Advertisement

Dioxins and Related Compounds as Issues of International Concern

  • E. Somers
  • V. M. Douglas
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 26)

Abstract

In recent years, there has been ever-increasing concern for the real and potential hazards posed to man and the environment by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) a class of organochlorine contaminants comprising 75 congeners, the most notorious of which is 2,3,7,8-TCDD. International attention on the dioxins was focused in 1973 by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conference (Huff and Wassom, 1973). Intensive investigations have followed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the dioxins that influence their distribution and persistence in the environment include:
  1. 1.

    Relatively insoluble in water, but soluble in lipids

     
  2. 2.

    Easily absorbed onto soil

     
  3. 3.

    Environmentally stable

     
  4. 4.

    Metabolized slowly

     

Keywords

Great Lake International Joint Commission Dioxin Emission Conventional Combustion Organochlorine Contaminant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agriculture Canada. Trade Memorandum T-1-223, Food Products and Inspection Branch, Pesticide Section. Aug. 28, 1981.Google Scholar
  2. Bartleson, F.D., Jr., Harrison, D.D., Morgan, J.B. Field Studies of Wildlife Exposed to TCDD Contaminated Soils Air Force Armament Lab. Eglin A.F. Base, Florida, 1975.Google Scholar
  3. Buser, H.R., Bosshardt, H., and Rappe, C. Identification of poly- chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin isomers found in flyash. Chemosphere, 7: 165–172, 1978.Google Scholar
  4. Chemical Regulation Reporter. Hooker Chemicals installing toxic controls at Monaque, Michigan Site, pp. 457–458, June 22, 1979.Google Scholar
  5. Chemical Week. Hooker Dumpsites may pose dioxin threat. 124(1):16, Jan. 3, 1979.Google Scholar
  6. Chemical Week. More Agent Orange Suits Filed in Chicago; Still Others Will Follow. 124(9), Feb. 28, 1979.Google Scholar
  7. Crummett, W.B., Bumb, R.R., Lamparski, L.L., Mahle, N.H., Nestrick, T.J. and Whiting, L.W. Environmental chlorinated dioxins from combustion - The trace chemistries of fire hypothesis In Proc. Workshop. Impact of Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds on the Environment. Rome. Pergamon Press. 1980.Google Scholar
  8. Dow Chemical Co. The trace chemistries of fire - a source of and routes for entry of chlorinated dioxins into the Environment. The Chlorinated Dioxin Task Force. Dow Chemicals Co. Midland, Michigan. 46 pp. plus appendices, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. Esposito, M.P., Tiernan, T.O., and Dryden, F.E. Dioxins. Contract Nos. 68-03-2577, 68-03-2659, 68-03-2579. Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268. 351 pp. EPA 600/2-80-197, Nov. 1980.Google Scholar
  10. Fadiman, A. A Poisoned Town. Life Magazine, pp. 43-46, 49. Sept., 1979.Google Scholar
  11. Fishbein, L . Trace organic contaminants: 1. Chlorinated dioxins and dibenzo-furans.Int. J. Ecol. Environ. Sci2(2–3): 69–82, 1977Google Scholar
  12. Grant, D. Personal communication. Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Canada. 1981.Google Scholar
  13. Hamilton, L.D. Health effects of electricity generation Conf. on Health Effects of Energy Production, Chalk River, Ontario. Sept., 1979.Google Scholar
  14. Harris, J.C., Anderson, R.C., Goodwin, B.E. and Rechsteiner. Dioxin emissions from combustion sources: A review of the current state of knowledge. A.D. Little Inc. Rpt. to Res. Committee on Indus. Municipal Wastes. Am. Soc. Mechan. Eng. New York. 1981.Google Scholar
  15. Health and Welfare Canada. Dioxin guideline announced for commercial fish. News release. July 17, 1981.Google Scholar
  16. Huff, J.E. and Wassom, J.S. Chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.Environ. Health Perspect5:283–312, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hutzinger, 0., Choudhry, G.G. and Olie, K. Mechanisms in the thermal formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds. In Proc. Workshop. Impact of chlorinated dioxins and related compounds in the environment. Rome, 1980.Google Scholar
  18. International Joint Commission Great Lakes Science Advisory Board. Report of the aquatic ecosystem objectives committee, pp. 26-40, Nov., 1980.Google Scholar
  19. Karasek, F.W. Dioxins from garbage: previously unknown source of toxic compounds is being uncovered using advanced analytical instrumentation. Canadian Research. 1316:50, 52, 54, 56. 1980.Google Scholar
  20. Miller, R.A., Norris, L.A., and Hawkes, C.L. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8- TCDD in Aquatic Organisms. Environ. Health Perspect. 5:177–187, Sept., 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. National Research Council of Canada. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins: Criteria for their effects on Man and his environment. Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality. Draft publication NRCC No. 18574, 1981.Google Scholar
  22. New York State Department of Health. News Release, April 24, 1979Google Scholar
  23. Norstrom, R. Personal communication. Canada Wildlife Service. Environment Canada, 1981.Google Scholar
  24. Norstrom, R.J., McKinnon, A.E., deFreitas, A.S.W. A bioenergetics - based model for pollutant accumulation by fish. Simulation of PCB and Methylmercury residue levels in Ottawa River Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)J. Fish. Res. Board Can 33:248–267, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ogilvie, D. Dioxin Found in the Great Lakes Basin. Ambio 10 (1): 38 - 39, 1981.Google Scholar
  26. Olie, K., Vermeulen, P.L., and Hutzinger, 0. Chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorodibenzofurans are trace components of flyash and flue gas of some municipal incinerators in the Netherlands. Chemosphere 6: 455 - 459, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Poland, A. and Glover, E. Studies on the mechanism of toxicity of the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.Environ. Health Persp, 5:245–251, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Prospero, J.M . Dust in the Caribbean atmosphere traced to an African dust storm.Earth Planet Sci. Lett 9:287–293, 1970.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Richards, B. Arkansas Site May Hold Clue. The Washington Post, July 25, 1979.Google Scholar
  30. Rodhe, H., Persson, C., Akesson, 0. An investigation into regional transport of soot and sulfate aerosols. Atmospheric Env, 6: 675 - 693, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shih, C., Ackerman, D., Scinto, L. and Johnson, B. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the combustion of fossil fuels, wood, and coal refuse U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contract 68-02- 3138. Draft, Dec., 1980.Google Scholar
  32. Tiernan, T.O. Analyses of Industrial Samples for tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDDs) Final Report U.S. EPA Contract No. 68-03-2830 and Order Nos. 9T-1501-NTEX and OT-0267-NAEX. April 1, 1980.Google Scholar
  33. U.S. EPA. Shih, C., Ackerman, D., Scinto, L., Moon, E., Fishman, E. POM Emissions from stationary conventional combustion processes with emphasis on polychlorinated compounds of dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) biphenyl (PCBs) dibenzofurans (PCDFs), OCEA issue paper. Prepared by TRW Inc. for U.S. EPA-IERL. 118 pp., Jan., 1980.Google Scholar
  34. World Health Organization. Environmental Health Criteria No. 9. DDT and its derivatives Published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization. Geneva. 194 pp., 1979.Google Scholar
  35. Wright State University. Report on Analyses of Love Canal Samples for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). New York State Department of Health Purchase Order No. 5975. Jan. 21 and April 20, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Somers
    • 1
  • V. M. Douglas
    • 1
  1. 1.Health Protection BranchDepartment of National Health and Welfare Health Protection BranchOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations