Thermodynamic Anomalies near the Liquid-Vapor Critical Point: A Review of Experiments
From the point of view of testing theoretical developments, liquid-vapor systems are representative of 3-dimensional systems with short-ranged forces and scalar order parameters. Liquid-vapor systems are attractive experimental systems because they can be studied in thermodynamic equilibrium (unlike liquid-liquid systems near consolute points). Liquid-vapor systems are free from frozen-in impurities and long-ranged strain fields that occur in crystals. A field conjugate to the order parameter is accessible in liquid-vapor systems, thus the scaling function for the free energy can be measured. These systems lack the symmetry of certain magnets and Ising models. This presents problems for simple-minded analyses of data. Nature does not tell us in advance which variables to use; however, this problem and its associated asymmetries are of interest in their own right. The primary macroscopic inhomogeneity in liquid-vapor systems is a density gradient over the height of a sample because of the earth’s gravitational field. This phenomenon is fully understood and has been exploited for the most delicate measurements of the equation of state.
KeywordsEntropy Nickel Convection Argon Steam
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