Health Impact of Toxic Wastes: Estimation of Risk
Toxic waste disposal has been very haphazard in the past. Only recently has it been recognized that certain chemicals may persist for many years, that they may migrate, and that drums containing them eventually corrode. Toxic wastes have been and are still being handled in a number of ways. They may be temporarily or permanently stored in controlled and uncontrolled landfills, salt mines, in warehouses, mixed into salvage oil, dumped at night on private property or along road sides, dumped into rivers, lakes and the ocean, treated in special lagoons or ponds with chemicals, bacteria and/or ultraviolet light to degrade them (Johnson, 1977; Dunphy and Hall, 1978). They may be discharged into sewage treatment plants or they may be retained by the toxic waste generator on his property, in which case they are either burned or stored in drums above or below the ground.
KeywordsWaste Disposal Toxic Waste Chemical Waste Threshold Limit Value Waste Treatment Plant
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents in the workroom environment with intended changes for 1980. Publication Office, ACGIH, P. O. Box 1937, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201.Google Scholar
- 2.Beutler, E., Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. In the metabolic basis of inherited disease, 3rd ed., J. B Stanbury, J. B. Wyngaarden, and D. S. Frederiskson, eds., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 1358–1388 (1972).Google Scholar
- 4.Cannon, S. B., Veazey, J. M., Jackson, R. S., Burse, V. W., Hayes, C., Straub, W. E., Landrigan, P. J., and Liddle, J. A., Epidemic kepone poisoning in chemical workers, Am. J. Epid., 107, 529–537 (1978).Google Scholar
- 6.Christensen, H. E., and Fairchild, E. J., Suspected carcinogens, 2nd ed., U.S. Dept. HEW, NIOSH, Government Printing Office, Supt. of Doc., Washington, D.C. 20402.Google Scholar
- 8.Code of Federal Regulations 21, part 192, 365–381, April 1, 1980. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Also available NTIS UB/C/220.Google Scholar
- 9.Compliance Policy Guides Manual. FDA Executive Director for Regional Operations, Division of Field Regulatory Guidance, Field Compliance Branch, December 3, 1973.Google Scholar
- 10.Crump, K. S., and Masterman, M. D., Review and evaluation of methods of determining risks from chronic low level carcinogenic insult in Environmental contaminants in food, Congress of the United States, 1979, Library Congr. Cat. No. 79-600207. Sup. of Doc., U.S. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Stock No. 052-00200724-0.Google Scholar
- 11.Dunphy, J. H., and Hall, A., Waste disposal: its a dirty business. Chemical Week, pp. 25–29, March 1, 1978.Google Scholar
- 12.Dunphy, J. H., and Hall, A., Waste disposal, settling on safer solution for chemicals. Chemical Week, pp. 28–32, March 8, 1978.Google Scholar
- 13.Guess, H., Crump, K., and Peto, R., Uncertainty estimates for low-dose-rate extrapolations of animal carcinogenicity data. Cancer Research 37:3475–3483 (1977).Google Scholar
- 16.Kreiss, K., Zack, M., Kimbrough, R. D., et al., Cross-sectional study of a community with exceptional exposure to DDT. JAMA, in press.Google Scholar
- 18.Wolff, A. H., and Oehme, F. W., Carcinogenic chemicals in food as an environmental issue. JAVMA, 164:623–629 (1974).Google Scholar