EMG Feedback in Neuromuscular Rehabilitation of Spasmodic Torticollis: Therapeutic Electromyography

  • Joseph Brudny
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 19)

Abstract

Researchers in behavioral medicine not unlike in neurosciences strive to achieve understanding of how the nervous system accepts, interprets, integrates and translates neuronal code signals into thoughts, ideas and concepts resulting in human behavior. While pursuing this goal, one takes it for granted that the complex and coordinated interaction of muscles mediating behavior is constant, repetitive and predictable. Lord Adrian (1935) observed that, “The chief function of the nervous system is to send messages to the muscles which will make the body more effective.”

Keywords

Fatigue Dopamine Osteoarthritis Diazepam Stein 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abse, D.W. Hysteria and related disorders. Bristol: Wright, 1966.Google Scholar
  2. Adrian, E.D. The mechanism of nervous action. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1935.Google Scholar
  3. Andersen, P. and Sears, T.A. The role of inhibition in the phasing of spontaneous thalamo-cortical discharge. Journal of Physiology (London), 1964, 173, 459–480.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, J.M Neuromuscular re-education of hémiplégie with aid of electromyograph. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1964, 45, 530–532.Google Scholar
  5. Ayd, F.J. A survey of drug induced exptrapyramidal reactions. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1961, 175, 1054–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bach-y-Rita, P. Brain mechanisms in sensory substitution. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  7. Baldessarini, R.J. and Tarsy, D. Mechanisms underlying tardive dyskinesia. IN M.D. Yahr (ed.) The basal ganglia. New York: Raven Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  8. Bird, B.L. and Cataldo, M.F. Experimental analysis of EMG feedback in treating dystonia. Annals of Neurology, 1978, 3, 310–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brudney, J. Biofeedback in chronic neurological cases. IN L. White and B. Tursky (eds.) Clinical biofeedback; Efficacy and mechanisms. New York: Gilford Press (in press).Google Scholar
  10. Brudny, J., Grynbaum, B.B. and Korein, J. Spasmodic torticollis: Treatment by feedback display of the EMG. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1974, 55, 403–408.Google Scholar
  11. Brudny, J., Korein, J., Grynbaum, B.B., Friedmann, L.W., Weinstein, S., Sachs-Frankel, G. and Belandres, P.V. EMG feedback therapy: Review of treatment of 114 patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1976, 57, 55–61.Google Scholar
  12. Brudny, J., Korein, J., Levidow, L., Grynbaum, B.B., Lieberman, A. and Friedmann, L.W. Sensory feedback therapy as a modality of treatment in central nervous system disorders of voluntary movement. Neurology, 1974, 24, 925–932.Google Scholar
  13. Brudny, J., Weisinger, M. and Silverman, G. Single system for displaying EMG activity designed for therapy, documentation of results and analysis of research. In R. Foulds and R, Lund (eds.), 1976 Conference on systems and devices for the disabled. Boston: Biomedical Engineering Center, 1976.Google Scholar
  14. Cleeland, C.S. Behavioral technics in modification of spasmodic torticollis. Neurology, 1973, 23, 1241–1247.Google Scholar
  15. Connolly, K. and Jones, B. Developmental study of afferent-reafferent integration. British Journal of Psychology, 1970, 61, 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Couch, J.R. Dystonia and tremor in spasmodic torticollis. IN R. Eldridge and S. Fahn (eds.) Advances in Neurology, New York: Raven Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  17. Dandy, W.E. The brain. New York: Harper and Ros, 1969.Google Scholar
  18. DeVries, H.A. Efficiency of electrical activity as a physiological measure of the functional state of muscle tissue. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 1968, 47, 10–22.Google Scholar
  19. Eldridge, R. The torsion dystonias: Literature Review and Genetic and Clinical Studies. Neurology, 1970, 20, 1–78.Google Scholar
  20. Eldridge, R. and Fahn, S. (eds.) Advances in Neurology. Dystonia. New York: Raven Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  21. Fahn, S. Biochemistry of the basal ganglia. In R. Eldridge and S. Fahn (eds.) Advances in Neurology. Dystonia. New York: Raven Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  22. Gans, B.M. and Noordergraaf, A. Voluntary skeletal muscles: A unifying theory on the relationship of their electrical and mechanical activities. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1975, 56, 194–199.Google Scholar
  23. Goldberger, M.R. Recovery of movement after CNS lesions in monkeys. In D.G. Stein, J.J. Rosen and N. Bputters (eds.) Plasticity and recovery of function in the central nervous system. New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  24. Granit, R. Constant errors in the execution and appreciation of movement. Brain, 1972, 95, 649–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Konorski, J. The integrative activity of the brain. Chicago: The University of CHicago Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  26. Korein, J. Iris pigmentation (melanin) in segmental dystonic syndromes including torticollis. Annals of Neurology, 1980, 8, 118.Google Scholar
  27. Korein, J. and Brudny, J. Integrated EMG feedback in the management of spasmodic torticollis and focal dystonia: A prospective study of 80 patients. In M.D. Yahr (ed.) The basal ganglia. New York: Raven Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  28. Korein, J., Brudny, J., Grynbaum, B.B., Sachs-Frankel, J., Weisinger, M. and Levidow, L. Sensory feedback therapy of spasmodic torticollis and dystonia: Results in treatment of 55 patients. In R. Eldridge and S. Fahn (eds.) Advances in Neurology. Dystonia. New York: Raven Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  29. Lai, S. Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of spasmodic torticollis: A Review. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 1979, 6, 427–435.Google Scholar
  30. Marinacci, A.A. and Horande, M. Electromyogram in neuromuscular re-education. Bulletin of teh Los Angeles Neurological Society, 1960, 25, 57–71.Google Scholar
  31. Marsden, C.D. The problem of adult-onset idiopathic torsion dystonia and other isolated dyskinesias in adult life. IN R. Eldrige & S. Fahn (eds.) Advances in Neurology Dystonia. New York: Raven Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  32. Martin, P.R. Spasmodic torticollis: Investigation and treatment using EMG feedback training. Behavior Therapy, in press.Google Scholar
  33. Melzack, R. and Wall, P.D. Pain mechanisms: New theory. Science, 1965, 150, 971–979.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Patterson, R.M. and Little, S.C. Spasmodic torticollis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 1943, 98, 571–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Penfield, W. and Roberts, L. Speech and brain mechanisms. New York: Atheneum, 1976.Google Scholar
  36. Podivinsky, F. Torticollis. IN P. J. Vinken and G.W. Bruyn (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 6: Diseases of the basal ganglia. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1968.Google Scholar
  37. Roberts, R. Some thoughts about GABA and the basal ganglia. In M.D. Yahr, (ed.) The basal ganglia. New York: Raven Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  38. Rubow, R.T. and Smith, K.V. Feedback parameters of electromyographic learning. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 1971, 50, 115–131.Google Scholar
  39. Scott Kelso, J.A. and Stelmach, G.E. Central and peripheral mechanisms in motor control In G.E. Stelmach (ed.) Motor control, issues and trends. New York: Academic Press, pp. 1–40, 1976.Google Scholar
  40. Sterman, M.D. EEG biofeedback in the treatment of epilepsy: An overview circa 1980. In L. White and B. Tursky (eds.) Clinical Biofeedback: Efficacy and mechanisms. New York: Guilford Press, in press.Google Scholar
  41. Sterman, M.B. and Bowersox, S.S. Sensorimotor EEG rhythmic activity: A functional gate mechanisms. Waking and sleeping, (in press).Google Scholar
  42. Surwit, R. Routable discussion. In L. White and B. Turksy (eds.) Clinical biofeedback: Efficacy and mechanisms. New York: Guilford Press (in press).Google Scholar
  43. Tralov, E. On the problem of pathology of spasmodic torticollis in man. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychaitry, 1970, 33, 457–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Trans, V.T., Snyder, S.H., Major, L.F. and Hawley, R.J. GABA receptors are increased in brains of alcoholics. Annals of Neurology, 1981, 9, 289–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yahr, M.D. The basal ganglia. New York: Raven Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  46. Zeman, W. Pathology of the torsion dystonias. Neurology, 1970, 20, 79–88.ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Brudny
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineNew York University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations