar
  83. De Renzi, E., Scotti, G., and Spinnler, H. Perceptual and associative disorders of visual recognition. Neurology, 1969, 19, 634–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. DeRenzi, E., and Spinnler, H. Facial recognition in brain-damaged patients. Neurology 1966, 16 145– 152Google Scholar
  85. De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P., and Scotti, G. Judgement of spatial orientation in patients with focal brain damage. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 1971, 54, 489–495Google Scholar
  86. Diehl, R. L., and Rosenberg, D. M. Acoustic feature analysis in the perception of voicing contrasts. Perception and Psychophysics, 1977, 21, 418–422Google Scholar
  87. Dimond, S. The Double Brain. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1972Google Scholar
  88. Dimond, S. J. Depletion of attentional capacity after total commissurotomy in man. Brain, 1976, 99, 347–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Dimond, S., and Beaumont, J. (eds.) Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain. London: Elek Scientific Books, 1974Google Scholar
  90. Dimond, S., and Blizard, D. (eds.). Conference on evolution and lateralization of the brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1977, 299Google Scholar
  91. Donnenfeld, H., Rosen, J. J., MacKavey, W., and Curcio, F. Effects of expectancy and order of report on auditory asymmetries. Brain and Language, 1976, 3, 350–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Dyer, F. N. The Stroop phenomenon and its use in the study of perceptual, cognitive, and response processes. Memory and Cognition, 1973, 1, 106–120Google Scholar
  93. Eccles, J. C. The Understandmg of the Brain. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973Google Scholar
  94. Efron, R. The effect of handedness on the perception of simultaneity and temporal order. Brain, 1963a, 261–284Google Scholar
  95. Efron, R. Temporal perception, aphasia, and deja vu. Brain, 19636, 86, 403–424Google Scholar
  96. Fedio, P., and Van Buren, J. M. Memory deficits during electrical stimulation of the speech cortex in conscious man. Brain and Language, 1974, 7, 29–42Google Scholar
  97. Filby, R. A., and Gazzaniga, M. S. Splitting the normal brain with reaction time. Psychonomic Science, 1969, 17, 335–336Google Scholar
  98. Fontenot, D. J., and Benton, A. L. Tactile perception of direction in normal subjects. Neuropsychologia, 1971, 9, 83–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Franco, L. Hemispheric interaction in the processing of concurrent tasks in commissurotomy subjects. Neuropsychologia, 1977, 15, 707–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Frankfurter, A., and Honeck, R. P. Ear differences in the recall of monaurally presented sentences. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 25, 138–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Frost, N. Encoding and retrieval in visual memory tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 95, 317–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Gaffan, D. Recognition impaired and association intact in the memory of monkeys after transection of the fornix. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974, 86, 1100–1109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Galin, D., and Ellis, R. R. Asymmetry in evoked potentials as an index of lateralized cognitive processes: Relation to EEG alpha asymmetry. Neuropsychobgia, 1975, 13, 45–50Google Scholar
  104. Galin, D., and Orstein, R. Lateral specialization of cognitive mode. Psychophysiology, 1972, 9, 412–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Gardner, E. B., and Branski, D. M. Unilateral cerebral activation and perception of gaps: A signal– detection analysis. Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 43–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Gardner, H. The Shattered Mind. New York: Random House, 1974Google Scholar
  107. Gazzaniga, M. S. The Bisected Brain. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970Google Scholar
  108. Gazzaniga, M. S. Brain mechanisms and behavior. In M. S. Gazzaniga and G. Blakemore (eds.), Handbook of Psychobiology. New York: Academic Press, 1975Google Scholar
  109. Geffen, G., Bradshaw, J. L., and Nettleton, N. C. Hemispheric asymmetry: Verbal and spatial encoding of visual stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 95, 25–31Google Scholar
  110. Geffen, G., Bradshaw, J. L., and Nettleton, N. G. Attention and hemispheric differences in reaction time during simultaneous audio-visual tasks. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 25, 404–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Geschwind, N. Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man. Brain 1965, 88 Part I (237–294), Part II (585–644)Google Scholar
  112. Geschwind, N. The organization of language and the brain. Science, 1970, 170, 940–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Geschwind, N., and Levitsky, W. Human brain: Left-right asymmetries in temporal speech region. Science, 1968, 161, 186–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Gibson, A. R., Dimond, S. J., and Gazzaniga, M. S. Left-field superiority for word matching. Neuropsychobgia, 1972, 10, 463–466Google Scholar
  115. Glanzer, M., and Cunitz, A. R. Two storage mechanisms in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1966, 5, 351–360Google Scholar
  116. Godfrey, J. J. Perceptual difficulty and the right-ear advantage for vowels. Brain and Language, 1974, 1, 323–336Google Scholar
  117. Goldstein, K. Language and Language Disturbances. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1948Google Scholar
  118. Goodglass, H., and Baker, E. Semantic fields, naming, and auditory comprehension in aphasia. Brain and Language, 1976, 5, 359–374Google Scholar
  119. Goodglass, H., and Gaulderon, M. Parallel processing of verbal and musical stimuli in right and left hemispheres. Neuropsychologia, 1977, 13, 397–407Google Scholar
  120. Goodglass, H., and Kaplan, E. The Assessment of Aphasia and Related Disorders. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972Google Scholar
  121. Goodglass, H., and Peck, E. A. Dichotic ear order effects in Korsakoff and normal subjects. Neuropsychobgia, 1972, 10, 211–217Google Scholar
  122. Goodglass, H., Kaplan, E., Weintraub, S., and Ackerman, N. The “tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon in aphasia. Cortex, 1976, 12, 145–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Gordon, H. W. Auditory specialization of the right and left hemispheres. In M. Kinsbourne and W. L. Smith (eds.). Hemispheric Disconnection and Cerebral Function. Springfield, 111.: Thomas, 1974Google Scholar
  124. Gordon, H. W. Hemispheric asymmetry and muscial performance. Science, 1975, 189, 68–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Gross, M. M. Hemispheric specialization for processing of visually presented verbal and spatial stimuli. Perception and Psychophysics, 1972, 12, 357–363Google Scholar
  126. Halperin, Y., Nachshon, I., and Garmon, A. Shift of ear superiority in dichotic listening to temporally patterned nonverbal stimuli. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1973, 55, 46–50Google Scholar
  127. Hannay, H. J., and Malone, D. R. Visual field effects and short-term memory for verbal material. Neuropsychobgia, 1976, 14, 203–209Google Scholar
  128. Hannav, J. Real or imagined incomplete laterization of function in females. Perception and Psychophysics, 1976, 19, 349–352Google Scholar
  129. Hanson, V. L. Within-category discriminations in speech perception. Perception and Psychophysics, 1977, 21, 423–430Google Scholar
  130. Harnad, S. R., Steklis, H. D., and Lancaster, J. (eds.). Origins and evolution of language and speech. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1976, 280 Google Scholar
  131. Hatta, T. Asynchrony of lateral onset as a factor in differences in visual field. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1976a, 42 163–166Google Scholar
  132. Hatta, T. Hemisphere asymmetries in the perception and memory of random forms. Psychobgia, 19766, 19, 157–162Google Scholar
  133. Head, H. Aphasia and Kindred Disorders of Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926Google Scholar
  134. Hebb, D. O. The Organization of Behavior. New York: Wiley, 1949Google Scholar
  135. Hebb, D. O. The role of neurological ideas in psychology. Journal of Personality, 1951, 20, 39–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Hécaen, H., and Angelergues, R. Agnosia for faces (prosopagnosia). Archives of Neurobgy 1962, 7, 24– 32Google Scholar
  137. Heilman, K., Bowers, D., Rasbury, W. C., and Ray, R. M. Ear asymmetries on a selective attention task. Brain and Language, 1977, 390–395Google Scholar
  138. Hellige, J. B. Changes in same-different laterality patterns as a function of practice and stimulus quality. Perception and Psychophysics, 1976, 20, 267–273Google Scholar
  139. Hellige, J. B., and Cox, P.J. Effects of concurrent verbal memory on recognition of stimuli from the left and right visual fields. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1976, 2, 210–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Hermelin, B., and O’Connor, N. Functional asymmetry in the reading of Braille. Neuropsychologia, 1971, 9, 431–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Hicks, R. E. Intrahemispheric response competition between vocal and unimanual performance in normal adult human Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 89, 50–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Hicks, R. E., Provenzano, F. J., and Rybstein, E. D. Generalized and lateralized effects of concurrent verbal rehearsal upon performance of sequential movements of the fingers by the left and right hands. Acta Psychologica, 1975, 59, 119–130Google Scholar
  143. Hines, D. Independent functioning of the two cerebral hemispheres for recognizing bilaterally presented tachistoscopic visual-half-field stimuli. Cortex, 1975, 11, 132–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Hines, D. Recognition of verbs, abstract nouns, and concrete nouns from the left and right visual half-fields. Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 211–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Hines, D. Differences in tachistoscopic recognition between abstract and concrete words as a function of visual half-field and frequency. Cortex, 1977, 13, 66–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Hines, D., Satz, P., and Clementino, T. Perceptual and memory components of the superior recall of letters from the right visual half-fields. Neuropsychologia, 1973, 11, 175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Holding, D. H. Sensory storage reconsidered. Memory and Cognition, 1975, 3, 31–41Google Scholar
  148. Howes, D., and Boiler, F. Simple reaction time: Evidence for focal impairment from lesions of the right hemisphere. Brain, 1975, 98, 317–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Inglis, J. Dichotic listening and cerebral dominance. Acta Oto-laryngologica, 1965, 60, 231–238Google Scholar
  150. Jaccarino, O. Dual encoding in memory: Evidence from temporal-lobe lesions in man. Unpublished M.A. thesis. McGill University, 1975Google Scholar
  151. Jaccarino Hiatt, G. Impariment of cognitive organization in patients with temporal-lobe lesions. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, 1978Google Scholar
  152. Jackson, H. On the affections of speech from disease of the brain. Brain, 1878, 1, 304–330Google Scholar
  153. James, W. Principles of Psychology, 1890. Reissued, New York: Dover, 1950Google Scholar
  154. Jarvella R. J., and Herman, S. J. Speed and accuracy of sentence recall: Effects of ear presentation, semantics, and grammar. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 79, 111–113Google Scholar
  155. Jeeves, M. A., and Dixon, N. F. Hemisphere differences in response rates to visual stimuli. Psychonomic Science, 1970, 69, 408–412Google Scholar
  156. Jones, E. G., and Powell, T. P. S. An anatomical study of converging sensory pathways within the cerebral cortex of the monkey. Brain 1970, 93 793– 820Google Scholar
  157. Jones, M. K. Imagery as a mnemonic aid after left temporal lobectomy: Contrasts between material-specific and generalized memory disorders. Neuropsychologia, 1974, 12, 21–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Jones-Gotman, M., and Milner, B. Design fluency: The invention of nonsense drawings after focal cortical lesions. Neuropsychologia, 1977, 75, 653–674Google Scholar
  159. Jones-Gotman, M., and Milner, B. Right temporal-lobe contribution to language-mediated verbal learning. Neuropsychologia, 1978, 16, 61–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Kahneman, D. Attention and Efjort. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973Google Scholar
  161. Kallman, H. J., and Corballis, M. C. Ear asymmetry in reaction time to musical sounds. Perception and Psychophysics, 1975, 77, 368–370Google Scholar
  162. Kimura, D. Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1961, 75, 166–171Google Scholar
  163. Kimura, D. Speech lateralization in young children as determined by an auditory test. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1963, 56, 899–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Kimura, D. Functional asymmetry of the brain in dichotic listening. Cortex, 1967, 3, 163–178Google Scholar
  165. Kimura, D. Manual activity during speaking. I. Right-handers. Neuropsychologia, 1973, 77, 45–50Google Scholar
  166. Kimura, D., and Archibald, Y. Motor functions of the left hemisphere. Brain, 1974, 97, 337–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Kimura, D., and Durnford, M. Normal studies on the function of the right hemisphere in vision. In S.J. Dimond and J. G. Beaumont (eds.). Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain. London: Elek Scientific Books, 1974Google Scholar
  168. Kinsbourne, M. The cerebral basis of lateral asymmetries in attention. Acta Psychologica 1970, 33 193– 201Google Scholar
  169. Kinsbourne, M. Eye and head turning indicates cerebral lateralization. Science, 1972, 176, 539–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Kinsbourne, M. The control of attention by interaction between the cerebral hemispheres. In SGoogle Scholar
  171. Komblum (ed.), Attention and Performance IV. New York: Academic Press, 1973, pp. 239–256Google Scholar
  172. Kinsbourne, M. The mechanism of hemispheric control of the lateral gradient of attention. In P. M. A. Rabbit and S. Domic (eds.), Attention and Performance V. New York: Academic Press, 1975Google Scholar
  173. Kinsbourne, M., and Cook, J. Generalized and lateralized effects of concurrent verbalization on a unimanual skill. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 25, 341–345Google Scholar
  174. Kinsbourne, M., and Wood, F. Short-term memory processes and the amnesic syndrome. In D. Deutsch and A. J. Deutsch (eds.). Short-term memory. New York: Academic Press, 1975Google Scholar
  175. Klatzky, R. L., and Atkinson, R. C. Specialization of the cerebral hemispheres in scanning for information in short-term memory. Perception and Psychophysics, 1971, 335–338Google Scholar
  176. Klein, D., Moscovitch, M., and Vigna, C. Attendonal mechanisms and perceptual asymmetries in tachistoscopic recognition of words and faces. Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 55–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Kolers, P. A. Memorial consequences of automatized encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1975, 1, 689–701Google Scholar
  178. Konorski, J. (ed.). Symposium on the frontal granular cortex and behavior held in Jablonna near Warszawa, Poland, August 1971. Published in Acta Neurobiobgica Experimentalis, 1972, 32 Google Scholar
  179. Kosslyn, S. M., and Pomerantz, J. R. Imagery, propositions, and the form of internal representation. Cognitive Psychology, 1977, 9, 52–76Google Scholar
  180. Kreuter, C., Kinsbourne, M., and Trevarthen, C. Are deconnected cerebral hemispheres independent channels? A preliminary study of the effect of unilateral loading on bilateral finger tapping. Neuropsychologia, 1972, 10, 453–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Lackner, J. R., and Teuber, H.-L. Alterations in auditory fusion thresholds after cerebral injury in man. Neuropsychologia, 1973, 11, 409–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Lashley, K. S. In search of the engram. Society of Experimental Biology Symposium No. 4: Physiological Mechanisms in Animal Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1950Google Scholar
  183. Ledlow, A., Swanson, J. M., and Carter, B. Specialization of the cerebral hemispheres for physical and associational memory comparison. Paper presented at the Midwestern Psychological Association Meedng, Cleveland, Ohio, 1972Google Scholar
  184. Ledlow, A. S., Swanson, J. M., and Levy, J. Hemispheric differences in RT experiments: Transcallosal transfer of information or shift of attention? Cited in Levy (1974)Google Scholar
  185. Ledlow, A., Swanson, J. M., and Kinsbourne, M. Lateral differences in reaction time and evoked potendals: A localization of structural and attentional effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance in pressGoogle Scholar
  186. Lesser, R. Verbal comprehension in aphasia: An English version of three Italian tests. Cortex, 1974, 10, 247–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Levy, J. Psychobiological implications of bilateral asymmetry. In S.J. Dimond and G. Beaumont (eds.), Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain. London: Elek Scientific Books, 1974Google Scholar
  188. Levy, J., and Trevarthen, C. Metacontrol of hemispheric function in human split–brain padents.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1976, 2, 299–312Google Scholar
  189. Levy, J., and Trevarthen, C. Perceptual, semantic, and phonetic aspects of elementary language processes in split–brain patients. Brain, 1977, 100, 105–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Levy, J., Trevarthen, C., and Sperry, R. W. Perception of bilateral chimeric figures following hemispheric déconnexion. Brain, 1972, 95, 61–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Liberman, A. M. The specialization of the language hemisphere. In F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden (eds.). The Neurosciences: Third Research Program. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974, pp. 43– 56Google Scholar
  192. Lockhart, R. S., Craik, F. I. M., and Jacoby, L. L. Depth of processing in recognition and recall: Some aspects of a general memory system. In J. Brown (ed.). Recognition and Recall. London: Wiley, 1975Google Scholar
  193. Logan, G. D. Attention in character classification: Evidence for the automaticity of component stages. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1978, 107, 32–63Google Scholar
  194. Lomas, J., and Kimura, D. Intra hemispheric interaction between speaking and sequential manual activity. Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 23–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Longden, K., Ellis, C., and Iverson, S. D. Hemispheric differences in the discrimination of curvature. Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 195–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Luria, A. R. Higher Cortical Functions in Man. New York: Basic Books, 1966Google Scholar
  197. Luria, A. R. Traumatic Aphasia. The Hague: Mouton, 1970Google Scholar
  198. Luria, A. R. The Working Brain. London: Penguin, 1973Google Scholar
  199. Macmillan, N. A., Kaplan, H. L., and Creelman, C. D. The psychophysics of categorical perception. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 452–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Marcel, T., and Patterson, K. Word recognition and production: Reciprocity in clinical and normal studies. In J. Requin (éd.). Attention and Performance VII. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1978Google Scholar
  201. Marin, O. S. M., and Saffran, E. M. Agnosic behavior in anomia: A case of pathological verbal dominance. Cortex, 1975, 11, 83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Marin, O. S. M., Saffran, E. M., and Schwartz, M. F. Dissociations of language in aphasia: Implications for normal functions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1976, 280, 868–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Marschark, M., and Paivio, A. Integrative processing of concrete and abstract sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1977, 16, 217–232Google Scholar
  204. Marshall, J. C., and Newcombe, F. Patterns of paralexia: A psycholinguistic approach. Journal of Psycholinguistics, 1973, 2, 175–199Google Scholar
  205. Marshall, M., Newcombe, F., and Marshall, J. C. The microstructure of word-finding difficulties in a dysphasic subject. In G. B. Flores d’Arcáis and W. J. M. Levelt (eds.). Advances in Psycholinguistics. Amsterdam-London: North-Holland Publishing Co., 1970Google Scholar
  206. Massaro, D. W. Preperceptual images, processing time, and perceptual units in auditory perception. Psychological Review, 1972, 79, 124–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Mateer, C., and Kimura, D. Impairment of nonverbal oral movements in aphasia. Brain and Language, 1911, 4 262–276Google Scholar
  208. Mayes, A., and Beaumont, G. Does visual evoked potential asymmetry index cognitive activity? Neuropsychologic, 1977, 15, 249–256Google Scholar
  209. McAdam, D. W., and Whitaker, H. A. Language production: Electroencephalographic localization in the normal brain. Science, 1971, 172, 499–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. McKeever, W. F., and Gill, K. M. Interhemispheric transfer time for visual stimulus information varies as a function of the retinal locus of stimulation. Psychonomic Science, 1972, 26, 308–310Google Scholar
  211. McKeever, W. F., and Huling, M. P. Lateral dominance and tachistoscopic word recognition performance obtained with simultaneous bilateral input. Neuropsychologia, 1971, 9, 15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. McKeever, W. F., and Suberi, M. Parallel but temporally displaced visual half field metacontrast functions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1974, 26, 258–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. McRae, D. L., Branch, C. L., and Milner, B. The occipital horns and cerebral dominance. Neurology, 1968, 18, 95–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Mills, L. Left-Hemispheric specialization in normal subjects for judgements of successive order and duration of nonverbal stimuli. Unpublished doctoral thesis. University of Western Ontario, 1977Google Scholar
  215. Milner, B. Laterality effects in audition. In V. B. Mountcasde (ed.), Interhemispheric Relations and Cerebral Dominance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1962Google Scholar
  216. Milner, B. Some effects of frontal lobectomy in man. In J. M. Warren and H. Akert (eds.), The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 313–334Google Scholar
  217. Milner, B. Visually guided maze learning in man: Effects of bilateral hippocampal, bilateral frontal, and unilateral cerebral lesions. Neuropsychologia, 1965, 3, 317–338Google Scholar
  218. Milner, B. Amnesia following operation on the temporal lobe. In C. W. M. Whitty and O. L. Zangwill (eds.). Amnesia. London: Butterworth, 1966Google Scholar
  219. Milner, B. Brain mechanisms suggested by studies of temporal lobes. In C. H. Millikan and F. L. Darley (eds.). Brain Mechanisms Underlying Speech and Language. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1967Google Scholar
  220. Milner, B. Preface: Material specific and generalized memory loss. Neuropsychologia, 1968b, 6, 175–179Google Scholar
  221. Milner, B. Visual recognition and recall after right temporal–lobe excision in man. Neuropsychologia, 1968b, 6, 191–209Google Scholar
  222. Milner, B. Pathologie de la mémoire. In La Mémoire. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1970, pp. 185–212Google Scholar
  223. Milner, B. Interhemispheric differences and psychological processes. British Medical Bulletin, 1971, 27, 272–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Milner, B. Hemispheric specialization: Scope and limits. In F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden (eds.). The Neurosciences: Third Research Program. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974, pp. 75–89Google Scholar
  225. Milner, B. Hemispheric asymmetry and the control of gesture sequences. Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Psychology (Paris), 1976, p. 149Google Scholar
  226. Milner, B., and Scoville, W. B. Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 1957, 20, 11–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Milner, B., and Taylor, L. Right-hemisphere superiority in tactile pattern-recognition after cerebral commissurotomy: Evidence for nonverbal memory. Neuropsychologia, 1972, 10, 1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Milner, B., Corkin, S., and Teuber, H.-L. Further analysis of the hippocampal amnesia syndrome. Neuropsychobgia, 1968a, 6, 215–234Google Scholar
  229. Milner, B., Taylor, L., and Sperry, R. W. Lateralized suppression of dichotically presented digits after commissural section in man. Science, 1968b, 161, 184–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Molfese, D., Freeman, R. B., Jr., and Palermo, D. S. The ontogeny of brain lateralization for speech and nonspeech stimuli. Brain and Language, 1975, 3, 356–368Google Scholar
  231. Morais, J. Monaural ear differences for reaction time to speech with a many-to-one mapping paradigm. Perception and Psychophysics, 1976, 19, 144–148Google Scholar
  232. Morais, J., and Bertelson, P. Spadal position versus ear of entry as determinant of the auditory laterality effects: A stereophonic test. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1975, 1, 253–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Morais, J., and Darwin, C. J. Ear differences for same-different reaction times to monaurally presented speech. Brain and Language 1974, i, 363–374Google Scholar
  234. Morais, J., and Landercy, M. Listening to speech while retaining music: What happens to the right-ear advantage? Brain and Language, 1977, 4 295–308Google Scholar
  235. Morrell, L. K., and Salomy, J. G. Hemispheric asymmetry of electrocortical responses to speech stimuli. Science, 1971, 174, 164–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Moscovitch, M. Choice reaction-time study assessing the verbal behaviour of the minor hemisphere in normal adult humsins. Journal of Comparative and Physiobgical Psychology, 1972, 80, 66–74Google Scholar
  237. Moscovitch, M. Language and the cerebral hemispheres: Reaction-time studies and their implications for models of cerebral dominance. In P. Pliner, T. Alloway, and L. Krames (eds.). Communication and Affect: Language and Thought. New York: Academic Press, 1973, pp. 89–126Google Scholar
  238. Moscovitch, M. On the representation of language in the right hemisphere of right-handed people. Brain and Language, 1976a, 3, 47–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Moscovitch, M. Differential effects of unilateral temporal and frontal lobe damage on memory performance. Paper presented at the International Neuropsychological Society Meeting, Toronto, 1976bGoogle Scholar
  240. Moscovitch, M. Verbal and spatial clustering in free recall of drawings following left or right temporal lobectomy: Evidence for dual encoding. Paper presented at the Canadian Psychological Association Meeting, Toronto, 1976cGoogle Scholar
  241. Moscovitch, M. Selective interference effects on verbal and spatial clustering in free recall of drawings: Evidence for dual encoding. Paper presented at the meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association, Vancouver, B. C., June, 1977Google Scholar
  242. Moscovitch, M., and Catlin, J. Interhemispheric transmission of information: Measurement in normal man. Psychonomic Science, 1970, 18, 211–213Google Scholar
  243. Moscovitch, M., and Craik, F. I. M. Depth of processing, retrieval cues, and uniqueness of encoding as factors in recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1976, 75, 447–458Google Scholar
  244. Moscovitch, M., and Klein, D. Material specific interference effects and their relation to functional hemispheric asymmetries. Paper presented at the International Neuropsychological Society Meeting, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1977Google Scholar
  245. Moscovitch, M., Scullion, D., and Christie, D. Early vs. late stages of processing and their relation to functional hemispheric asymmetries in face recognition, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1976, 2, 401–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Moss, C. S. Recovery with Aphasia. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972Google Scholar
  247. Murdock, B. B., Jr. Recent developments in short–term memory. British Journal of Psychology, 1967, 58, 421–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Murdock, B. B., Jr. Human Memory: Theory and Data. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1974Google Scholar
  249. Nachshon, L, and Carmon, A. Hand preference in sequential and spatial discrimination tasks. Cortex, 1975, 11, 121–131Google Scholar
  250. Nadel, L., and O’Keefe, J. The hippocampus in pieces and patches: An essay on modes of explanation in physiological psychology. In R. Bellairs and E. G. Gray (eds.). Essays on the Nervous System: A Festschrift for Professor J. Z. Young. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974Google Scholar
  251. Nauta, W. J. H. Neural associations of the frontal cortex. Acta Neurobiobgica Experimentalis, 1972, 32, 125–140Google Scholar
  252. Nebes, R. D. Superiority of the minor hemisphere in commissurotomized man for the perception of part-whole relations. Cortex, 1971, 7, 333–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Neisser, U. Cognitive Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967Google Scholar
  254. Neisser, U. Cognition and Reality. San Francisco: Freeman, 1976Google Scholar
  255. Norman, D. A. Memory and Attention, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1976Google Scholar
  256. Norman, D. A., and Rumelhart, D. E. Explorations in Cognition. San Francisco: Freeman, 1975Google Scholar
  257. O’Keefe, J., and Nadel, L. The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map London: Oxford University Press, in pressGoogle Scholar
  258. Oldfield, R. C. Things, words, and the brain. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 1966, 18 340– 353Google Scholar
  259. Ornstein, R. E. The Psychology of Consciousness. San Francisco: Freeman, 1972Google Scholar
  260. Oscar-Berman, M. Hypothesis testing and focusing behavior during concept formation by amnesic Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychologia, 1973, 11, 191–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Oscar-Berman, M., Goodglass, H., and Cherlow, D. G. Perceptual laterality and iconic recognition of visual materials by Korsakoff patients and normal adults. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1973, 82, 216–231Google Scholar
  262. Oscar-Berman, M., Goodglass, H., and Donnenfeld, H. Dichotic ear-order effects with non-verbal stimuli. Cortex, 1974, 10, 270–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Paivio, A. Mental imagery in associative learning and memory. Psychological Review, 1969, 16, 241–263Google Scholar
  264. Paivio, A. Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971Google Scholar
  265. Paivio, A. Perceptual comparisons through the mind’s eye. Memory and Cognition, 1975, 3, 635–647Google Scholar
  266. Pandya, D. N., Hallett, M., and Mukherjee, S. K. Intra- and interhemispheric connections of the neocortical auditory system in the rhesus monkey. Brain Research, 1969, 14, 49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Papcun, G., Krashen, S., Terbeek, D., Remington, R., and Harshman, R. Is the left hemisphere specialised for speech, language and/or something else? Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1974, 55, 319–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Patten, B. M. The ancient art of memory. Archives of Neurology, 1972, 26, 25–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Patterson, K., and Bradshaw, J. L. Differential hemispheric mediation of nonverbal visual stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1975, 1, 246–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Perenin, M. T., and Jeannerod, M. Residual vision in cortically blind hemifields. Neuropsychologia, 1975, 13, 1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Pirozzolo, F. J., and Rayner, K. Hemispheric specialization in reading and word recognition. Brain and Language, 1977, 4, 248–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Pisoni, D. B. Auditory and phonetic memory codes in the discrimination of consonants and vowels. Perception and Psychophysics, 1973, 13, 253–260Google Scholar
  273. Pisoni, D. B., and Tash, J. Reaction times to comparisons within and across phonetic categories. Perception and Psychophysics, 1974, 15, 285–290Google Scholar
  274. Pizzamiglio, L., and Parisi, D. Studies on verbal comprehension in aphasia. In G. B. Flores d’Arcáis and W.J. M. Levelt (eds.), Advances in Psycholinguistics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1970Google Scholar
  275. Poeck, K., and Huber, W. To what extent is language a sequential activity? Neuropsychologia, 1977, 15, 359–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Poeppel, E., Held, R., and Frost, D. Residual function after brain wounds involving the central visual pathways in man Nature (London), 1973, 243, 295–296Google Scholar
  277. Poffenberger, A. T. Reaction time to retinal stimulation with special reference to the time lost in conduction through nerve centres. Archives of Psychology, 1912, 13, 1–73Google Scholar
  278. Porter, R. J., and Mirabile, P. J. Dichotic and monotic interactions between speech and nonspeech sounds at different stimulus onset asynchronies. Perception and Psychophysics 1977, 2 408– 412Google Scholar
  279. Posner, M. 1. Abstraction and the process of recognition. In G. H. Bower and J. T. Spence (eds.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 3. New York: Academic Press, 1969, pp. 43–100Google Scholar
  280. Posner, M. I. Psychobiology of attention. In M. S. Gazzaniga and C. Blakemore (eds.), Handbook of Psychobiology. New York: Academic Press, 1975Google Scholar
  281. Posner, M. I., and Snyder, C. R. R. Attention and cognitive control. In R. Solso (ed.), Information Processing and Cognition: The Loyola Symposium. Potomac, Md.: Erlbaum, 1975Google Scholar
  282. Potter, M. C., Valian, V. V., and Faulconer, B. A. Representation of a sentence and its pragmatic implications: Verbal, imagistic, or abstract. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1977, 16, 1–12Google Scholar
  283. Pribram, K. H. Languages of the Brain. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971Google Scholar
  284. Pylyshyn, Z. W. What the mind’s eye tells the mind’s brain: A critique of mental imagery. Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 80, 1–24Google Scholar
  285. Rabinowicz, B. H. A non-lateralized auditory process in speech perception. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Toronto, 1976Google Scholar
  286. Repp, B. H. Dichotic competition of speech sounds: The role of acoustic stimulus structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1977, 3, 37–50Google Scholar
  287. Rosch, E. Cognitive representation and semantic categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1975, 104, 192–233Google Scholar
  288. Rosen, J., Curicio, F., McKavey, W., and Herbert, J. Superior recall of letters in the right visual field with bilateral presentation and partial report. Cortex, 1975, 11, 144–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Rosenzweig, M. R. Representation of the two ears at the auditory cortex. American Journal of Physiology, 1951, 167, 147–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Rothstein, L. D., and Atkinson, R. C. Memory scanning for words in visual images. Memory and Cognition, 1975, 3, 541–544Google Scholar
  291. Rotkin, L., Greenwood, P., and Gazzaniga, M. S. Psychophysics with the “splitbrain” patient: Perceptual asymmetries and verbal mediation in sensory judgments. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association Meeting, New York, 1977Google Scholar
  292. Rozin, P. The psychobiological approach to human memory. In M. R. Rosenzweig and E. L. Bennett (eds.). Neurological Mechanisms of Learning and Memory. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1976Google Scholar
  293. Saffran, E. M., and Marin, O. S. M. Immediate memory for words lists and sentences in a patient with deficient auditory short-term memory. Brain and Language, 1975, 2, 420–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Saffran, E. M., Marin, O. S. M., and Yeni-Komshian, G. H. An analysis of speech perception in word deafness. Brain and Language, 1976a, 5, 209–228Google Scholar
  295. Saffran, E. M., Schwartz, M. F., and Marin, O. S. M. Semantic mechanisms in paralexia. Brain and Language, 1976b, 3, 255–265 Google Scholar
  296. Sanders, M. D., Warrington, E. K., Marshall, J., and Weiskrantz, L. “Blindsight”: Vision in a field defect. Lancet, 1974, April, 707–708Google Scholar
  297. Sasanumo, S. Kana and kanji processing in Japanese aphasics. Brain and Language, 1975, 2, 369–383Google Scholar
  298. Scarborough, D. L. Memory for brief visual displays of symbols. Cognitive Psychology, 1972, 3, 408–429Google Scholar
  299. Schloterer, G. Changes in visual information processing with normal aging and progressive dementia of the Alzheimer type. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. University of Toronto, 1977Google Scholar
  300. Schwartz, G. E., Davidson, R. J., and Maer, F. Right hemisphere lateralization for emotion in the human brain: Interaction with cognition. Science, 1975, 190, 286–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Schwartz, M. Visual field effects with chimeric faces. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society. Minneapolis, Minnesota, February, 1978Google Scholar
  302. Scotti, G., and Spinnler, H. Colour imperception in unilateral hemisphere-damaged patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 1970, 33, 22–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Seamon, J. G. Imagery codes and human information retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 96, 468–470Google Scholar
  304. Seamon, J. G., and Gazzaniga, M. J. Coding strategies and cerebral laterality effects. Cognitive Psychology, 1973, 5, 249–256Google Scholar
  305. Semmes, J., Weinstein, S., Ghent, L., and Teuber, H. -L. Correlates of impaired orientation in personal and extrapersonal space. Brain, 1963, 86, 747–772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Shallice, T., and Warrington, E. K. Independent functioning of verbal memory stores: A neuropsychological study. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970, 22, 261–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Shallice, T., and Warrington, E. K. Word recognition in a phonemic dyslexic patient. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1975, 27, 187–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Shankweiler, D. Effects of temporal-lobe damage on perception of dichotically presented melodies. Journal of Comparative Psychobgy, 1966, 62, 115–119Google Scholar
  309. Shankweiler, D., and Studdert-Kennedy, M. Identification of consonants and vowels presented to the right and left ears. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychobgy, 1967, 79, 59–63Google Scholar
  310. Simon, H. A. What is visual imagery? An information processing interpretation. In L. W. Gregg (ed.). Cognition in Learning and Memory. New York: Wiley, 1972Google Scholar
  311. Smith, A. Powers of Mind. New York: Ballantine, 1975Google Scholar
  312. Smith, E. E., Shoben, E. J., and Rips, L. J. Comparison processes in semantic memory. Psychological Review, 1974, 214–241Google Scholar
  313. Sparks, R., and Geschwind, N. Dichotic listening in man after section of neocortical commissures. Cortex, 1968, 4, 3–16Google Scholar
  314. Spedacy, F., and Blumstein, S. The influence of language set and ear preference in phoneme recognition. Cortex, 1970, 6, 430–439Google Scholar
  315. Sperling, G. A model for visual memory tasks. Human Factors, 1963, 5, 19–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Sperry, R. W. Lateral specialization in the surgically separated hemispheres. In F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden (eds.). The Neurosciences: Third Study Program. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974Google Scholar
  317. Springer, S. Ear asymmetry in a dichotic detection task. Perception and Psychophysics, 1971, 10, 239–241Google Scholar
  318. Springer, S. P. Hemispheric specialization for speech opposed by contralateral noise. Perception and Psychophysics, 1973, 13, 391–393Google Scholar
  319. Strauss, E., and Fitz, C. Occipital horn asymmetry in children. Paper presented at B.A.B.B.L.EGoogle Scholar
  320. Conference, Brock University, St. Catherines, Ontario, 1978Google Scholar
  321. Studdert-Kennedy, M., and Shankweiler, D. Hemispheric specialization for speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1970, 48, 579–594Google Scholar
  322. Sullivan, E. V., and Turvey, M. T. On the short-term retention of serial tactile stimuli. Memory and Cognition, 1974, 2, 600–606Google Scholar
  323. Swanson, J. M., Ledlow, A., and Kinsbourne, M. Lateral asymmetries revealed by simple reaction time. In M. Kinsbourne (ed.), Hemispheric Asymmetry of Function. New York: Cambridge Universit) Press, 1978Google Scholar
  324. Talland, G. A. Deranged Memory. New York: Academic Press, 1965Google Scholar
  325. Taylor, L., Milner, B., and Darwin, C.J. Verbal disabilities associated with lesions of the left face area. In preparation. Summarized in The 17th International Symposium of Neuropsychology (G. Ettlinger. H.-L. Teuber, and B. Milner). Neuropsychologia, 1975, 13, 125–133Google Scholar
  326. Teszner, D., Tzavaras, A., Gruner, J., and Hécaen, H. R. L’asymétrie droite-gauche du Planum temporale. A propos de letude anatomique de 100 cerveaux. Revue Neurologique 1972,126 444– 449Google Scholar
  327. Teuber, H.-L. Unity and diversity of frontal lobe functions. Acta Neurobiologia Experimentalis, 1972, 32, 615–656Google Scholar
  328. Teuber, H.-L., Milner, B., and Vaughn, H. G., Jr., Persistent anterograde amnesia after stabwound of the basal brain. Neuropsychologia, 1968, 6, 267–282Google Scholar
  329. Treisman, A., and Geffen, G. Selective attention and cerebral dominance in perceiving and responding to speech messages. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1968, 20, 139–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Tulving, E. Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving and W. Donaldson (eds.). Organization of Memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 382–404Google Scholar
  331. Turvey, M. On peripheral and central processes in vision: Inferences from an information-processing analysis of masking with patterned stimuli. Psychological Review, 1973, 80, 1–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Turvey, M. T. Contrasdng orientations to the theory of visual information processing. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 67–88Google Scholar
  333. Umilta, C., Brizzolara, D., Tabossi, P., and Fairweather, H. Factors affecting face recognition in the cerebral hemispheres: Familiarity and naming. In J. Requin (ed.). Attention and Performance VII, Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978Google Scholar
  334. Vygotsky, L. S. Thought and Language. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1962Google Scholar
  335. Wada, J., Clark, R., and Hamm, A. Cerebral hemispheric asymmetry in humans. Archives of Neurology, 1975, 52, 239–246Google Scholar
  336. Ward, T. B., and Ross, L. E. Laterality differences and practice effects under central backward masking conditions. Memory and Cognition, 1977, 5, 221–226Google Scholar
  337. Warren, J. M., and Akert, K. The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964Google Scholar
  338. Warren, R. E. Stimulus encoding and memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 94, 90–100Google Scholar
  339. Warren, R. E. Association, directionality, and stimulus encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 151–158Google Scholar
  340. Warrington, E. K. The selective impairment of semantic memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1975, 27, 635–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Warrington, E. K., and James, M. An experimental investigation of facial recognition in patients with unilateral cerebral lesions. Cortex, 1967, 3, 317–326Google Scholar
  342. Warrington, E. K., and Shallice, T. The selective impairment of auditory verbal short-term memory. Brain, 1969, 92, 885–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Warrington, E. K., and Taylor, A. M. The contribution of the right parietal lobe to object recognition. Cortex, 1973, 7, 152–164Google Scholar
  344. Watkins, M. J., and Watkins, O. C. A tactile suffix effect. Memory and Cognition, 1974, 2, 176–180Google Scholar
  345. Watkins, O. C., and Watkins, M. J. Build-up of proactive inhibition as a cue-overload effect. Journal of Experimental Psychobgy: Human Learning and Memory, 1975, 104, 442–452Google Scholar
  346. Weiss, M. J., and House, A. S. Percepdon of dichotically presented vowels. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 1973, 53, 51–58Google Scholar
  347. Weisstein, N., Ozog, G., and Szoc, R. A comparison and elaboration of two models of metacontrast. Psychological Review, 1975, 82, 315–343Google Scholar
  348. White, M.J. Laterality differences in perception: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 1969, 72, 387–405Google Scholar
  349. White, M. J. Hemispheric asymmetries in tachistoscopic information-processing. British Journal of Psychology, 1972, 65, 497–508Google Scholar
  350. White, M. J., and White, K. G. Parallel-serial processing and hemispheric functions. Neuropsychologia, 13, 377–381Google Scholar
  351. Wickens, D. Encoding categories of words: An empirical approach to memory. Psychological Review Google Scholar
  352. 77.
  353. Wilkins, A., and Moscovitch, M. Selective impairment of semantic memory after temporal lobectomy. Neuropsychohgia, 1978, 16, 73–79Google Scholar
  354. Wilkins, A., and Stewart, A. The time course of lateral asymmetries in visual perception of letters. Journal of Experimental Psychobgy, 1974, 102, 905–908Google Scholar
  355. Winocur, G., and Weiskrantz, L. An investigation of paired-associate learning in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 97–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Witelson, S. F. Hemispheric specialization for linguistic and nonlinguistic tactual perception using a dichotomous stimulation technique. Cortex, 1974, 10, 1–17Google Scholar
  357. Witelson, S. F., and Pallie, W. Left hemisphere specialization for language in the newborn: Neuroanatomical evidence of asymmetry. Brain, 1973, 96, 641–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Wood, C. C. Parallel processing of auditory and phonetic information in speech perception. Perception and Psychophysics, 1974, 75, 501–508Google Scholar
  359. Wood, C. C. Auditory and phonetic levels of processing in speech perception: Neurophysiological and information-processing analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1975, 104, 3–20Google Scholar
  360. Wood, C. C., Goff, W. R., and Day, R. S. Auditory evoked potentials during speech perception. Science, 173, 1248–1251Google Scholar
  361. Yeni-Komshian, G. H., and Gordon, J. F. The effect of memory load on the right ear advantage in dichotic listening. Brain and Language, 1974, 1, 375–382Google Scholar
  362. Yin, R. K. Face recognition by brain–injured patients: A dissociable ability. Neuropsychologia, 1970, 8, 395–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Zaidel, E. Linguistic competence and related functions in the right cerebral hemisphere of man following commissurotomy and hemispherectomy. Unpublished doctoral thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 1973Google Scholar
  364. Zaidel, E. Auditory vocabulary of the right hemisphere following brain bisection of hemidecortication. Cortex, 1976, 12, 191–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Zaidel, E. Unilateral auditory language comprehension of the Token Test following cerebral commissurotomy and hemispherectomy. Neuropsychologia, 1977, 13, 1–18Google Scholar
  366. Zaidel, D. and Sperry, R. W. Performance on the Raven’s coloured progressive matrices test by subjects with cerebral commissurotomy. Cortex, 1973, 9, 34–39Google Scholar
  367. Zurif, E., Caramazza, A., and Myerson, R. Grammatical judgements of agrammatic aphasics. Neuropsychologia, 1972, 10, 405–417PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Morris Moscovitch
    • 1
  1. 1.Erindale CollegeUniversity of TorontoMississaugaCanada

Personalised recommendations