Neuropsychology of Alcoholism

Etiology, Phenomenology, Process, and Outcome
  • Ralph E. Tarter
  • Christopher M. Ryan
Part of the Recent Developments in Alcoholism book series (RDIA, volume 1)


A number of empirical and conceptual issues are addressed in an effort to explain the diversity of neuropsychological deficits demonstrated by chronic alcoholics. In addition to consumption characteristics and the neurotoxic effects of ethanol, evidence is marshalled to implicate nutritional deficiency, hepatic disease, congeners in the beverage, and cognitive regression as also being contributory to the manifest impairments. Moreover, predrinking disturbances are considered that may be responsible in part for the neuropsychological deficits observed in chronic alcoholics.

Our understanding of the neuropsychological concomitants of alcoholism can be increased by the adoption of a life-span approach to alcohol effects, localizing the system or region of maximal cerebral damage and relating these findings to treatment intervention. The extent to which adaptive capacity in alcoholics and social drinkers is predicted by neuropsychological test performance is of utmost importance, especially since nonalcoholic social drinkers also demonstrate a number of impairments.


Chronic Alcoholic Brain Damage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Neuropsychological Deficit Social Drinker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Plumeau F, Machover S, Puzzo F: Wechsler-Bellevue performance of remitted and unremitted alcoholics and their normal controls. J Consult Psychol 24: 240–242, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fitzhugh LC, Fitzhugh KB, Reitan RM: Adapative abilities and intellectual functioning of hospitalized alcoholics: Further considerations. Q J Stud Alcohol 26: 402–411, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goldstein G, Shelly C: Field dependence and cognitive, perceptual and motor skills in alcoholics: A factor-analytic study. Q J Stud Alcohol 32: 29–40, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cala LA, Jones B, Mastaglia FL, et al: Brain atrophy and intellectual impairment in heavy drinkers—a clinical, psychometric, and computerized tomography study. Aust NZ J Med 8: 147–153, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Reitan RM, Davison LA (eds): Clinical Neuropsychology: Current Status and Applications. Washington, VH Winston & Sons, 1974.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Golden CJ, Hammeke TA, Purisch AD: The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Løberg T: Alcohol misuse and neuropsychological deficits in men. J Stud Alcohol 41: 119–129, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wilkinson DA, Carlen PL: Neuropsychological and neurological assessment of alcoholism: Discrimination between groups of alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 41: 129–139, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blusewicz MJ, Dustman RE, Schenkenberg T, et al: Neuropsychological correlates of chronic alcoholism and aging. J New Ment Dis 165: 348–355, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miller W, Orr J: Nature and sequence of neuropsychological deficits in alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 41: 325–337, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chmielewski C, Golden CJ: Alcoholism and brain damage: An investigation using the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Int J Neurosci 10: 99–105, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rada RT, Porch BE, Dillingham C, et al: Alcoholism and language function. Alcoholism 1: 199–205, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goldstein G, Chotlos JW: Dependency and brain damage in alcoholics. Percept Mot Skills 21: 135–150, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Claeson LE, Carlsson C: Cerebral dysfunction in alcoholics: A psychometric investigation. Q] Stud Alcohol 31: 317–323, 1970.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tarter RE: A Neuropsychological Examination of Cognition and Perceptual Capacities in Chronic Alcoholics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oklahoma, Norman, 1971.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jones B, Parsons OA: Impaired abstracting ability in chronic alcoholics. Arch Gen Psychiatry 24: 71–75, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tarter RE: An analysis of cognitive deficits in chronic alcoholics. J Nerv Ment Dis 157: 138–147, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jones BM: Verbal and spatial intelligence in short- and long-term alcoholics. J Nerv Ment Dis 153: 292–297, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klisz D, Parsons OA: Hypothesis testing in younger and older alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 38: 1718–1729, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oscar-Berman M: Hypothesis-testing and focussing behavior during concept-formation by amnesic Korsakoff patients. Neuropsychologia 11: 191–198, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tarter R, Parsons O: Conceptual shifting in chronic alcoholics. J Abnorm Psychol 77:71–71, 1971.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pishkin V, Fishkin S, Stahl M: Concept learning in chronic alcoholics: Psychophysiological and set functions. J Clin Psychol 28: 328–334, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tarter R: Psychological deficit in chronic alcoholics: A review, lnt J Addict 10: 327–368, 1975.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ornstein P: Cognitive deficits in chronic alcoholics. Psychol Rep 40: 719–724, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hatcher EM, Jones MK, Jones BM: Cognitive deficits in alcoholic women. Alcoholism 1:371–377, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bertera JH, Parsons OA: Impaired visual search in alcoholics. Alcoholism 2: 9–14, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tarter RE, Jones BM: Absence of intellectual deterioration in chronic alcoholics. J Clin Psychol 27: 453–454, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vivian T, Goldstein G, Shelly C: Reaction time and motor speed in chronic alcoholics. Percept Mot Skills 36: 136–138, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kish G, Cheney T: Impaired abilities in alcoholism measured by the General Aptitude Test Battery. Q J Stud Alcohol 30: 384–388, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Glosser G, Butters N, Kaplan E: Visuoperceptual processes in brain-damaged patients on the digit-symbol substitution test, lnt] Neurosci 7: 59–66, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ryan C, Butters N, Montgomery K, et al: Memory deficits in chronic alcoholics: Continuities between the “intact” alcoholic and the alcoholic Korsakoff patient, in Begleiter, H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, p 701.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Donovan DM, Queisser HR, O’Leary MR: Group Embedded Figures Test performance as a predictor of cognitive impairment among alcoholics. Int] Addict 11: 725–739, 1976.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kapur N, Butters N: An analysis of visuoperceptual deficits in alcoholic Korsakoffs and long-term alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 38: 2025–2035, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    O’Leary MR, Radford LM, Chaney EF, et al: Assessment of cognitive recovery in alcoholics by use of the Trailmaking Test. J Clin Psychol 33: 579–582, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ryan C, Butters N: Further evidence for a continuum-of-impairment encompassing male alcoholic Korsakoff patients and chronic alcoholics. Alcoholism 4: 190–198, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jonsson C-O, Cronholm B, Izikowitz S: Intellectual changes in alcoholics: Psychometric studies on mental sequels of prolonged intensive abuse of alcohol. Am] Stud Alcohol 23: 221–242, 1962.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cutting J: Specific psychological deficits in alcoholism. Br J Psychiatry 133: 119–122, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mohs RC, Tinklenberg JR, Roth WT, et al: Slowing of short-term memory scanning in alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 39: 1908–1915, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sternberg S: High-speed scanning in human memory. Science 153: 652–654, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ryan C, Butters N: Learning and memory impairments in young and old alcoholics: Evidence for the premature-aging hypothesis. Alcoholism 4: 288–293, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Peterson LR, Peterson MJ: Short-term retention of individual verbal items. J Exp Psychol 58: 193–198, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ryan C: Learning and memory deficits in alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 41: 437–447, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Horvath TB: Clinical spectrum and epidemiological features of alcoholic dementia, in Rankin JG (ed): Alcohol, Drugs and Brain Damage. Toronto, Addiction Research Foundation, 1975, p 1.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goldstein G, Shelly C: Neuropsychological investigation of brain lesion localization in alcoholics, in Begleiter H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, p 731.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Eckardt MJ, Parker ES, Noble EB, et al: Relationship between neuropsychological performance and alcohol consumption in alcoholics. Biol Psychiatry 13: 551–565, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gilberstadt S, Gilberstadt H, Zieve L, et al: Psychomotor performance defects in cirrhotic patients without overt encephalopathy. Arch Intern Med 140: 519–521, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smith HH, Smith LS: WAIS functioning of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic alcoholics. J Clin Psychol 33: 309–313, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Guthrie A: The first year after treatment: Factors affecting time course of reversibility of memory and learning deficits in alcoholism, in Begleiter H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, p 757.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Blass JP, Gibson GE: Abnormality of a thiamine-reqiiiring enzyme in patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. N Engl J Med 297: 1367–1370, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Blass JP, Gibson, GE: Genetic factors in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Alcoholism 3:126–134, 1979.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Parker ES, Noble EP: Alcohol consumption and cognitive functioning in social drinkers. J Stud Alcohol 38: 1224–1232, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Parker ES, Noble EB: Alcohol and the aging process in social drinkers. J Stud Alcohol 41: 170–178, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Parker ES, Birnbaum IM, Boyd RA, et al: Neuropsychological decrements as a function of alcohol intake in male students. Alcoholism 4: 330–334, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brewer C, Perrett L: Brain damage due to alcohol consumption: An air-encephalographic, psychometric, and electroencephalographic study. Br] Addict 66: 170–182, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Carlsson C, Claeson L-E, Karlsson K-I, et al: Clinical, psychometric and radiological signs of brain damage in chronic alcoholism. Acta Neurol Scand 60: 85–92, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bergman H, Borg S, Hindmarsh T, et al: Computed tomography of the brain and neuropsychological assessment of male alcoholic patients, in Richter D (ed): Addiction and Brain Damage. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1980, p 201.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chapman LF, Wolff HG: The cerebral hemispheres and the highest integrative functions in man. Arch Neurol 1: 357–423, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hill SY, Mikhael MA: Computerized transaxial tomographic and neuropsychological evaluations in chronic alcoholics and heroin abusers. Am J Psychiatry 136: 598–602, 1979.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lee K, Miller L, Hardt F, et al: Alcohol-induced brain damage and liver damage in young males. Lancet 2: 759–761, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jones B, Parsons OA: Specific vs generalized deficits of abstracting ability in chronic alcoholics. Arch Gen Psychiatry 26: 380–384, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Miglioli M, Buchtel HA, Campanini T, et al: Cerebral hemispheric lateralization of cognitive deficits due to alcoholism. J Nerv Ment Dis 167: 212–217, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wilkinson DA, Carlen PL: Chronic organic brain syndromes associated with alcoholism: Neuropsychological and other aspects, in Israel Y (ed): Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems, vol 6, 1980.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ryan C, Butters N: Cognitive deficits in alcoholics, in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): The Biology of Alcoholism, vol 7, 1983.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Parsons OA, Tarter R, Edelberg R: Altered motor control in chronic alcoholics. J Abnorm Psychol 72: 308–314, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tarter RE: Neuropsychological investigations of alcoholism, in Goldstein G, Neuringer C (eds): Empirical Studies of Alcoholism. Cambridge, Ballinger, 1975, p 231.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tarter RE: Brain damage in chronic alcoholics: A review of the psychological evidence, in Richter D (ed): Addiction and Brain Damage. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1980, p 267.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nauta W: Some efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex in the monkey, in Warren J, Akert K (eds): The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behavior. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964, p 397.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Luria AR: The Working Brain: An Introduction to Neuropsychology. London, Penguin, 1973.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Luria AR: Higher Cortical Functions in Man. Haigh В (trans). New York, Basic Books, 1966.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Teuber H-L, Battersby WS, Bender MS: Performance of complex visual tasks after cerebral lesions. J Nero Ment Dis 114: 413–429, 1951.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Milner B: Some effects of frontal lobectomy in man, in Warren J, Akert K (eds): The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behavior. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964, p 313.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hecaen H: Mental symptoms associated with tumors of the frontal lobe, in Warren J, Akert K (eds): The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behavior. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964, p 335.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Courville CB: Effects of Alcohol on the Nervous System of Man. Los Angeles, San Lucas Press, 1955.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Feuerlein W, Heyse H: Die Weite der 3. Hirnkammer bei Alkoholikern. Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 213: 78–85, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Willanger R: Intellectual Impairment in Diffuse Cerebral Lesions. Copenhagen, Munksgaard, 1970.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nielsen R, Petersen O, Thygesen P, et al: Encephalography cortical atrophy. Acta Radiol IDiagnl (Stockh) 4: 437–448, 1966.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Tumarkin B, Wilson JD, Snyder G: Cerebral atrophy due to alcoholism in young adults. US Armed Forces Med] 6: 67–74, 1955.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Freund G: Impairment of shock avoidance learning after long-term alcohol ingestion in mice. Science 168: 1599–1601, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Walker DW, Freund G: Impairment of shuttlebox avoidance learning following prolonged alcohol consumption in rats. Physiol Behav 7:773–778, 1971.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Freund G, Walker DW: Impairment of avoidance learning by prolonged ethanol consumption in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 179: 284–292, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Riley JN, Walker DW: Morphological alterations in hippocampus after long-term alcohol consumption in mice. Science 201: 646–648, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tabakoff B, Noble EP, Warren KR: Alcohol, nutrition and the brain, in Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ (eds): Nutrition and the Brain, vol 6. New York, Raven Press, 1979, p 159.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tewari S, Goldstein MA, Noble EP: Alterations in cell free brain protein systhesis following ethanol withdrawal in physically dependent rats. Brain Res 126: 509 - 518, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Noble EP, Tewari S: The effects of chronic ethanol ingestion on the protein synthesizing system of C57BL/6J mice, in Forsander O, Eriksson K (eds): Biological Aspects of Alcohol Consumption, vol 20. Helsinki, Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, 1972, p 275.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Elsass P, Lund Y, Ranek L: Encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. A neuropsychological study. Scand J Gastroenterol 13: 241–247, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rehnstrom S, Simert G, Hansson JA, et al: Chronic hepatic encephalopathy. A psychometrical study. Scand J Gastroenterol 12: 305 - 311, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rikkers L, Jenko P, Rudman D, et al: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy: Detection, prevalence, and relationship to nitrogen metabolism. Gastroenterology 75: 462–469, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sorrel MF, Baker H, Barak AJ, et al: Release by ethanol of vitamins into rat liver perfusate. Am J Clin Nutr 27: 743–745, 1974.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Leevy CM, Baker H, tenHove W, et al: B-complex vitamins in liver disease of the alcoholic. Am J Clin Nutr 16: 339–350, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hillman RW: Alcoholism and malnutrition, in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds), The Biology of Alcoholism, vol 3. New York, Plenum Press, 1974, p 513.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Baker H, Frank O, Zetterman RK, et al: Inability of chronic alcoholics with liver disease to use food as a source of folates, thiamine and vitamin B6. Am J Clin Nutr 28: 1377–1380, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tomasulo PA, Kater RMH, Iber FL: Impairment of thiamine absorption in alcoholism. Am J Clin Nutr 21: 1340–1344, 1968.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dreyfus PM: Disease of the nervous system in chronic alcoholics, in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): The Biology of Alcoholism, vol 3. New York, Plenum Press, 1974, p 265–290.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Dreyfus PM, Victor M: Effects of thiamine deficiency on the central nervous system. Am J Clin Nutr 9: 414–425, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Victor M, Adams RD, Collins GH: The Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. Philadelphia, FA Davis, 1971.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Butters N, Cermak LS: Alcoholic Korsakoff’s Syndrome. New York, Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Talland G: Deranged Memory. New York, Academic Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Campbell ACP, Biggart JH: Wernicke’s encephalopathy: Its alcoholic and non-alcoholic incidence. J Pathol Bacteriol 48: 245–262, 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Meyer A: The Wernicke syndrome, with special reference to manic syndromes associated with hypothalamic lesions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 7: 66–75, 1944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    De Wardener HE, Lennox B: Cerebral beriberi. Lancet 1: 11–17, 1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Witt E: Neurological Neuropathological, and Behavioral Effects of Thiamine Deficiency in the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, 1979.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Guthrie A, Elliott WA: The nature and reversibility of cerebral impairment in alcoholism: Treatment implications, J Stud Alcohol 41: 147–155.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Murphree HB, Price LM: Electroencephalographic effects of some alcoholic beverages, in Popham RE (ed): Alcohol and Alcoholism. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1970, p 57.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cavenar JO, Maltbie AA, Austin L: Depression simulating organic brain disease. Am J Psychiatry 136: 521–523, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kendrick DC: The Kendrick battery of tests: Theoretical assumptions and clinical uses. Br] Soc Clin Psychol 11: 373–386, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Keeler MH, Taylor CI, Miller WC: Are all recently detoxified alcoholics depressed? Am J Psychiatry 136: 586–588, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Parker ES, Alkana RL, Birnbaum IM, et al: Alcohol and the disruption of cognitive processes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 31: 824–828, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rosen LJ, Lee CI: Acute and chronic effects of alcohol use on organizational processes in memory. J Abnorm Psychol 85: 309–317, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hasher L, Zacks RT: Automatic and effortful processes in memory. J Exp Psychol [Gen] 108: 356–388, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Schuckit MA, Goodwin DA, Winokur G: A study of alcoholism in half siblings. Am J Psychiatry 128: 1132–1136, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Winokur G, Reich T, Rimmer J, et al: Alcoholism. III. Diagnosis and familial psychiatric illness in 259 alcoholic probands. Arch Gen Psychiatry 23: 104–111, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lipscomb TR, Carpenter JA, Nathan PE: Static ataxia: A predictor of alcoholism? Br J Addict 74: 289–294, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Goldstein G, Chotlos J, McCarthy R, et al: Recovery from gait instability in alcoholics. Q J Stud Alcohol 29: 38–43, 1968.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tarter RE, McBride H, Buonpane N, et al: Differentiation of alcoholics. Arch Gen Psychiatry 34: 761–768, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tarter RE: Minimal brain dysfunction as an etiological predisposition to alcoholism. Paper presented at the conference: Evaluation of the Alcoholic: Implications for Research Theory and Treatment. University of Connecticut Center for Drug and Alcohol Studies, 1979.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Blouin A, Bornstein R, Trites R: Teenage alcohol use among hyperactive children: A five year follow-up study. J Pediatr Psychol 3: 188–194, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    McCord W, McCord J, Gudeman J: Orgins of Alcoholism. Stanford, Calif, Stanford University Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wood DR, Reimherr FW, Wender PH, et al: Diagnosis and treatment of minimal brain dysfunction in adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33: 1453–1460, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mendelson W, Johnson H, Stewart MA: Hyperactive children as teenagers: A follow-up study. J Nerv Ment Dis 153: 273–279, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Goodwin DW, Schulsinger F, Hermansen L, et al: Alcoholism and the hyperactive child syndrome. J Nerv Ment Dis 160: 349–353, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Cantwell, DP: Psychiatric illness in the families of hyperactive children. Arch Gen Psychiatry 27: 414–417, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Morrison JR, Stewart MA: A family study of the hyperactive child syndrome. Biol Psychiatry 3: 189–195, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Streissguth AP, Landesmann-Dwyer S, Martin JC, et al: Teratogenic effects of alcohol in humans and laboratory animals. Science 209: 353–361, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Landesman-Dwyer S, Keller LS, Streissguth AP: Naturalistic observations of newborns: Effects of maternal alcohol intake. Alcoholism 2: 171–177, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Clarren SK, Smith DW: The fetal alcohol syndrome: A review of the world literature. N Engl J Med 298: 1063–1067, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Streissguth AP, Barr HM, Martin DC, et al: Effects of maternal alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine use during pregnancy on infant mental and motor development at eight months. Alcoholism 4: 152–164, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Carlen PL, Wortzman G, Holgate RC, et al: Reversible cerebral atrophy in recently abstinent chronic alcoholics measured by computed tomography scans. Science 200: 1076–1078, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Long JA, McLachlan FC: Abstract reasoning and perceptual-motor efficiency in alcoholics. Q J Stud Alcohol 35: 1220–1229, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Berglund M, Leijonquist H, Horlen M: Prognostic significance and reversibility of cerebral dysfunction in alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 38: 1761–1770, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ryan C, DiDario B, Butters N, et al: The relationship between abstinence and recovery of function in male alcoholics. J Clin Neuropsychol 2: 125–134, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Page RC, Linden JD: “Reversible” organic brain syndrome in alcoholics. Q J Stud Alcohol 35: 98–107, 1974.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kissin B, Platz A, Su W: Social and psychological factors in the treatment of chronic alcoholism. J Psychiatr Res 8: 13–27, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Goldstein G: Brain damage as a factor in treatment outcome of chronic alcoholic patients. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association meeting, Miami Beach, Florida, 1970.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph E. Tarter
    • 1
  • Christopher M. Ryan
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations