Charimen’s Overview on Carcinogen-Induced Modification in DNA
Carcinogen-induced modifications in DNA deserve consideration as endpoints in carcinogenicity testing because of the evidence implicating genetic determinants in carcinogenesis; e.g., inherited differences in susceptibility to cancer (6), the common and sometimes specific occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in cancer cells (8), the frequent correlation in chemicals between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity (7), and the transforming activity of oncogenic nucleotide sequences (2). At the same time, however, the kinetics of carcinogenesis in vivo and of cell transformation in vitro imply that neoplastic transformation usually involves sequential genetic changes, which may vary with the carcinogenic stimulus in question, the stage in the cancer process affected, the target cells at risk, and the capability of affected cells to repair or modify carcinogen-induced alterations in DNA (3,5,10).
KeywordsSuperoxide Adduct Carcinogenicity
- 6.Knudson, A.G. (1981) Genetics and cancer. In Cancer: Achievements, Challenges, and Prospects for the 1980s, J.H. Burchenal and H.F. Oettgen, eds. Grune & Stratton, New York, 1:381–396.Google Scholar
- 7.Purchase, I.F.H. (1982) An appraisal of predictive tests for carcinogenicity. Mutat. Res. 99:53–71.Google Scholar
- 8.Sandberg, A.A. (1980) The chromosomes in human cancer and leukemia. Elsevier-North Holland, New York.Google Scholar
- 9.Shank, R.C., and L.R. Barrows (1981) Toxicity-dependent DNA methylation: Significance to risk assessment. In Health Risk Analysis, C.R. Richmond, P.J. Walsh, E.M.D. Copenhaver, eds. The Franklin Institute Press, pp. 225–233.Google Scholar
- 10.Upton, A.C. (1982) Role of DNA damage in radiation and chemical carcinogenesis. In Environmental Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis, T. Sugimura, S. Kondo, and H. Takebe, eds. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 71–80.Google Scholar