Thermodynamic Anomalies near the Liquid-Vapor Critical Point: A Review of Experiments
From the point of view of testing theoretical developments, liquid-vapor systems are representative of 3-dimensional systems with short-ranged forces and scalar order parameters. Liquid-vapor systems are attractive experimental systems because they can be studied in thermodynamic equilibrium (unlike liquid-liquid systems near consolute points). Liquid-vapor systems are free from frozen-in impurities and long-ranged strain fields that occur in crystals. A field conjugate to the order parameter is accessible in liquid-vapor systems, thus the scaling function for the free energy can be measured. These systems lack the symmetry of certain magnets and Ising models. This presents problems for simple-minded analyses of data. Nature does not tell us in advance which variables to use; however, this problem and its associated asymmetries are of interest in their own right. The primary macroscopic inhomogeneity in liquid-vapor systems is a density gradient over the height of a sample because of the earth’s gravitational field. This phenomenon is fully understood and has been exploited for the most delicate measurements of the equation of state.
KeywordsRenormalization Group2 Ising Model Critical Exponent Amplitude Ratio Scaling Function
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.C. Domb, in Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Vol. 3, C. Domb and M. S. Green, eds. (Academic Press, New York, 1974), Ch. 6; See also B. G. Nickel, this volume.Google Scholar
- 9.A. V. Voronel, V. G. Gorbunova, V. A. Smirnov, N. G. Shmakov, and V. V. Shchekochikhina, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 63, 964 (1972) [Eng. Transi. Sov. Phys. JETP 36, 505 (1973)]; M. A. Anisimov, A. T. Berestov, L. S. Veksler, B. A. Kovalchuk, and V. A. Smirnov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 742 (1974) [Eng. Transl. Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 359 (1974)].Google Scholar
- 19.L. Haar, J. Gallagher, and G. S. Kell in Water and Steam: Proc. 9th Intl. Conf. on Properties of Steam, J. Straub and. Scheffler, eds. (Pergamon Press, New York, 1980) p. 69.Google Scholar
- 22.A. V. Voronel in Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena, Vol. 5B, C. Domb and M. S. Green, eds. (Academic Press, New York, 1976) p. 343–94.Google Scholar
- 24.L. M. Artyukhovskaya, E. T. Shimanskaya, and Yu I. Shimanskii, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 63 2159 (1972) [Eng. Transi: Sov. Physics JETP 36, 1140 (1973).Google Scholar
- 25.E. H. W. Schmidt in Critical Phenomena, M. S. Green and J. V. Sengers, eds. National Bureau of Standards Miscellaneous Publication 273 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1966) p. 13.Google Scholar
- 38.F. W. Balfour, J. V. Sengers, M. R. Moldover, and J. M. H. Levelt Sengers in Proc. 7th Symposium on Thermophysical Properties, A. Cezairliyan, ed. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1977) p. 786.Google Scholar
- 39.D. J. Wallace in Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena, Vol. 6, C. Domb and M. S. Green, eds., (Academic Press, New York, 1976)Google Scholar
- 44.K. E. Bett, J. S. Rowlinson, and G. Saville, Thermodynamics for Chemical Engineers (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., USA, 1975) p. 371.Google Scholar