Anaerobic Flora of the Female Genital Tract

  • Gale B. Hill


Early investigators realized that knowledge of the endogenous flora of the lower genital tract was basic to an understanding of obstetric and gynecologic infectious diseases. They surmised that alterations of the normal flora state might produce local infections such as vaginitis, and later it became apparent that certain organisms in the flora could produce ascending infections involving the upper genital tract. Today the importance of the endogenous flora as a source of genital tract infections is widely recognized.


Anaerobic Bacterium Genital Tract Female Genital Tract Vaginal Flora Anaerobic Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Bartlett, J.G., A.B. Onderdonk, E. Drude, C. Goldstein, M. Anderka, S. Alpert, and W.M. McCormack. 1977. Quantitative bacteriology of the vaginal flora. J. Infect. Dis. 136: 271–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bartlett, J.G., N.E. Moon, P.R. Goldstein, B. Goren, A.B. Onderdonk, and B.F. Polk. 1978. Cervical and vaginal bacterial flora: Ecologic niches in the female lower genital tract. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 130: 658–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carter, B., and C.P. Jones. 1937. A study of the vaginal flora in the normal female. South. Med. J. 30: 298–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carter, B., C.P. Jones, R.L. Alter, R.N. Creadick, and W.L. Thomas. 1953. Bacteroides infections in obstetrics and gynecology. Obstet. & Gynecol, l: 491–510.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chow, A.W., J.R. Marshall, and L.B. Guze. 1975. Anaerobic infections of the female genital tract: Prospects and perspectives. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 30: 477–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Colebrook, L. 1930. Infection by anaerobic streptococci in puerperal fever. Br. Med. J. 2: 134–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eschenbach, D.A., T.M. Buchanan, H.M. Pollock, P.S. Forsyth, E.R. Alexander, J.S. Lin, S.P. Wang, B.B. Wentworth, W.M. McCormack, and K.K. Holmes. 1975. Polymicrobial etiology of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. N. Eng. J. Med. 293: 166–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Finegold, S.M., J.G. Bartlett, A.W. Chow, D.J. Flora, S.L. Gorbach, E.J. Harder, and F.P. Tally. 1975. Management of anaerobic infections. Ann. Intern. Med. 83: 375–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goplerud, C.P., M.J. Ohm, and R.P. Galask. 1976. Aerobic and anaerobic flora of the cervix during pregnancy and the puerperium. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 126: 858–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gorbach, S.L., K.B. Menda, H. Thadepalli, and L. Keith. 1973. Anaerobic microflora of the cervix in healthy women. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 117: 1053–1055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hall, W.L., A.I. Sobel, C.P. Jones, and R.T. Parker. 1967. Anaerobic postoperative pelvic infections. Obstet. Gynecol. 30: 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hammerschlag, M.R., S. Alpert, A.B. Onderdonk, P. Thurston, E. Drude, W.M. McCormack, and J.G. Bartlett. 1978. Anaerobic microflora of the vagina in children. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 131: 853–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harris, J.W., and J.H. Brown. 1929. Clinical and bacteriological study of 113 cases of streptococcic puerperal infection. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 44: 1–31.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holdeman, L.V., E.P. Cato, and W.E.C. Moore (ed.). 1977. Anaerobe Laboratory Manual, 4th ed. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holdeman, L.V, and J.L. Johnson. 1977. Bacteroides disiens sp. nov. and Bacteroides bivius sp. nov. from human clinical infections. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 27: 337–345.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Levison, M.E., L.C. Corman, E.R. Carrington, and D. Kaye. 1977. Quantitative microflora of the vagina. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 127: 80–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ohm, M.J., and R.P. Galask. 1975. Bacterial flora of the cervix from 100 prehysterectomy patients. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122: 683–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Parker, R.T., and C.P. Jones. 1966. Anaerobic pelvic infections and developments in hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 96: 645–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schwarz, O., and W.J. Dieckmann. 1926. Anaerobic streptococci: Their role in puerperal infection. South. Med. J. 19: 470–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sweet, R.L. 1975. Anaerobic infections of the female genital tract. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122: 891–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Swenson, R.M., T.G. Michaelson, M.J. Daly, and E.H. Spaulding. 1973. Anaerobic bacterial infections of the female genital tract. Obstet. Gynecol. 42: 538–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tashjian, J.H., C.B. Coulam, and J.A. Washington. 1976. Vaginal flora in asymptomatic women. Mayo Clin. Proc. 51: 557–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thadepalli, H., S.L. Gorbach, and L. Keith. 1973. Anaerobic infections of the female genital tract: Bacteriologic and therapeutic aspects. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 117: 1034–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gale B. Hill
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics/GynecologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology/ImmunologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations