Advertisement

Deposition and Dissolution of Metals and Alloys. Part B: Mechanisms, Kinetics, Texture, and Morphology

  • Aleksandar R. Despić

Abstract

Electrochemical deposition and dissolution of metals obeys the following general stoichiometric equation:
$$ {\left[ {M\left( z \right){L_{p}}{S_{\alpha }}} \right]_{{soln}}} + {\left[ {ze} \right]_{{metal}}}\mathop{ \rightleftarrows }\limits_{{dissol}}^{{depos}} {\left[ M \right]_{{metal}}} + {\left[ {pL + \alpha S} \right]_{{soln}}} $$
(1)
where M is metal atom, L atoms or atomic groups or molecules of a ligand, S solvent molecules, and z is the number of electrons, e, exchanged to form a z-valent metal ion M(z) from the metal M.

Keywords

Electrode Potential Critical Current Density Anodic Dissolution Reversible Potential Standard Potential 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    W. M. Latimer, The Oxidation States of the Elements and Their Potentials in Aqueous Solutions, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1952).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Milazzo and S. Caroli, Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials, John Wiley xxamp; Sons, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. J. Antropov and V. P. Tchviruk, Elektrokhimiya 3, 1351 (1967).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. F. Kozin, Amalgamnaya Metallurgiya, Kiev (1970), p. 14.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. O’M. Bockris and A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electrochemistry, Vol. 2, Plenum Press, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cf., e.g., W. J. Lorenz, H. D. Hermann, N. Wuthrich, and F. Hilbert, J. Electrochem. Soc. 121, 1167 (1974).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. N. Kabanov, J. G. Kiseleva, and J. J. Astakhov, Elektrokhimiya 8, 955 (1972).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Genscher, D. M. Kolb, and J. K. Sass, Advances in Physics 27, No. 3 (1978), p. 437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. J. Hills, in Reference Electrodes, D. J. G. Ives and G. J. Janz, eds., Academic Press, New York (1961), Chap. 10, p. 433.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stability Constants of Metal-Ion Complexes, IUP AC Chemical Data Series, No. 22, Compl. by D. D. Perrin, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1979).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Pourbaix, Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1966).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. E. B. Randies, in Trans. Symp. Electrode Processes, Philadelphia, 1959, John Wiley xxamp; Sons, New York (1961), p. 209.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. C. Barker, R. L. Fairdoth, and A. W. Gardner, Nature 181, 247 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. R. Despic, V. D. Jovic, and M. V. Djorović, Isr. J. Chem. 18, 65 (1979).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. A. Roiter, V. A. Juza, and E. S. Poluyan, Acta Physicochim. USSR 10, 389 (1939); 10, 845 (1939).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. R. Despic and J. O’M. Bockris, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 389 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    B. E. Conway and J. O’M. Bockris, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 248, 394 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. J. Vetter, Z Naturforsch. 7a, 328 (1952); cf. also K. Vetter, Elektrochemische Kinetik, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1961).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. Lorenz, Z. Naturforsch. 9a, 716 (1954); Z. Elektrochem. 58, 912 (1954).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. O’M. Bockris, D. M. Drazić, and A. R. Despic, Electrochim. Acta 4, 325 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. P. Hoar and T. Hurlen, in Proceedings of the 8th CITCE Meeting,, Madrid, 1956, Butterworths, London (1958).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. O’M. Bockris and A. R. Despić, in Physical Chemistry, Vol. 9B, Eyring, Henderson, Jost, eds., Academic Press, New York (1970), Chap. 7, p. 639.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. E. Heussler, Z. Elektrochem. 62, 582 (1958).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Gerischer, Z. Elektrochem. 57, 605 (1953); Z. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig) A202, 302 (1953).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. R. Despic, Dj. Jovanovic, and T. Rakic, Electrochim. Acta 21, 63 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    I. Epelboin, M. Ksouri, and R. Wiart, J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 1206 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. O’M. Bockris and M. Enyo, Trans. Faraday Soc. 58, 1187 (1962).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. O’M. Bockris and H. Kita, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109, 928 (1962).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Brenner, Electrodeposition of Alloys. Principles and Practices, Academic Press, New York (1963).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. M. Gorbunova and Yu. M. Polukarov, Adv. Electrochem. Electrochem. Eng. 5, 249 (1967).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. L. Rama-Char and J. Vaid, Plating 48,871 (1961);Met. Finish. 59,44 (1961); Metalloberfl. 16, 70 (1962).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. N. Frumkin, Elektrokhimiya 1, 394 (1965); 1, 1288 (1963).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. E. Kimball, J. Chem. Phys. 8, 199 (1940).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Fleischmann and H. R. Thirsk, Adv. Electrochem. Electrochem. Eng. 3, 123 (1963).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. J. Hills and D. J. G. Ives, J. Chem. Soc. 311 (1951).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. O’M. Bockris, M. A. V. Devanathan, and A. K. N. Reddy, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 279, 327 (1964).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. W. Diggle, T. C. Downie, and C. W. Goulding, Chem. Rev. 69, 365 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    W. O. Kroenig and V. N. Uspenskaja, Korros. Metallschutz. 11, 10 (1935).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. G. Raicheff, A. Damjanovic, and J. O’M. Bockris, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 2198 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. A. V. Devanathan and M. J. Fernando, Electrochim. Acta 15, 1623 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    H. Genscher and H. Rickert, Z. Metallk. 46, 681 (1955).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    T. P. Hoar and J. M. West, Nature 181, 835 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cf. A. R. Despic, in MTP International Rev. of Sci. Physical Chem., Ser. 1, Vol. 5, Electrochem., Butterworths, London (1973), Chap. 3.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    R. G. Raicheff and A. R. Despic, C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 23, 535 (1970).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. Fischer, Elektrolytische Abscheidung und Elektrokrystallisation von Metallen, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1954).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    F. C. Frank and J. H. Van der Merve, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 198, 205 (1949); 198, 216 (1949); 200, 125 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    G. J. Finch, H. Wilman, and L. Yang, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 1, 144 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    N. A. Pangarov and St. Rashkow, Bull. Inst. Phys. Chem. 1, 79 (1960); C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 13, 555 (1960).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    R. M. Bozorth, Phys. Rev. 26, 390 (1925).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    K. M. Gorbunova, O. S. Popova, A. A. Sutyagina, and Y. M. Polukarov, Crystal growth, Rept. Congr. Crystal Growth, Moscow, Izd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, p. 58.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    N. A. Pangarov, Electrochim. Acta 9, 721 (1964).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    A. K. N. Reddy, J. Electroanal. Chem. 6, 141 (1963).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    R. Weil, Plating 57, 881 (1970).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. Ya. Popereka, Internal Stress in Electrolytically Deposited Metals, Indian Nat. Sci. Center, New Delhi (1970).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    R. Weil, Plating 57, 1231 (1970); 58, 50 (1971); 58, 137 (1971).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    V. A. Lamb and D. R. Valentine, Plating 52, 1289 (1965).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cf. A. R. Despic and K. I. Popov, in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, Vol. 7, B. E. Conway and J. O’M. Bockris, Plenum Press, New York (1972), Chap. 4, p. 199.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    S. J. Kritchmar, Elektrokhimiya 1, 609 (1965).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    N. Ibi and K. Schadeg, J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 54 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    G. Wranglen, Electrochim. Acta 2, 130 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. L. Barton and J. O’M. Bockris, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 268, 485 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    G. P. Ivantsov, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 58, 567 (1947).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    N. Ibl, Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Vol. 2, Interscience, New York (1962).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. Calusaru, Depunerea Electrolítica a purberilor metalica, Editura Stiutifica si enciclopédica, Bucharest (1976); A. Calusaru, Electrodeposition of Metal Powders, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1979).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    J. Atanasiu and A. Calusaru, Studii si cercetari de metalurgie 2, 337 (1957); CA 52, 1347oh (1958).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    V. V. Romanov, Zh. Priklad. Khim. 34, 2692 (1961).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    P. A. Jacquet, Bull. Soc. Chim. France 3,705 (1936); Trans. Electrochem. Soc. 69, 629 (1936).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    T. P. Hoar and G. P. Rothwell, Electrochim. Acta 9, 135 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    B. Pointu, Electrochim. Acta 14, 1207 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    T. V. Grechukhina and A. Sh. Valeyev, Elektrokhimiya 3, 1080 (1967).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. Edwards, J. Electrochem. Soc. 100, 189C (1953); 100, 223C (1953).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    S. J. Krichmar, Zh. Priklad. Khim. 37, 2244 (1964).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    U. R. Evans, Trans. Electrochem. Soc. 69, 652 (1936).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    G. S. Vozdvizhenskii, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 59, 1587 (1948).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    T. P. Hoar and J. A. S. Mowat, Nature 165, 64 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    K. Huber, Chimia 4, 54 (1950); see also Z. Elektrochem. 55, 165 (1951).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    E. Darmois and M. J. Epelboin, Bull. Soc. France Electriciens. 4, 344 (1954).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    W. C. Elmore, J. Appl. Phys. 10, 724 (1939); 11, 797 (1940).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    S. J. Krichmar, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 100, 481 (1955).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    C. Wagner, J. Electrochem. Soc. 101, 225 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    K. M. Gorbunova and A. J. Zhukova, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 23, 605 (1949).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    K. M. Gorbunova, Dankov. Zh. Fiz. Khim. 23, 616 (1949).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    P. A. Van der Meulen and H. V. Lindstrom, Trans. Electrochem. Soc. 103, 390 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    T. C. J. Ovenston, C. A. Parker, and A. E. Robinson, Trans. Electrochem. Soc. 104, 607 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    P. B. Price, D. A. Vermilyea, and M. B. Webb, Acta Metal. 6, 524 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    W. R. Meyer, Proc. Am. Electroplaters Soc. 23, 116 (1935); 23, 135 (1935); 24, 135 (1936).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    H. Schmellenmeier, Korrosion u. Metallsch. 21, 9 (1945).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    G. E. Gardam, J. Electrodep. Techn. Soc. 22, 155 (1947).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    E. B. Leffler and H. Leidheizer, Plating 44, 388 (1957).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    A. T. Vagramyan and Z. A. Solovyova, Methody Issledovaniya Electroosazhdeniya Metallov, Moscow (1960).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    O. Kardos and D. G. Foulke, in Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Vol. 2, Interscience, New York (1962).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    O. Kardos, Proc. “Surface 66 ”, Forster Verl., Zurich (1967), p. 62.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    S. J. Krichmar and A. Ya. Pronskaya, Zh. Fiz. Khim. 39, 741 (1965).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    S. A. Watson and J. Edwards, Trans. Inst. Met. Finish. 34, 167 (1957).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    R. C. V. Piatti, A. J. Arvia, and J. J. Podesta, Electrochim. Acta 14, 541 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    K. E. Heussler and L. Gaiser, Electrochim. Acta 13, 59 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    L. B. Harris, J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 1036 (1973).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    D. M. Drazic, L. Z. Vorkapic, Bull. Soc. Chim. Beograd 46, 595 (1981).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aleksandar R. Despić
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Technology and MetallurgyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeYugoslavia

Personalised recommendations