Genetic Diversity of Bunyaviruses and Mechanisms of Genetic Variation

  • R. M. Elliott
  • J. F. Lees
  • G. E. Watret
  • W. Clark
  • R. R. Pringle
Part of the Developments in Molecular Virology book series (DMVI, volume 3)


The family Bunyaviridae currently includes more than two-hundred arthropod-borne viruses which share certain morphological or biochemical characteristics (1). Some of these viruses can infect the central nervous system or cause haemorrhagic fever in man and other animals. The viruses are generally spherical, 80-110 nm in diameter, and contain three nelical nucleocapsids. The genome comprises three segments of single-stranded negative sense RNA designated L (large), M (medium) and S (small). For most bunyaviruses the genome encodes at least 4 proteins, including the major virion components which are the nucleocapsid protein N and the two surface glycoproteins G1 and G2. A minor large molecular weight protein designated L is sometimes observed, and this protein is presumed to be the virion transcriptase. The maturation of bunyaviruses occurs at smooth membrane vesicles, predominantly in membranes associated with the Golgi apparatus.


Serogroup Virus Batai Virus Terminal Nucleotide Sequence California Encephalitis Bunyamwera Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bishop, D.H.L., Calisher, C.H., Casals, J., Chumakov, M.P., Gaidamovich, S.Ya., Hannoun, C., Lvov, D.K., Marshal, I.D., Oker-Blom, N.K., Pettersson, R.F., Porterfield, J.S., Russell, P.K., Shope, R.E. and Westaway, E.G. 1980. Bunyaviridae. Intervirology 14; 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smithburn, K.C., Haddow, A.J. and Mahaffay, A.F. 1946. A neurotrophic virus isolated from Aedes mosquitoes caught in the Semliki forest. Am. J. Trop. Med. 26; 184–208.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Main, A.J., Downs, W.G., Shope, R.E. and Wallis, R.C. 1976. Avalon and Clo Mor; two new Sakhalin group viruses from the North Atlantic. J. Med. Ent. 13; 309–315.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nuttal, P.A., Carey, D., Reid, H.W. and Harrap, K.A. 1981. Orbiviruses and bunyaviruses from a seabird colony in Scotland. J. Gen. Virol. 57; 127–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leake, C.J., Varma, M.G.R., and Pudney, M. 1977. Cytopathic effect and plaque formation by arboviruses in a continuous cell line (XTC-2) from the toad Xenopus laevis. J. Gen. Virol. 35; 335–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pudney, M., Varma, N.G.R. and Leake, C.J. 1973. Establishment of a cell line from the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis. Experientia 29; 466–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bishop, D.H.L. 1979. Genetic potential of bunyaviruses. Curr. Topics in Microbiol, and Immunol. 86; 1–33.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bishop, D.H.L., Clerx, J.P.M., Clerx-Van Haaster, C.M., Robeson, G., Rozhon, E.J., Ushijima, H. and Veerisetty, V. 1981. Molecular and genetic properties of members of the Bunyaviridae. Pp 135–146. In Bishop, D.H.L. and Compans, R,W,(eds), The Replication of Negative Strand Viruses. Elsevier/North Holland. New York and Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ozdenr S. and Hannoun, C. 1979. Isolation and preliminary characterisation of temperature-sensitive mutants of Lunibo virus. Virology 84; 210–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ozden, S. and Hannoun, C. 1980. Biochemical and genetic characteristics of Germiston virus. Virology 103? 232–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Iroegbu, C.U. and Pringle, C.R. 1981. Genetic interactions among viruses of the Bunyamwera complex. J. Virol. 37; 383–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pringle, C.R. and Iroegbu, C.U. 1982. A mutant identifying a third recombination group in a bunyavirus. J. Virol. 42; 873–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bishop, D.H.L. and Gentsch, J.R. 1980. The recombination potential of bunyaviruses. Pp 81-96. In Vesenjak, J. etal.(eds), Arboviruses in Mediterranean Countries. Zbl. Bakt. Suppl. 9. Gustav Fisher Verlag. Stuttgart and New York.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hunt, A.R. and Calisher, C.H. 1979. Relationships of Bunyamwera group virus by neutralisation. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 28; 740–749.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gentsch, J.R., Rozhon, E.J., Klimas, R.A., El Said, L.H., Shope, R.E. and Bishop, D.H.L. 1980. Limited recombination between bunyaviruses and evidence that bunyavirus M RNA gene products elicit neutralising antibodies. Virology 102; 190–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Faulkner-Valle, G.P., Lewis, J., Pedley, S. and McCrae, M.A. 1983. Isolation and characterisation of ts mutatns of a bovine rotavirus. In Bishop, D.H.L. and Compans, R.W., Double-stranded RNA viruses. (In press).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    White, B.A. and Bancroft, F.C. 1982. Cytoplasmic dot hybridization. Simple analysis of relative mRNA levels in multiple small cell or tissue samples. J. Biol. Chem. 257; 8569-8572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cash, P., Vezza, A.C., Gentsch, J.R. and Bishop, D.H.L. 1979. Genome complexities of the three mRNA species of snowshoe hare bunyavirus and in vitro translation of S mRNA to viral N polypeptide. J. Virol. 31; 685–694.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clerx-Van Haaster, C.M., Akashi, H., Auperin, D.D. and Bishop, D.H.L. 1982. Nucleotide sequence analyses and predicted coding of bunyavirus genome RNA species. J. Virol. 41; 119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. M. Elliott
    • 1
  • J. F. Lees
    • 1
  • G. E. Watret
    • 1
  • W. Clark
    • 1
  • R. R. Pringle
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical Research Council Virology UnitInstitute of VirologyGlasgowScotland

Personalised recommendations