Advertisement

Residues of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Laurentian Great Lakes Fish

  • D. L. Stalling
  • L. M. Smith
  • J. D. Petty
  • J. W. Hogan
  • J. L. Johnson
  • C. Rappe
  • H. R. Buser
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 26)

Abstract

Fish from the Laurentian Great Lakes, and related rivers, and lakes were examined for residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Patterns of PCDF residues were more complex than those of PCDD residues, and were dominated by isomers having 2,3,7,8-chlorine substitution. PCDF residues were presented in samples from all of the Great Lakes and exceeded 100 pg/g in fish from Lakes Ontario and Huron, Michigan, and Saginaw Bay. A composite sample of fish from the Tittabawassee River (Michigan) contained 290 pg/g of PCDFs and 223 pg/g of PCDDs. Ratios of PCDFs to PCBs ranged from 1 to 20 X 106. Attempts to correlate PCDF residue levels in biological samples with PCDF concentrations in PCB preparations are complicated by an apparent preferential retention or accumulation of 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. The PCDF concentrations in a fish from Lake Siskiwit (on Isle Royale, Lake Superior) were the lowest detected in this study (15 pg/g). Fish from Lakes Huron and Ontario, the Tittabawasee River and Saginaw Bay contained the highest concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. In another river system, the Housatonic River, Massachusetts, the composition of PCDD and PCDF residues in sediments differed radically from residues in fish from this river.

Keywords

Great Lake Grass Carp Lake Trout LAURENTIAN Great Lake Isle Royale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albro, P. W., and Parker, C. E. Comparison of the compositions of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1016. J. Chromatogr., 169:161–166, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowes, G. W., Mulvihill, M. J. Simoneit, B. R. T., Burlingame, A. L. and Risebrough, R. W. Identification of chlorinated dibenzofurans in American polychlorinated biphenyls. Nature, 256 (5515) 305–307, 1975.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Brinkman, U. S.Th., and DeKok, A. Production, properties and usage. In: Kimbrough, R. D. ed. Halogenated Biphenyls, Terphenyls, Naphthalenes, Dibenzodioxins, and Related Products. Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier/North-Holiand Biomedical Press, 1980. pp. 1–40.Google Scholar
  4. Brumley, W. C., Roach, J. A. G., Sphon, J. A., Dreifuss, P. A., Andrzejewski, D., Neiman, R. A., and Firestone, D. J. Low resolution multiple ion detection gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric comparison of six extraction-cleanup methods for determining 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in fish. Agric. Food Chem., 29(5):1040–1046, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bumb, R. R., Crummett, W. B., Cutie, S. S., Gledhill, J. R., Hummel, R. H., Kagel, R. O., Lamparski, L. L., Luoma, E. V., Miller, D. L., Nestrick, T. J., Shadoff.L. A., Stehl, R. H., and Woods, J. S. Trace chemistries of fire: a source of chlorinated dioxins. Science, 210 (4468): 385–390, 1980.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Buser, H.R., and Bosshardt, H. P. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in commerical pentachlorophenols by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Assoc. Offic. Anal. Chem., 59(3):562–569, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. Buser, H. R., Bosshardt, H. P., and Rappe, C. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the pyrolysis of PCBs. Chemosphere, 7: 109–119, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buser, H. R., and Rappe, C. High resolution gas chromatography of the tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin isomers. Anal. Chem., 52:2257–2262, 1980Google Scholar
  9. Dougherty, R. C., Whitaker, M. J., Smith, L. M., Stalling, D. L., and Kuehl, D. W. Negative chemical ionization studies of human and food chain contamination with xenobiotic chemicals. Environ. Health Persp., 36:103–117, 1980.Google Scholar
  10. Helder, T. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on early life stages of the pike (Esox lucius L.). Sci. Total Environ., 14:255–264, 1980.Google Scholar
  11. Horn, E. G., Hetling, L. J., and Tofflemire, T. J. The problem of PCBs in the Hudson River system. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 320: 591–629, 1979.ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Huff, J. E., Moore, J. A., Saracci, R., and Thomatis, L. Long-term hazards of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Environ. Health Perspec. 36:221–240, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Isensee, A. R. and Jones, G. E. Distribution of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro p-dioxin (TCDD) in aquatic model ecosystems. Environ. Sci. Technol., 9(7):668–672, 1975.Google Scholar
  14. Isensee, A. R. Bioaccumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin. In: Ramel, C. ed. Chlorinated Phenoxy Acids and Their Dioxins. Ecol. Bull. No 27, Stockholm: Swedish Natural Science Research Council, 1978. pp. 255–262.Google Scholar
  15. McConnell, E. E. Acute and chronic toxicity, carcinogenesis, reproduction, teratogenesis and mutagenesis in animals. In: Kimbrough, R. D. ed. Halogenated Biphenyls, Terphenyls, Naphthalenes, Dibenzodioxins, and Related Products. Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, 1980. pp. 109–150.Google Scholar
  16. Moore, J. A., McConnell, E. E., Dalgard, D. W., and Harris, M. W. Comparative toxicity of three halogenated dibenzofurans in guinea pigs, mice and rhesus monkeys. Ann. NY Acad. Sei., 320: 151–163, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. Rappe, C., and Buser, H. R. Chemical properties and analytical methods. In: Kimbrough, R. D. ed. Halogenated Biphenyls, Terphenyls, Naphthalenes, Dibenzodioxins, and Related Products. Amsterdam, New York: Eisevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, pp. 47–76.Google Scholar
  18. Rappe, C., Buser, H. R., Kuroki, H., and Masuuda, Y. Identification of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) retained in patients with Yusho. Chemosphere, 8: 259–266, 1979a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rappe, C., Buser, H. R., and Bosshardt, H. P. Dioxins, dibenzofurans and other polyhalogenated aromatics: production, use, formation, and destruction. Ann. NY Acad. Sei., 320:1–18, 1979b.ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Rappe, C., Buser, H. R., Stalling, D. L., Smith, L. M., and Dougherty, R. C. Identification of polychlorinated dibenzofurans in environmental samples. Nature, 292: 524–526, 1981.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Rappe, C., Gara, A., and Buser, H. R. Identification of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in commerical chlorophenol formulations. Chemosphere, 7 (12): 981–991, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rappe, C., Marklund, S., Buser, H. R., and Bosshardt, H. P. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by burning chlorophenolics. Chemosphere, l(3): 269–281, 1978.Google Scholar
  23. Schmidt, C., Ludke, L. J., and Walsh, D. F. Organochlorine residues in fish. National Pesticide Monitoring Program, 1970–74. Pest monitoring J., 14 (4): 136–206, 1981.Google Scholar
  24. Stalling, D. L. March 31, 1981, “Preliminary Report, March 31, Chlorinated Dibenzofurans and Related Compounds in Soot Formed in a Transformer Fire in Binghamton, New York,” to State of New York, Department of Health, Office of Public Health, Albany, New York. Columbia, Missouri: Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1981a.Google Scholar
  25. Stalling, D. L. Personal communication: Report to Director, Fish and Wildlife Service on the occurrence of PCDFs in fish and sediments from Woods Pond, Massachusetts. Columbia, Missouri: Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1981b.Google Scholar
  26. Stalling, D. L., Petty, J. D., Smith, L. M. and Dubay, G. R. Contaminant enrichment modules, approaches to automation of sample extract cleanup. In: McKinney, J. D. ed. Environmental Health Chemistry, Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, 1981, pp. 177–193.Google Scholar
  27. Swain, W. R. Chlorinated organic residues in fish, water, and precipitation from the vicinity of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, J. Great Lakes Res., 4(3-4):398–407, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. L. Stalling
    • 1
  • L. M. Smith
    • 1
  • J. D. Petty
    • 1
  • J. W. Hogan
    • 1
  • J. L. Johnson
    • 1
  • C. Rappe
    • 2
  • H. R. Buser
    • 3
  1. 1.Columbia National Fisheries Research LaboratoryU.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.University of UmeaUmeaSweden
  3. 3.Swiss Federal Research StationWadenswilSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations