Indices for Identification of Genotoxic and Epigenetic Carcinogens in Cell Culture

  • Gary M. Williams
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 29)


The induction of cancer by chemicals is a process consisting of a series of steps, which comprise two distinct sequences: the conversion of the normal cell to a neoplastic cell, and the progression of the neoplastic cell to formation of a tumor. Chemicals are involved in this process at several points in both of the sequences, primarily as “initiating” agents which produce neoplastic conversion, most likely as a result of reaction with DNA, and as promoting or enhancing agents which facilitate the development of altered cells into tumors. Effects by chemicals in both sequences can lead to an increase of cancer in animals and, consequently, chemicals can be carcinogenic by a variety of mechanisms.


Organochlorine Pesticide Tumor Promoter Sister Chromatid Exchange Chemical Carcinogen Genotoxic Carcinogen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary M. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Naylor Dana Institute for Disease Prevention American Health FoundationValhallaUSA

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