Glacial-Marine Sedimentation Processes and Lithofacies of Temperate Tidewater Glaciers, Glacier Bay, Alaska

  • Ross D. Powell


This study relates observed processes to sedimentary lithofacies produced by temperate tidewater glaciers in fjord basins. Observed processes that result from interaction between ice, sea, and meltwater control lithofacies production. These are: (1) rates of ice calving and glacier front retreat: these influence relative sedimentation rates, type of sediment accumulated, and environmental energy at a glacier front; (2) positions of debris in or on a glacier: these control where and how debris is released to the marine environment; (3) meltwater streams: these contribute glacial rock flour, of which most glacial-marine sediment is composed. Streams also contribute coarser-grained debris that build ice-contact, subaerial outwash-deltas and submarine fan complexes. Subglacial streams are unique in the fluvial system because they build submarine fans by introducing coarse-grained debris at the base rather than top of a sea water column. Streams produce overflows, interflows, and when sediment concentrations are sufficiently high, underflows in a fjord; and (4) oceanographic parameters: these control berg tracks, rate of ice melting, distribution and water column position of turbid plumes from meltwater streams, vertical mixing of the water column, and bottom current activity on the fjord floor.

Some lithofacies, such as piles of gravel and rubble, diamicton, bergstone mud, laminites, submarine sediment gravity flow deposits, and deltaic wedges occur in front of many glaciers. Other lithofacies such as morainal banks and marine-outwash mud are more restricted in their formation. Lithofacies associations have been used to construct facies models for four different settings within a temperate tide-water glacier regime. Each facies model can be used to describe which combination of above processes was extant during sediment accumulation.


Debris Flow Facies Association Glacier Terminus Lithofacies Association Petroleum Geologist Bulletin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aario, R., 1972, Associations of bed forms and paleocurrent patterns in an esker delta Haapajarui, Finland: Annales Academiae Scientiarium Fennicae, Series A/III, 55 p.Google Scholar
  2. Andersen, B.G., 1978, The deglaciation of Norway 15,000-10,000 B.P.: Boreas, v. 8, p. 79–87.Google Scholar
  3. Andersen, A., and Bjerrum, L., 1967, Slides in subaqueous slopes in loose sand and silt in Richards, A.F.,ed., Marine Geotechnique: Urbana, University of Illinois Press, p. 221–239.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, J.T., and Smithson, E.B., 1966, Till fabrics of the cross-valley moraines North-central Baffin Island, Northwest Territories Canada: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 77, p. 271–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews, L.C., 1903, Muir Glacier: The National Geographic Magazine, v. 14 (12), p. 441–445.Google Scholar
  6. Armstrong, J.E., 1981, Post-Vashon Wisconsin Glaciation, Fraser Lowland, Brithish Columbia, Canada: Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 322, 34 p.Google Scholar
  7. Crandell, D.R., Easterbrook, D.J., and Noble, J.B., 1965, Late Pleistocene stratigraphy and chronology in southwestern British Columbia and northwestern Washington: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 76, p. 321–330.Google Scholar
  8. Barnett, D.M., and Holdsworth, G., 1974, Origin, morphology, and chronology of sublacustrine moraines, Generator Lake, Baffin Island, Northwest Territories, Canada: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 11 (3), p. 380–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bingham, M.P., 1981, The structure and origin of washboard moraines and related glacial-marine sediment in southeastern coastal Maine: Orono, Maine, University of Maine, M.S. Thesis, 78 p.Google Scholar
  10. Bjerrum, L., 1971, Subaqueous slope failures in Norwegian fjords: Oslo Norges Geteknishe Institutt Publikasjon NR 88, p. 1–8.Google Scholar
  11. Boltunov, V.A., 1970, Certain earmarks distinguishing glacial and moraine-like glacial-marine sediments as in Spitsbergen: International Geology Review, v. 12, p. 204–211.Google Scholar
  12. Bornhold, B.D., Blaslo, S.M., and McLaren, P., 1977, Submarine observations of calving glacier fronts, S. Devon Island: Ice, no. 53, First Issue 1977, p. 3.Google Scholar
  13. Bruun, A.F., Brodie, J.W., and Fleming, C.A., 1955, Submarine geology of Milford Sound: New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology Section B, v. 36, p. 397–410.Google Scholar
  14. Burrell, D.C., 1971, Suspended sediment distribution patterns within an active turbid-outwash fjord in Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic conditions, v. 1, p. 227–245.Google Scholar
  15. Burrell, D.C., 1973, Distribution patterns for some particulate and dissolved trace metals within an active glacial fjord: Radioactive Contamination of the Marine Environment: Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency, p. 89–103.Google Scholar
  16. Burrell, D.C., and Matthews, J.G., 1974a, Glacial fjords in Odum, H.T., Copeland, B.J., and McMahon, E.A., Coastal Ecological Systems of the United States: Proceedings, v. 3, chapter D-l, p. 1–9.Google Scholar
  17. Burrell, D.C., 1974b, Turbid outwash fjords, in Odum, H.T., Copeland, B.J., and McMahon, E.A., Coastal Ecological Systems of the United States: Proceedings, v. 3, chapter D-2.Google Scholar
  18. Carsola, A.J., 1954, Recent marine sediments from Alaska and northwest Canadian Arctic: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 38, p. 1522–1586.Google Scholar
  19. Carlson, P.R., 1978, Holocene slump on continental shelf off Malaspina Glacier, Gulf of Alaska: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 62 (12), p. 2412–2426.Google Scholar
  20. Carlson, P.R., and Molnia, B.F., 1978, Submarine faults and slides on the continental shelf, northern Gulf of Alaska: Marine Geotechnology, v. 2, p. 275–290.Google Scholar
  21. Carlson, P.R., Wheeler, M.C., Molnia, B.F., Post, A., Powell, R.D., 1983, Maps showing post-Neoglacial sediment thickness and bathymetry in Tarr Inlet, Glacier Bay, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1456.Google Scholar
  22. Church, M., and Gilbert, R., 1975, Proglacial fluvial and lacustrine environments in Joplling, A.V., and McDonald, B.C., Glaciofluvial and Glaciolacustrine Sedimentation: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 23, p. 22–100.Google Scholar
  23. Cooper, W.S., 1923, The recent ecological history of Glacier Bay, Alaska: I. The interglacial forests of Glacier Bay: Ecoloty, v. 4 (2), p. 93–128.Google Scholar
  24. Cooper, W.S., 1937, The problem of Glacier Bay, Alaska: The Geographical Review, v. 27 (1), p. 37–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cooper, W.S., 1939, A fourth expedition to Glacier Bay, Alaska: Ecology, v. 20 (2), p. 130–155.Google Scholar
  26. Cushing, W.S. 1891, Notes on the Muir Glacier retion and its geology: American Geologist, v. 8, p. 207–230.Google Scholar
  27. Dalrymple, R.W., 1979, Wave-induced liquefication: A modern example from the Bay of Fundy: Sedimentologyt v. 26, p. 835–844Google Scholar
  28. Drake, D.E., Totman, C.E., Biwberg, P.L., 1979, Sediment transport during the winter on the Yukon prodelta Norton Sound, Alaska: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 49, p. 1171–1180.Google Scholar
  29. Drewes, H., Fraser, G.D., Snyder, G.L., and Barnett, H.F., 1961, Geology of Unalaska Island and Adjacent insular Shelf, Aleutian Islands, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 10285, p. 583–676.Google Scholar
  30. Easterbrook, D.J., 1963, Late Pleistocene glacial events and relative sea level changes in the northern Puget Lowland, Washington: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 74, p. 1465–1483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Einsele, G., 1977, Range, velocity and material flux of compaction flow in growing sedimentary sequences: Sedimentology, v. 24, p. 639–655.Google Scholar
  32. Elverhoi, A., Liestol, 0., and Nagy, J., 1980, Glacial erosion, sedimentation and microfauna in the inner part of Kongsfjorden, Spitspbergen: Saertrykk au Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter, Nr. 172, p. 33–61.Google Scholar
  33. Field, W.O., 1947, Glacier recession in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay, Alaska: The Geographic Review, v. 37 (3), p. 369–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Field, W.O., 1964, Observations of glacier variations in Glacier Bay National Monument: Proceedings 1st Conference Science and Research in the National Parks, National Park Service Transactions and Proceedings No. 5, p. 803–808.Google Scholar
  35. Flores, R.M., 1975, Short-headed stream delta: A model for Pennsylvanian Haymond Formation, West Texas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 59 (12), p. 2288–2301.Google Scholar
  36. Funder, S., 1972, Deglaciation of the Scoresby Sund fjord region, northeast Greenland: in Price, R.J., and Sugden, D.E., Polar Geomorphology: Institute of British Geomorphology Special Publication 4, p. 33–42,Google Scholar
  37. Gaddis, B.L., 1974, Suspended-sediment transport relationships for four Alaskan glacier systems: airbanks, University of Alaska, M.S. Thesis, 89 p.Google Scholar
  38. Gade, H.G., 1979, Melting of ice in sea water: A primitive model with application to the Antarctic ice shelf and icebergs: Journal of Physical Oceanography, v. 9, p. 184–198.Google Scholar
  39. Gibbard, P.L., 1980, The origin of stratified Catfish Creek till by basal melting: Boreas, v. 9, p. 71–85.Google Scholar
  40. Gilbert R., 1978, Observations on oceanography and sedimentation at Pangnirtung Fjord, Baffin Island: Maritime Sediments, v. 14, p. 1–10.Google Scholar
  41. Gilbert R., 1980, Environmental studies in Matak, Coronation and North Pangnirtung Fjords, Baffin Island, N.W.T.: Final Report for Petro-Canada Exploration Inc., NSERC, and Queen’s University, 97 p.Google Scholar
  42. Hampton, M.A., Bouma, A.H., Carlson, P.R., Molnia, B.F., Clukey, E.C., and Sangrey, D.A., 1978, Quantitative study of slope instability in the Gulf of Alaska: Offshore Technology Conference Proceedings, p. 2307–2312.Google Scholar
  43. Heiny, J.S., and Powell, R.D., 1982, Sediment characteristics of rapidly retreating temperate valley glaciers: 11th International Association Sedimentologists Congress, Hamilton, Ontario, Abstracts, p. 79.Google Scholar
  44. Heezen, B.C., Menzies, R.J., Schneider, E.D., Ewing, M.W., and Granelli, N.C.L., 1964, Congo submarine canyon: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 47, p. 1126–1149.Google Scholar
  45. Henkel, D.J., 1970, The role of waves in causing submarine landslides: Geotechnique, v. 20 (1), p. 75–80.Google Scholar
  46. Holdsworth, G., 1973a, Ice calving into the proglacial Generator Lake, Baffin Idland, N.W.T., Canada: Journal of Glaciolology, v. 12, p. 235–250.Google Scholar
  47. Holdsworth, G., 1973b, Ice deformation and moraine formation at the margin of an ice cap adjacent to a proglacial lake in Fahey, B.D. and Thompson, R.D., Research in Polar and Alpine Geomorphology: 3rd Guelph Symposium on Geomorphology, p. 187–199.Google Scholar
  48. H. oltedahl, Hans, 1965, Recent turbidites in the Hardengerfjord, Norway in Whittard, W.F, and Bradshaw, R., Submarine Geology and Geophysics: Proceedings 17th Symposium Colston Research Society, London, Butterworth, p. 107–140.Google Scholar
  49. 1967, Notes on the formation of fjords and fjord valleys: Geogr. Annaler. Series A, v. 49, p. 188–203.Google Scholar
  50. Hoppe, G., 1957, Problems of glacial geomorphology and the ice age: Geogr. Annaler, v. 39, p. 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hoskin, C.M., and Burrell, D.C., 1972, Sediment transport and accumulation in a fjord basin, Glacier Bay, Alaska: Journal of Geology, v. 80, p. 539–551.Google Scholar
  52. Hoskin, C.M., Burrell, D.C., and Freigag, G.R., 1976, Suspended sediment dynamics in Queen Inlet Glacier Bay, Alaska: Marine Science Communications, v. 2, p. 95–108.Google Scholar
  53. Jordan, G.F., 1962, Redistribution of sediments in Alaskan Bays and Inlets: Geographical Review, v. 52, p. 548–558.Google Scholar
  54. Kent, Dennis, Opdyke, N.D., and Ewing, Maurice, 1971, Climatic change in the north Pacific using ice rafted detritus as a climatic indicator: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 82, p. 2741–2754.Google Scholar
  55. Klotz, O.J., 1899, Notes on glaciers of southeastern Alaska and adjoining territory: Geographical Journal, v. 14, p. 523–534.Google Scholar
  56. Komar, P.D., and Miller, M.C., 1973, The threshold of sediment movement under oscillatory water waves: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 43, p. 1101–1110.Google Scholar
  57. Komar, P.D., and Miller, M.C., 1975, On the comparison between the threshold of sediment motion under waves and unidirectional currents with a discussion of the practical evaluation of the threshold: Reply. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 45, p. 362–367.Google Scholar
  58. Kranck, K., 1975, Sediment deposition from flocculated suspensions: Sedimentology, v. 22, p. 111–123.Google Scholar
  59. Larson, G.J., 1978, Meltwater storage in a temperate glacier: Burroughs Glacier, Southeast Alaska: Columbus, Ohio State University, Institute of Polar Studies Report No. 66, 56 p.Google Scholar
  60. Lavrushin, Y.A., 1968, Features of deposition and structure of the glacial-marine deposits under conditions of fjord coast: Translation from Lithology and Economic Minerals No. 3, p. 63–79.Google Scholar
  61. Lawrence, D.B., 1958, Glaciers and vegetation history in southeastern Alaska: American Scientist, v. 46, p. 89–122.Google Scholar
  62. Liestol, 0., 1972, Submarine moraines off the west coast of Spitsbergen: Norsk Polarinst. Arbok 1970, p. 165–168.Google Scholar
  63. Loken, O.H., 1973, Bathymetric observations along the east coast of Baffin Island: submarine moraines and iceberg distribution in Hood, P.J., ed., Geological Survey of Canada Paper 71–23, p. 509–519.Google Scholar
  64. Mackiewicz, N.E., and Powell, R.D., 1982, Laminated ice-proximal glacimarine sediments: 11th International Association of Sedimentologists Congress, Hamilton, Ontario, Abstracts Volume, p. 74.Google Scholar
  65. Matishev, G.G., 1978a, The geomorphology of the sea floor and some distinctive features of glacial morphogenesis of the underwater margins of western Spitsbergen: Oceanology, v. 18, p. 168–172.Google Scholar
  66. Matishev, G.G., 1978b, Pleistocene glaciation of the Barents Sea shelf: Doklady-Earth science section, v. 232, p. 47–49.Google Scholar
  67. Matthews, J.B., 1971, Some aspects of the hydrography of Alaskan and Norwegian Fjords: Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, v. 1, p. 829–839.Google Scholar
  68. Matthews, J.B., and Quinlan, A.V., 1975, Seasonal characteristics of water masses in Muir Inlet, a fjord with tidewater glaciers: Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, v. 32, p. 1693–1703.Google Scholar
  69. May, R.W., 1976, Facies model for sedimentation in the glaciolacustrine environment: Boreas, v. 6, p. 175–180.Google Scholar
  70. Mercer, J.H., 1961, The response of fjord glaciers to changes in the firm limit: Journal of Glaciology, v. 3, p. 850–858.Google Scholar
  71. Molnia, B.F., 1979, Sedimentation in coastal embayments, northeastern Gulf of Alaska: Proceedings, 11th Offshore Technology Conference, p. 665–676.Google Scholar
  72. Molnia, B.F., Carlson, P.R., and Bruns, T.R., 1977, Large submarine slide in Kayak Trough, Gulf of Alaska: Geological Society American Reviews in Engineering Geology, v. 3, p. 137–148.Google Scholar
  73. Molnia, B.F., and Sangrey, D.A., 1979, Glacially derived sediments in the northern Gulf of Alaska - geology and engineering characteristics: Proceedings, 11th Offshore Technology Conference, p. 647–655.Google Scholar
  74. Morse, F., 1908, The recession of the glaciers of Glacier Bay, Alaska: National Geographic Magazine, v. 19, p. 76–81.Google Scholar
  75. Muench, R.D. and Heggie, D.T., 1978, Deep water exchange in Alaskan subarctic fjords, in Kjerfie, B., ed., Estuarine Transport Processes: Columbia, University of South Carolina Press, p. 239–267.Google Scholar
  76. Muir, John, 1895, The discovery of Glacier Bay, by its discoverer: The Century Magazine (new series), v. 28, p. 234–247.Google Scholar
  77. Mutti, E., and Ricci Lucchi, F., 1978, Turbidites of the northern Appenines: Introduction to facies analysis: International Geological Review, v. 20, p. 125–166.Google Scholar
  78. Naidu, A.S., and Mowat, T.C., 1975, Depositional environments and sediment characteristics of the Colville and adjacent deltas, Northern Arctic Alaska in Broussard, M.L.S., ed., Deltas: Models for Exploration: Houston Geological Society, p. 283–309.Google Scholar
  79. Olsen, C.R., Simpson, H.J., Bopp, R.F., Williams, S.C., Peng, T.H., and Deck, B.L., 1978, A geochemical analysis of the sediments and sedimentation in the Hudson Estuary: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 48, p. 401–418.Google Scholar
  80. Ostrem, G., 1975, Sediment transport in glacial meltwater streams in Jopling, A.V., and McDonald, B.C., Glaciofluvial and Glaciolacustrine Sedimentation: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 23, p. 101–122.Google Scholar
  81. Ovenshine, A.T., 1970, Observations of iceberg rafting in Glacier Bay, Alaska and the identification of ancient ice-rafted deposits: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 81, p. 891–894.Google Scholar
  82. Pickard, G.L., 1967, Some oceanographic characteristics of the larger inlets of southeast Alaska: Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, v. 24, p. 1475–1506.Google Scholar
  83. Post, A.S., and La Chapelle, E.R, 1971, Glacier Ice: Seattle, The Mountaineers and the University of Washington Press, 111 p.Google Scholar
  84. Powell, R.D., 1980, Holocene glacimarine sediment deposition by tidewater glaciers in Glacier Bay, Alaska: Columbus, Ohio State University, Ph.D. Dissertation, 420 p.Google Scholar
  85. Powell, R.D., 1981a, A model for sedimentation by tidewater glaciers: Annals of Glaciology, v. 2, p. 129–134.Google Scholar
  86. Powell, R.D., 1981b, Sedimentation conditions in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, inferred from textural analysis of DVDP cores: American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series, v. 33, p. 331–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rappeport, M.L., Cacchione, D.A., Bouma, A.H., and Drake, D.E., 1979, Seafloor microtopography, tidal current characteristics and bottom boundary layer time-series data, Cook Inlet, Alaska: Transactions of the American Geophysical Union Abstract, EOS, v. 60, 285 p.Google Scholar
  88. Reid, H.F., 1891, Report of an expedition to Muir Glacier, Alaska, with determinations of latitude and magnetic elements at Camp Muir, Glacie Bay: U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Annual Report, part 2, appendix 14, p. 487–501.Google Scholar
  89. Reid, H.F., 1892, Studies of Muir Glacier, Alaska: National Geographic Magazine, v. 4, p. 19–84.Google Scholar
  90. Reid, H.F., 1896, Glacier Bay and its glaciers: U.S. Geological Survey, 16th Annual Report, part 1, p. 421–461.Google Scholar
  91. Rust, B.R., 1977, Mass flow deposits in a Quaternary succession near Ottawa, Canada: A diagnostic criteria for subaqueous outwash: Canadian Journal of Earth Science, v. 14, p. 175–184.Google Scholar
  92. Rust, B.R., and Romanelli, R., 1975, Late Quaternary subaqueous outwash deposits near Ottawa, Canada in Jopling, A.V., and McDonald, B.C., Glaciofluvial and Glaciolacustrine Sedimentation: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 23, p. 177–192.Google Scholar
  93. Sangrey, D.A., and Molnia, B.F., 1979, Geotechnical engineering analysis of underconsolidated sediments from Alaska coastal waters: Proceedings, 11th Offshore Technology Conference, p. 677–682.Google Scholar
  94. Sharma, G.D., 1979, The Alaska Shelf: New York, Springer- Verlag, 498 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sikonia, W.G., and Post, A., 1980, Columbia Glacier Alaska: Recent ice loss and its relationship to seasonal terminal embayments, thinning, and glacier flow: U.S. Geological Survey, Hydrologic Investigations Atlas, Map HA-619, 3 sheets.Google Scholar
  96. Skerman, T.M., ed., 1964, Studies of a southern fjord: New Zealand Department of Science and Industrial Research Bulletin 157: New Zealand Oceanography Institute Memoir 17, 102 p.Google Scholar
  97. Stemen, K.S., 1979, Glacial stratigraphy of portions of Lincoln and Knox Counties, Maine: Athens, Ohio, Ohio University, M.S. Thesis, 67 p.Google Scholar
  98. Tarr, R.S., and Martin, L., 1914, Alaskan Glacier Studies: Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society, 498 p.Google Scholar
  99. Turner, R.R., 1971, The significance of color banding in the upper layers of the Kara Sea sediments: U.S. Coast Guard, Oceanographic Report No. 36, Washington. D.C., 36 p.Google Scholar
  100. U.S. Department of Commerce, 1969, U.S. Coast Pilot 8, Dixon Entrance to Cape Spencer: Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 254 p.Google Scholar
  101. U.S. Department of Interior, 1970, Quality of surface water of the United States, 1965: U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper No. 1966, 462 p.Google Scholar
  102. von Huene, Roland, 1966, Glacial-marine geology of Nuka Bay, Alaska, and the adjacent continental shelf: Marine Geology, v. 4, p. 291–304.Google Scholar
  103. von Huene, Roland, Larson, Edward, and Crouch, James, 1973, Preliminary study of ice-rafted erratics as indicators of glacial advances in the Gulf of Alaska, in Kulm., L.B., and von Huene, Roland, and others: Initial Reports of Deep Sea Drilling Project (Leg 18), v. 18, p. 835–42.Google Scholar
  104. Vorren, T.O., 1973, Glacial geology of the area between Jostedalsbreen and Jotunhiem, South Norway: Norges Geol. Unders., Nr. 291, p. 1–46.Google Scholar
  105. Weeks, W.F., and Campbell, W.J., 1973, Icebergs as a freshwater source; an appraisal: Journal of Glaciology, v. 12, p. 207–223.Google Scholar
  106. Wilson, R.E., 1979, A model for the estimation of the concentrations and spatial extent of suspended sediment plumes: Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, v. 9, p. 65–78.Google Scholar
  107. Wright, F.F., 1971, Suspension transport in southern Alaskan coastal waters: Proceedings 3rd Offshore Technology Conference, p. 1235–1242.Google Scholar
  108. Wright, G.F., 1887, The Muir Glacier: American Journal of Science, 3rd Series, v. 33, p. 1–18.Google Scholar
  109. Wright, G.F., 1891, Ice Age in North America: 5th Edition, New York, p. 13–35.Google Scholar
  110. Zabawa, C.F., 1978, Microstructure of agglomerated suspended sediments in North Chesapeake Bay estuary: Science, v. 202, p. 49–51.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ross D. Powell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyNorthern Illinois UniversityDekalbUSA

Personalised recommendations