The fine structure and function of mouse and rat trophoblast during delayed implantation

  • B. Ove Nilsson
Part of the Electron Microscopy in Biology and Medicine book series (EMBM, volume 2)


The trophoblast cells of the blastocyst form a layer, the trophectoderm, which encloses the blastocoele cavity. This cavity is filled with fluid and contains the inner cell mass (the embryoblast) or future embryo. The blastocoele fluid constitutes the microenvironment of the embryoblast, delivering its nutrients and draining its waste products. The composition of the fluid is therefore crucial for normal development of the embryo. The trophectoderm controls the qualitative and quantitative nature of the blastocoele fluid.


Zona Pellucida Trophoblast Cell Uterine Epithelium Mouse Blastocyst Sephadex Bead 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Edwards RG, Surani MAH: The primate blastocysts and its environment. Ups J Med Sci 22: 39–50, 1978.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sherman MI, Wudl LR: The implanting mouse blastocyst. In: The cell surface in animal embryogenesis and development. Poste G, Nicolson GL (eds) Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, 1976, pp 81–125.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bergstròm S: Experimentally delayed implantation. In: Methods in mammalian reproduction. Daniel JC Jr (ed) Academic press, 1978, pp 419–435.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Biggers JD, Borland RM: Physiological aspects of growth and development of the preimplantation mammalian embryo. Annu Rev Physiol 38: 95–119, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schiffner J, Spielmann H: Fluoremetric assay of the protein content of mouse and rat embryos during preimplantation development. J Reprod Fertil 47: 145–147, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Copp AJ: Interaction between inner cell mass and trophectoderm of the mouse blastocyst. I. A study of cellular proliferation. J Embryol Exp Morphol 48: 109–125, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ducibella T, Albertini DF, Anderson E, Biggers JD: The preimplantation mammalian embryo: characterization of intercellular junctions and their appearance during development. Dev Biol 45: 231–250, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gamow E, Daniel Jr JC: Fluid transport in the rabbit blastocyst. Wilhelm Roux Archiv 164: 261–178, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Benos DJ, Biggers JD: Blastocyst fluid formation. In: Fertilization and embryonic development in vitro. Mastroianni L, Biggers JD, Sadler W (eds) New York, Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Møllgård K, Rostgaard J: Morphologic aspects of transepithelial transport with special reference to the endoplasmic reticulum. In: Ion transport by epithelia. Schultz SG (ed) New York, Raven Press, 1981, pp 209–231.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cole RJ: Cinematographic observations on the trophoblast and zona pellucida of the mouse blastocyst. J Embryol Exp Morphol 17: 481–490, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lindqvist I, Nilsson O, Ronquist G: The in vitro transport of 14C-a- aminoisobuturic acid into blastocysts from mice in delay and after activation for implantation. Acta Physiol Scand 111: 35–42, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nilsson O: The morphology of blastocyst implantation. J Reprod Fertil 39: 187–194, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Psychoyos A, Bitton-Casimiri V, Brun JL: Repression and activation of the mammalian blastocyst. In: Regulation of growth and differentiated function in eukaryote cells. Talwar GP (ed) New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 509–514.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weitlauf HM, Kiessling AA, Activation of ‘delayed implanting’ mouse embryos in vitro. J Reprod Fertil 29: 191–202, 1981.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Naeslund G, Lundkvist Ö, Nilsson BO: Transmission electron microscopy of mouse blastocysts activated and growth-arrested in vivo and in vitro. Anat Embryol 159: 33–48, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weitlauf HM: Factors in mouse uterine fluid that inhibit the incorporation of 3H-uridine by blastocysts in vitro. J Reprod Fertil 52: 321–328, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Borland RM, Tasca RJ, Activation of a Na+-dependent amino acid transport system in preimplantation mouse embryos. Dev Biol 30: 169–182, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Surani MAH, Fishel SB: Embryonic and uterine factors in delayed implantation in rodents. J Reprod Fertil 29: 159–172, 1981.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Van Winkle LJ, Activation of amino acid accumulation in delayed implantation mouse blastocysts. J Exp Zool 218: 239–246, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nilsson BO, Ljung L: Electron probe micro-X-ray analyses of electrolyte composition of fluid microsamples by use of a Sephadex bead. Ups J Med Sci 84: 1–2, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nilsson BO: Electron microscopic aspects of epithelial changes related to implantation. Prog Reprod Biol 7: 70–80, 1980.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Van Blerkom J, Chavez DJ, Bell H: Molecular and cellular aspects of facultative delayed implantation in the mouse. In: Maternal recognition of pregnancy. Ciba Foundation Symposium, 1978, pp 141–163.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Naeslund G: The effect of glucose-, arginine- and leucine-deprivation on mouse blastocyst cutgrowth in vitro. Ups J Med Sci 84: 9–20, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bergström S: Scanning electron microscopy of ovo-implantation. Arch Gynecol 212: 258–270, 1972.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nilsson BO, Lundkvist, Ö: Ultrastructural and histochemical changes of the mouse uterine epithelium on blastocyst activation for implantation. Anat Embryol 155: 331–321, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nilsson BO, Östensson CG, Eide S, Hellerström C, Utilization of glycose by the implanting mouse blastocyst activated by oestrogen. Endocrinologie 76: 82–93, 1980.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nilsson BO, Magnusson C, Widéhn S, Hillensjö T: Correlation between blastocyst oxygen consumption and trophoblast cytochrome oxidase reaction at implantation of delayed mouse blastocysts. J Embryol Exp Morphol 71: 75–82, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lindqvist I, Nilsson O, Ronquist G: Preferential uptake of 14C-α- aminoisobuturic acid into mouse uterine tissue during early pregnancy. Acta Physiol Scand 99: 37–41, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lindqvist I, Einarsson B, Nilsson O, Ronquist G: The in vivo transport of 14C-α-aminoisobuturic acid into mouse blastocyst during activation for implantation. Acta Physiol Scand 102: 477–483, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lundkvist Ö, Nilsson BO: Endometrial ultrastructure in the early uterine response to blastocysts and artificial deciduogenic stimuli in rats. Cell Tissue Res 225: 355–364.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nilsson BO: Ultrastructure of trophoblast-epithelium relations during implantation. In: Proteins and steroids in early pregnancy. Beier HM, Karlson P (eds) Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1982, pp 5–14.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sherman MI: Implantation of mouse blastocysts in vitro. In: Methods in mammalian reproduction. New York, Academic Press, 1978, pp 247–257.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Håkansson S, Lundkvist Ö, Nilsson O, Aim G. Prolonged survival of implanting rat blastocysts in the uterus of congenitally athymic mice. Scand J Immunol 6: 817–820, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tachi S, Tachi C: Ultrastructural studies on maternal-embryonic cell interaction during experimentally induced implantation of rat blastocysts to the endometrium of the mouse. Dev Biol 68: 203–223, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pinsker MC, Mintz B: Change in cell-surface glycoproteins of mouse embryos before implantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70: 1645–1648, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Johnson LV, Calarco PG: Mammalian preimplantation development: The cell surface. Anat Res 196: 201–219, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Surani MAH, Kimber SJ, Handyside AH: Synthesis and role of cell surface glycoproteins in preimplantation mouse development. Exp Cel Rec 133: 331–339, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Enders AC, Schlafke S: Surface coats of the mouse blastocyst and uterus during the preimplantation period. Anat Rec 180: 31–46.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wu JT, Chang C: Increase in Concanavalin A binding sites in mouse blastocysts during implantation. J Exp Zool 205: 447–453, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chávez DJ, Enders AC, Temporal changes in lectin binding of peri-implantation mouse blastocysts. Dev Biol 87: 267–276.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nilsson BO, Naeslund G, Curman B, Polar differences of delayed and implanting mouse blastocysts in binding of Alcian Blue and Concanavalin A. J Exp Zool 214: 177–180, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Carollo JR, Weitlauf HM: Regional changes in the binding of (3H) Concanavalin A to mouse blastocysts at implantation: an autoradio-graphic study. J Exp Zool 218: 247–251, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nilsson O, Lindqvist I, Ronquist G: Blastocyst surface change and implantation in the mouse. Contraception 11: 441–450.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nilsson BO, Hjertén S: Electrophoretic quantification of the changes in the average net negative surface charge density of mouse blastocysts implanting in vivo and in vitro. Biol Reprod 27: 485–493.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Slot JW, Geuze JH: Sizing of protein A-colloidal gold probes for immunoelectron microscopy. J Cell Biol 90: 533–536.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston, The Hague, Dordrecht, Lancaster 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Ove Nilsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Anatomy Biomedical CentreUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations