Environmental Toxicity of TCDD

  • E. E. Kenaga
  • L. A. Norris
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 26)


Data on toxicity of TCDD to organisms, concentrations in the organisms, and concentrations in the media in and on which the organisms live can help determine the importance of measured levels of TCDD in the environment as part of the hazard assessment process. These toxicity and environmental fate data relationships vary depending on the media (soil, food, water, air) in which TCDD occurs. These variations are indicated by differences among bioconcentration factors, and the no-effect concentrations of TCDD for organisms in different media. Such data are summarized in this report.


None None Bioconcentration Factor Environmental Toxicity Dietary Feeding Mosquito Fish 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beatty, P.W.; Holscher, M.A.; Neal, R.A. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Larval and Adult Forms of Rana catesbeiana. Bull Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 16: 578–82, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bollen, W.B.; Norris, L.A. Influence of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro- dibenzo-p-dioxin on Respiration in a Forest Floor and Soil. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 22:648–652, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bovey, R.W.; Young, A.L. The Science of 2,4,5-T and Associated Phenoxy Herbicides. Environmental Sciences and Technology Monograph Series. John & Wiles Sons. New York 462 p. 1980.Google Scholar
  4. Cockerham, L.G.; Young, A.L.; Thalken, C.E. Histopathological and Ultrastructural Studies of Liver Tissue from TCDD- Exposed Beach Mice Peromyscus polionotus. Frank J. Seiler Research Laboratory, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado. Technical Report FJSRL-TR-80–0008. 61 p. 1980.Google Scholar
  5. The Dow Chemical Company. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Approved Label for ESTERON 2,4,5 Herbicide for the Control of Trees, Brush, and Broadleaf Weeds. (Contains propylene glycol butyl ether esters of 2,4,5-T). Registration 86–1064. January 1980.Google Scholar
  6. Fanelli, R.; Castelli, M.G.; Martelli, G.P; Noseda, A.; Garattini, S. Presence of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in wildlife Living Near Seveso, Italy: A Preliminary Study. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 24: 460–462, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hawkes, C.L.; Norris, L.A. Chronic Oral Toxicity of 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to Rainbow Trout. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 106(6): 641–645, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Helder, T. Effects of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxon (TCDD) on Early Life Stages of the Pike (Esox lucius L.). The Science of the Total Environment 14:255–264, 1980.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Helder, T. Effects of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). Toxicology 19: 101–112, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hiltibran, R.C. Effects of Some Herbicides on Fertilized Fish Eggs and Fry. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 96 (4): 414–416, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoerger, F.D; Kenaga, E.E. Pesticide Residues on Plants: Correlation of Representative Data as a Basis for Estimation of their Magnitude in the Environment. Environ. Qual. Safety 1:9–28, 1972.Google Scholar
  12. Homberger, E.; Reggiani, G.; Sambeth, J.; Wipf, H.K. The Seveso Accident: Its Nature, Extent and Consequences. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 22:327–370, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Isensee, A.R. Bioaccumulation of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- para-dioxin. In: Ramel, C. (ed.). Chlorinated Phenoxy Acids and Their Dioxins. Ecological Bulletin (Stockholm) 27:255–262, 1978.Google Scholar
  14. Isensee, A.R.; Jones, G.E. Distribution of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro- dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Aquatic Model Ecosystem. Environ. Sci. Technol. 9(7):668–672, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kearney, P.C., Woolson, E.A., Isensee, A.R., Helling, C.S. Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin in the Environment: Source, Fate, and Decontamination. Environ. Health Perspect. 5: 273–277, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kenaga, E.E. The Evaluation of the Safety of 2,4,5-T to Birds in Areas Treated for Vegetation Control. Residue Rev. 59: 119, 1975.Google Scholar
  17. Kenaga, E.E. Correlation of Bioconcentration Factors of Chemicals in Aquatic and terrestrial Organisms With Their Physical and Chemical Properties. Environ. Sci. Technol, 14: 553–556, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kenaga, E.E.; Goring, C.A.I. Relationship Between Water Solubility, Soil Sorption, Octanol-Water Partitioning, and Concentration of Chemicals in Biota. American Society for Testing and Materials, Special Technical Publication 707. pp. 78–115, 1980.Google Scholar
  19. Kociba, R.J.; Keyes, D.G.,; Beyer, J.E.; Carreon, R.M.; Wade, C.E.; Dittenber, D.A.; Kalnins, R.P.; Frauson, L.E.; Park, C.N.; Barnard, S.D.; Hummel, R.A.; Humiston, C.G. Results of a Two-year Chronic Toxicity and Oncogenicity Study of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 46: 279–303, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leo, A.; Hansch, C.; Elkins, D. Partition Coefficients and Their Uses. Chem. Rev. 71(6):525–6l6, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Matsumura, F.; Benezet, H.J. Studies on the Bioaccumulation and Microbial Degradation of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin. Environ. Health Perspect. 5:253–258, 1973.Google Scholar
  22. Miller, R.A.; Norris, L.A.; Loper, B.R. The Response of Coho Salmon and Guppies to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Water. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 108:401–407, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matsumura,F.;Benezet, H.J. Studies on the Bioaccumulation and Microbial Degradation of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin. Environ. Health Perspect. 5:253–258, 1973.Google Scholar
  24. Murray, F.J.; Smith, F.A.; Nitschke, K.D.; Humiston, C.G.; Kociba, R.J.; Schwetz, B.A. Three-Generation Reproduction Study of Rats Given 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) in the Diet. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 50:241–252, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. National Research Council Canada. Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p- Dioxins: Criteria for Their Effects on Man and His Environment NRCC No. 18574, Ottawa, Canada. 251 p. 1981.Google Scholar
  26. Newton, M.; Snyder, S.P. Exposure of Forest Herbivores to 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Areas Sprayed with 2,4,5-T. Bull. Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 20: 743–750, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Norris, L.A. The Movement, Persistence, and Fate of the Phenoxy Herbicides and TCDD in the Forest. Residue Rev. 80: 65–135, 1981.Google Scholar
  28. Norris, L.A.; Miller, R.A. The Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro- debenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Guppies (Peocilia reticulatus Peters).. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol12(1):76–80, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Poiger, H.; Schlatter, C. Influence of Solvents and Adsorbents on Dermal and Intestinal Absorption of TCDD. Food Cosmet.Toxicol. 18: 477–481, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Roberts, R.E.; Rogers, B.J. The Effects of 2,4,5-T Brush Spray on Turkeys. Poult. Sci. 36:703 1957.Google Scholar
  31. Schwetz, B.A.; Norris, J.M.; Sparschu, G.L.; Rowe, Y.K.; Gehring, P.J.; Emerson, J.L.; Gerbig, C.G. Toxicology of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins. Environ. Health Perspect. 5:87–99, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tsushimoto, G.; Matsumura, F.; Sago, R. Fate of 2,3,7,8-Tetra- chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the Aquatic Environment. (Submitted to Env. Tox. Chem.). 1981.Google Scholar
  33. Tucker, R.K.; Hudson, R.H. 2,4,5-T Acute and Oral Toxicity to Mallard Ducks. Private Communication. November 15. Denver Wildlife Research Center, Colorado. U.S. Department of Interior. 1970.Google Scholar
  34. Veith, G.D.; Morris, R.T. A Rapid Method for Estimating Log P for Organic Chemicals. Water Res. 13: 43–47, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Whitehead, C.C.; Pettigrew, R.J. The Subacute Toxicity of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy- acetic Acid to Chicks. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.Google Scholar
  36. Yalkowsky, S.H.; Valvani, S.C. Solubilities and Partitioning 2. Relationships Between Aqueous Solubilities, Partition Coefficients, and Molecular Surface Areas of Rigid Aromatic Hydrocarbons. J. Chem. Eng. Data. 24(2): 127–129, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yockim, R.S., Isensee, A.R.; Jones, G.E. Distribution and Toxicity of TCDD and 2,4,5-T in an Aquatic Model Ecosystem. Chemosphere, 7(3)215–220, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Young, A.L.; Thalken, C.E.; Ward, W.E. Studies of the 299 Ecological Impact of Repetitive Aerial Applications of Herbicides on the Ecosystem of Test Area C-52A, Eglin AFB, Florida. Technical Report AFATL-TR-75–142. Available from the National Technical.Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, U.S.A. Publication AD-A032–773. 142. pp. 1975Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. E. Kenaga
    • 1
  • L. A. Norris
    • 2
  1. 1.Health and Environmental SciencesThe Dow Chemical CompanyMidlandUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Department of AgricultureForestry Sciences LaboratoryCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations