The Evolution of Male Parental Investment in Mammals

  • Devra G. Kleiman
  • James R. Malcolm


A variety of approaches have been used to understand the evolution of male parental care. General frameworks are provided by Trivers’ theory of sexual selection (1972), the theory of life history strategies (see Horn, 1978; Stearns, 1976) and game theory (Grafen and Sibly, 1978; Maynard Smith, 1977). The factors invoked to explain male parental investment have varied with the level of analysis; intrinsic biological factors such as internal versus external fertilization (Dawkins and Carlisle, 1976; Ridley, 1978) or the capacity to invest (Orians, 1969) have been used to illuminate differences between large taxonomic units such as the vertebrate classes; ecological factors such as harshness (Wilson, 1975), richness (Jenni, 1974), and unpredictability (Pitelka et al., 1974) have all been invoked to explain the presence of unusual levels of male investment in smaller taxonomic units.


Home Range Parental Care Parental Investment Male Mammal Paternal Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahroon, J. K., and Fidura, F. G., 1976, The influence of the male on maternal behaviour in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Anim. Behav.24:372–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albignac, R., 1973, Mammifères Carnivores, Faune de Madagascar, CNRS, Paris.Google Scholar
  3. Albignac, R., 1974, Observations éco-éthologiques sur le genre Eurpleres, Viverride de Madagascar, Terre Vie 28:321–351.Google Scholar
  4. Altmann, S. A., Wagner, S. S., and Lenington, S., 1977, Two models for the evolution of polygyny, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.2:397–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anadu, P. A., 1979, Gestation period and early development in Myomys daltoni (Roden-tia: Muridae), Terre Vie 33:59–70.Google Scholar
  6. Baiharry, R., 1978, The private life of the pine marten, Wildlife 20(2):74–77.Google Scholar
  7. Barash, D. A., 1975, Ecology of paternal behavior in the hoary marmot (Marmota cal-igata): An evolutionary interpretation, J. Mammal.56:613–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beniest-Noirot, E., 1958, Analyse du comportement dit ‘maternal’ chez la souris, Mon-ogr. Fr. Psychol. No. 1., CNRS, Paris.Google Scholar
  9. Berg, W. E., and Chesness, R. A., 1978, Ecology of coyotes in Northern Minnesota, in: Coyotes (M. Bekoff, ed.), pp. 299–247, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Berrie, P. M., 1973, Ecology and status of the lynx in interior Alaska, in: The World’s Cats, Vol. I (R. L. Eaton, ed.), pp. 4–41, World Wildlife Safari, Winston, Oregon.Google Scholar
  11. Bertram, B. C. L., 1978, Pride of Lions, Scribner’s, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Blair, W. F., 1941, Observations on the life history of Baiomys taylori subater, J. Mammal 22:378–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradbury, J. W., 1977, Social organization and communication, in: Biology of Bats, Vol. III (W. A. Wimsatt, ed.), pp. 1–72, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Brady, C. A., 1978, Reproduction, growth and parental care in crab-eating foxes Cer-docyon thous at the National Zoological Park, Washington, Int. Zoo Yearb.18:130–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Breder, C. M., Jr., and Rosen, D. E., 1966, Modes of Reproduction in Fishes, Natural History Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Bucher, G. C, 1937, Notes on life-history and habits of Capromys, Mem. Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat.11:93–107.Google Scholar
  17. Caldwell, M. C, and Caldwell, D. K., 1966, Epimeletic (care-giving) behavior in Geta-cea, in: Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises (K. S. Norris, ed.), University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  18. Camenzind, F. J., 1978, Behavioral ecology of coyotes on the National Elk Refuge, Jackson, Wyoming, in: Coyotes (M. Bekoff, ed.), pp. 267–294, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Carpenter, G. C., 1970, Observations on the rusty spotted genet, Lammergeyer 11:60–63.Google Scholar
  20. Charles-Dominique, P., 1978, Ecologie et vie sociale de Nandinia binotata (Carnivores. Viverrides): comparison avec les prosimiens sympatriques de Gabon, Terre Vie 32:477–528.Google Scholar
  21. Conaway, D. H., 1958, Maintenance, reproduction, and growth of the least shrew in captivity, J. Mammal.39:507–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Condé, B., and Schauenberg, P., 1969, Reproduction du Chat forestier d’Europe (Felis silvestris Schreber) en captivité, Rev. Suisse Zool.76:183–212.Google Scholar
  23. Cuneo, F., 1965, Observations on the breeding of the klipspringer antelope, Oreotragus oreotragus, and the behaviour of their young at the Naples Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb.5:45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daly, M., 1979, Why don’t male mammals lactate, J. Theor. Biol.78:325–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dathe, H., 1966, Breeding the Corsac fox (Vulpes corsac) at East Berlin Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb.6:166–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dathe, H., 1968, Breeding the Indian leopard cat (Felis bengalensis) at East Berlin Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb.8:42–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Davidar, E. R. C, 1974, Observations at the dens of the dhole or Indian wild dog (Cuon alpinus), J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.71:183–187.Google Scholar
  28. Dawkins, R., and Carlisle, T. R., 1978, Parental investment: A fallacy, Nature (London)262:131–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deag, J. M., and Crook, J. H., 1971, Social behaviour and agonistic buffering in the wild barbary macaque (Macaca sylvana), Folia Primatol.15:183–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Desai, J. H., 1974, Observations on the breeding habits of the Indian smooth otter in captivity, Int. Zoo Yearb.14:123–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dittrich, L., 1967, Breeding the black rhinoceros at Hanover Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb.7:161–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Driiwa, P., 1977, Beobachtungen zur Geburt and natürlichen Aufzucht von Waldhunden (Speothos venaticus) in des Gefangenschaft, Zool. Gart. N.F.47:109–137.Google Scholar
  33. Dubost, G., and Genest, H., 1974, Le comportement social d’une colonie de Maras Dol-ichotis patagonum Z. dans le Parc de Branféré, Z. Tierpsychol.35:225–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dudley, D., 1974a, Contributions of paternal care to the growth and development of the young in Peromyscus californiens, Behav. Biol.11:155–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dudley, D., 1974b, Paternal behavior in the California mouse, Peromyscus californiens, Behav. Biol.11:247–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Duplaix, N., 1980, The ecology and behaviour of the giant Brazilian otter in Suriname, A preliminary study, Terre Vie (in press).Google Scholar
  37. Egoscue, H. J., 1962, Ecology and life history of the kit fox in Tooele County, Utah, Ecology 43:481–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Elwood, R. W., 1975, Paternal and maternal behavior in the Mongolian gerbil, Anim. Behav.23:766–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Elwood, R. W., and Broom, D. M., 1978, The influence of litter size and parental behavior on the development of Mongolian gerbil pups, Anim. Behav.26:438–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Erlinge, S., 1968, Territoriality of the otter (Lutra lutra), Oikos 19:81–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Erlinge, S., 1977, Spacing strategy in the stoat, Mustela erminea, Oikos 28(l):32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Estrada, A., and Sandoval, J. M., 1977, Social relations in a free-ranging troop of stump-tail macaques (Macaca arctoides): Male care behaviour, I, Primates 18(4):793–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ewer, R. F., 1963, The behaviour of the meerkat, Suricata suricatta (Schreber), Z. Tierpsychol.20:570–607.Google Scholar
  44. Ewer, R. F., 1973, The Carnivores, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y.Google Scholar
  45. Feist, J. D., and McCullough, D. R., 1975, Reproduction in feral horses, J. Reprod. Fertil.23:13–18.Google Scholar
  46. Fiedler, U., 1973, Beobachtungen zur Biologie einiger Gerbillinen, insbesondere Gerbil-lus (Dipodillus) dasyurus (Myomorpha, Rodentia) in Gefangenschaft I. Verhalten, Z. Säugetierkd.38:321–340.Google Scholar
  47. Fons, R., 1974, The behavior patterns of the Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus (Savi 1822), Terre Vie 28(1):131–157.Google Scholar
  48. Formozov, A. N., 1966, Adaptive modifications of behavior in mammals of the Eurasian steppes, J. Mammal.47:208–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Frame, L. H., Malcolm, J. R., Frame, G. W., and van Lawick, H. 1979, Social organization of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) on the Serengeti Plains, Tanzania, 1967–1978. Z. Tierpsychol.50:225–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Freeman, H., and Hutchins, M., 1980, Captive management of snow leopard cubs: An overview, Zool. Gart. N.F. (in press).Google Scholar
  51. Geertsema, A., 1976, Impressions and observations on serval behavior in Tanzania, East Africa, Mammalia 40:13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Geidel, B., and Gensch, W., 1976, The rearing of clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) in the presence of the male, Int. Zoo Yearb.16:124–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Geigy, R., 1955, Observation sur les Phacochères du Tanganyika, Rev. Suisse Zool.62:139–163.Google Scholar
  54. Geist, V., 1971, Mountain Sheep: A Study in Behavior and Evolution, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  55. Gensch, W., 1962, Successful rearing of the binturong, Int. Zoo Yearb.4:79–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gerell, R., 1970, Home ranges and movements of the mink, Mustela vison, in southern Sweden, Oikos 21:160–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gerling, S., and Yahr, P., 1979, Effect of the male parent on pup survival in Mongolian gerbils, Anim. Behav.27:310–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gorman, M., 1979, Dispersion and foraging of the Small Indian mongoose, Herpestes auropunctatus (Carnivora: Viverridae) relative to the evolution of social viverrids J. Zool.187:65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gould, E., and Eisenberg, J. F., 1966, Notes on the biology of the Tenrecidae, J. Mammal.47:660–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grafen, A., and Sibly, R., 1978, A model of mate desertion, Anim. Behav.26:645–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Greenhall, A. M., 1968, Notes on the behavior of the false vampire bat, J. Mammal 49:337–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Grinnell, J., Dixon, J. S., and Linsdale, J. M., 1937, Fur-bearing Mammals of California, Vol. 1, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  63. Haber, G. C, 1977, Socio-ecological dynamics of wolves and prey in a subarctic ecosystem, Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  64. Hamilton, W. J, 1933, The weasels of New York, Am. Midi. Nat.14:289–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Happold, M., 1976, Social behavior of the conilurine rodents (Muridae) of Australia, Z. Tierpsychol.40:113–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Härtung, T. G., and Dewsbury, D. A., 1979, Paternal behavior in six species of muroid rodents, Behav. Neural Biol.26:466–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hawley, V. D., and Newby, F. E., 1957, Marten home ranges and population fluctuations, J. Mammal.38:174–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hemmer, H., 1978, Were the leopard cat and the sand cat among the ancestry of domestic cat races? Carnivore 1:106–108.Google Scholar
  69. Hoage, R. J., 1977, Parental care in Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia: Sex and age differences in carrying behavior and the role of prior experience, in: The Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae (D. G. Kleiman, ed.), pp. 293–305, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  70. Hoage, R. J., 1978, Biosocial development in the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia, (Primates: Callitrichidae), Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  71. Hodgdon, H. E., and Larson, J. S., 1973, Some sexual differences in behaviour within a colony of marked beavers (Castor canadensis), Anim. Behav 21:147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Horn, H. S., 1978, Optimal tactics of reproduction and life history, in: Behavioural Ecology (J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies, eds.), pp. 411–429, Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  73. Horner, B. E., 1947, Paternal care of young mice of the genus Peromyscus, J. Mammal.28:31–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Horner, B. E., 1961, Paternal care of the young and convulsive seizures in the grasshopper mouse, Am. Zool. 1:360.Google Scholar
  75. Horner, B. E., and Taylor, J. M., 1968, Growth and reproductive behavior in the Southern grasshopper mouse, J. Mammal.49:644–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Horner, B. E., and Taylor, J. M., 1969, Paternal behavior in Rattus fuscipes, J. Mammal 50:803–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Housse, R, P. R., 1949, Los Zorros de Chile o Chacales Americanos, Rev. Univ. Chile 34(l):33–56 (An. Acad. Chil. Cienc. Nat. No. 14).Google Scholar
  78. Howard, W. E., 1949, Dispersal, amount of inbreeding and longevity in a local population of prairie deermice on the George Reserve, Southern Michigan, Contrib. Lab. Vertebr. Biol. Univ. Mich.43:1–50.Google Scholar
  79. Hrdy, S. B., 1976, Care and exploitation of nonhuman primate infants by conspecifics other than the mother, Adv. Study Behav.6:101–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hrdy, S. B., 1977, The Langurs of Abu, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  81. Hulley, J. T., 1976, Maintenance and breeding of captive jaguarundis at Chester Zoo and Toronto, Int. Zoo Yearb.16:120–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jarvis, J. U. M., 1978, Energetics of survival in Heterocephalus glaber (Rüppell), the naked mole-rat (Rodentia:Bathyergidae), Bull. Carnegie Mus.6:81–87.Google Scholar
  83. Jenni, D. A., 1974, Evolution of polyandry in birds, Am. Zool.14:129–144.Google Scholar
  84. Kaufmann, J. H., 1962, Ecology and social behavior of the coati (Nasua narica) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Publ. Zool. 60(3):95–222.Google Scholar
  85. Kenyon, K. W., 1969, The Sea Otter in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, U.S. Dep. Inter, Bur. Sport Fish. Wildl. North Am. Fauna 68:1–352.Google Scholar
  86. Ketelhodt, H. F. von, 1966, Der Erdwolf (Sparrman, 1783), Z. Säugetierkd.31:300–308.Google Scholar
  87. King, C. M., 1975, The home range of the weasel (Mustela nivalis) in an English woodland, J. Anim. Ecol.44:639–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kingdon, J., 1977, East African Mammals, Vol. IIIA, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Kleiman, D. G., 1968, Reproduction in the Canidae, Int. Zoo Yearb.8:3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kleiman, D. G., 1969, The Reproductive Behaviour of the Green Acouchi, Ph.D. thesis, University of London.Google Scholar
  91. Kleiman, D. G., 1971, The courtship and copulatory behavior of the green acouchi, Myoprocta pratti, Z. Tierpsychol.29:259–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kleiman, D. G., 1972, Maternal behaviour of the green acouchi, Myoprocta pratti, a South American caviomorph rodent, Behaviour,43:48–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kleiman, D. G., 1974, Patterns of behaviour in hystricomorph rodents, Symp. Zool. Soc. London 34:171–209.Google Scholar
  94. Kleiman, D. G., 1977, Monogamy in mammals, Quart. Rev. Biol.52:39–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kleiman, D. G., 1979, Parent-offspring conflict and sibling competition in a monogamous primate, Am. Nat. 114(5):753–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Klingel, H., 1972, Social behaviour of African Equidae, Zool. Afr.7:175–185.Google Scholar
  97. Klippel, J. A., 1979, Does the male gerbil parent (Meriones unguiculatus) contribute to pup mortality? A reply, Anim. Behav.27:311–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Koenig, L., 1970, Zur Fortpflanzung and Jugendentwicklung des Wüsten fusches (Fen-necuszerda, Zimm. 1780), Z. Tierpsychol.27:205–246.Google Scholar
  99. Krott, P., 1959, Die Vielfrass (Gulo gulo L. 1758), Monogr. Wildsäuget.13:1–159.Google Scholar
  100. Krott, P., 1973, Die Fortpflanzung des Edelmarders Martes martes L.) in freier Wildbahn, Z. Jagdwiss. 19: 113–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kruuk, H., 1972, The Spotted Hyena, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  102. Kruuk, H., 1976, Feeding and social behaviour of the striped hyaena (Hyaena vulgans Desmarest), E. Afr. Wildl. J.14:91–111.Google Scholar
  103. Kruuk, H., and Sands, W. A., 1972, The aardwolf (Proteles cristatus Sparrman, 1783) as a predator of termites, E. Afr. Wildl. J.10:211–227.Google Scholar
  104. Kulzer, E., 1958, Untersuchungen über die Biologie von Flughunden der Gattung Rou-settus Gray, Z. Morphol. Oekol. Tiere 47:374–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lack, D., 1968, Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  106. Lamprecht, J., 1979, Field observations on the behaviour and social system of the bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis Desmarest, Z. Tierpsychol.49:260–284.Google Scholar
  107. Laurie, A., and Seidensticker, J., 1977, Behavioural ecology of the sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) J. Zool.182:187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Layne, J. N., 1959, Growth and development of the eastern harvest mouse, Reithrodon-tomys humulus, Bull. Fl. State Mus. Biol. Ser. 4(2):61–82.Google Scholar
  109. Lekagul, B., and McNeely, J., 1977, Mammals of Thailand, Karusapa Press, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  110. Leslie, G., 1970, Observations on the oriental short-clawed otter (Amblonyx cinerea) at Aberdeen Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb.10:79–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Leuw, A., 1975, Die Wildkatzen, Merkbl. Niederwildauss Dtse. Jagdschutzverb. 16.Google Scholar
  112. Leyhausen, P., 1965, The communal organization of solitary mammals, Symp. Zool. Soc. London 14:249–263.Google Scholar
  113. Liers, E. E., 1951, My friends the otters, A Hist.60:320–326.Google Scholar
  114. Ligon, J. D., and Ligon, S. H., 1978, Communal breeding in green wood-hoopoes as a case for reciprocity, Nature (London)276:496–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lockie, J. D., 1966, Territory in small carnivores, Symp. Zool. Soc. London 18:143–165.Google Scholar
  116. Louwman, J. W. W., 1973, Breeding the tailess tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus) at Wassenaar Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb.13:125–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Louwman, J. W. W., and Van Oyen, W. G., 1968, A note on breeding Temminck’s golden cat (Profelis temmincki) at Wassenaar Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb.8:47–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. MacPherson, A. H., 1969, The dynamics of Canadian arctic fox populations, Can. Wildl. Rep. Ser. No. 8.Google Scholar
  119. Malcolm, J. R., 1979, Social organization and communal rearing in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  120. Mallinson, J. J. C, 1969, Notes on breeding the African civet (Viverra civetta) at Jersey Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb.9:92–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Maynard Smith, J., 1977, Parental investment: A prospective analysis, Anim. Behav.25:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. McCarty, R. and Southwick, C. H., 1977, Patterns of parental care in two cricetid rodents, Onychomys torridus and Peromyscus leucopus, Anim. Behav.25:945–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. McDiarmid, R. W., 1978, Evolution of parental care in frogs, in: Development of Behavior (G. M. Burghardt and M. Bekoff, eds.), pp. 127–147, Garland Press, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Middleton, A. L. V., and Paget, R. J., 1974, Badgers of Yorkshire and Humble side, Mor-ley and Sons, York, England,.Google Scholar
  125. Mills, M. G. L., 1978, The comparative socio-ecology of the Hyaenidae, Carnivore l(l):l–6.Google Scholar
  126. Mitchell, G., 1969, Paternalistic behavior in primates, Psych. Bull.71:399–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mitchell, G., and Brandt, E. M., 1972, Paternal behavior in primates, in: Primate Socialization (F. E. Poirier, éd.), pp. 173–206, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  128. Moehlman, P. D., 1979, Jackal helpers and pup survival, Nature (London)277:382–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mohr, E., 1965, Altweltliche Stachelschweine, Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei, A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg Lutherstadt.Google Scholar
  130. Mugford, R. A., and Nowell, N. W., 1972, Paternal Stimulation during infancy: Effects upon agression and open-field performance of mice, J. Comp. Physiol. Psych.79:30–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Murie, A., 1944, The wolves of Mt. McKinley, Fauna Nat. Parks U.S. Fauna Ser.5:1–238.Google Scholar
  132. Mykytowycz, R., 1959, Social behaviour of an experimental colony of wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), II. First breeding season, CSIRO Wildl. Res.4:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Mykytowycz, R., 1965, Further observations on the territorial function and histology of the submandibular cutaneous (chin) glands in the rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), Anim. Behav. 13(4):400–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Novikov, G. A., 1962, Carnivorous Mammals of the USSR, Fauna of the USSR No. 62, Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Israeli Program for Scientific Translation.Google Scholar
  135. Orians, G. H., 1969, On the evolution of mating systems in mammals and birds, Am. Nat.103:589–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Owen-Smith, N., 1977, On territoriality in ungulates and an evolutionary model, Q. Rev. Biol.52:1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Parker, C, 1979, Birth, care and development of Chinese hog badgers (Arctonyx col-laris) at Metro Toronto Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb.19:182–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Perry, R., 1966, The World of the Polar Bear, University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  139. Pitelka, F. A., Holmes, R. T., and MacLean, S. A., Jr., 1974, Ecology and evolution of social organization in arctic sandpipers, Amer. Zool.14:185–204.Google Scholar
  140. Poglayen-Neuwall, I., 1976, Zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie und Jugendentwicklung von Potos flavus (Schreber, 1774), Zool. Gart. N.F.46:237–283.Google Scholar
  141. Poglayen-Neuwall, I., 1978, Breeding, rearing, and notes on the behaviour of tayras (Eira barbara), Int. Zoo Yearb.18:134–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Popp, J. L., 1978, Male baboons and evolutionary principles, Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  143. Powell, R. A., 1978, Zig-zag zap, Anim. Kingdom 81(6):20–25.Google Scholar
  144. Proctor, J., 1962, A contribution to the natural history of the spotted-necked otter (Lutra maculicollis Lichtenstein), in Tanganyika E. Afr. Wildl. J.1:92–102.Google Scholar
  145. Quick, H. F., 1944, Habits and economics of the New York weasel in Michigan, J. Wildl. Manage.8:71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rahm, U., 1966, Les mammifères de la foret équatoriale, de l’est du Congo, Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr. Tervuren Sci. Zool. 149.Google Scholar
  147. Rasa, O. A. E., 1972, Aspects of the social organization in captive dwarf mongooses, J. Mammal.53:181–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Rasa, O. A. E., 1977, The ethology and sociology of the dwarf mongoose, Helogale undulata rufula, Z. Tierpsychol.43:337–406.Google Scholar
  149. Rathbun, G. 1979, The social structure and ecology of elephant shrews, Z. Tierpsychol. Suppl.20:1–76.Google Scholar
  150. Redican, W. K., 1976, Adult male-infant interactions in nonhuman primates, in: The Role of the Father in Child Development (M. E. Lamb, ed.), pp. 345-385, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  151. Rickart, E. A., 1977, Reproduction, growth and development in two species of cloud forest Peromyscus from southern Mexico, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kans.67:1–22.Google Scholar
  152. Ridley, M., 1978, Paternal care, Anim. Behav.26:904–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Roberts, M. S., 1975, Growth and development of mother reared red pandas (Ailurus fulgens), Int. Zoo Yearb.15:57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rogers, L. L., 1977, Social relationships, movements, and population dynamics of black bears in northeastern Minnesota, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  155. Rood, J. P., 1972, Ecological and behavioural comparisons of three genera of Argentine cavies, Anim. Behav. Monogr.5:1–83.Google Scholar
  156. Rood, J. P., 1974, Banded mongoose males guard young, Nature (London) 248:176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rood, J. P., 1978, Dwarf mongoose helpers at the den, Z. Tierpsychol.48:277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rood, J. P., and Waser, P. M., 1978, The slender mongoose in the Serengeti, Carnivore l(3):54–58.Google Scholar
  159. Rosenblatt, J. S., 1967, Nonhormonal basis of maternal behavior in the rat, Science 156:1512–1514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rowe Rowe, D. T., 1978, The small carnivores of Natal, Lammergeyer 25:1–50.Google Scholar
  161. Ruffer, D. G., 1966, Sexual behaviour of the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), Anim. Behav.13:447–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Ryden, H., 1974, The ‘lone’ coyote likes family life, Nat. Geogr.146:278–294.Google Scholar
  163. Ryden, H., 1975, God’s Dog, Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, New York.Google Scholar
  164. Saylor, A., and Salmon, M., 1971, An ethological analysis of communal nursing by the house mouse (Mus musculus), Behaviour 40: 62–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Schaller, G. B., 1972, The Serengeti Lion, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  166. Scheffel, W., and Hemmer, H., 1975, Breeding Geoffroy’s cat (Leopardus geoffroyi) in captivity, Int. Zoo. Yearb. 15: 152–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Schneider, D. G., Mech, L. D., and Tester, J. R., 1971, Movements of female raccoons and their young as determined by radio-tracking, Anim. Behav. Monogr. 4(1): 1–43.Google Scholar
  168. Schreiber, G. R., 1968, A note on keeping and breeding the Philippine tarsier at Brook-field Zoo, Chicago, Int. Zoo Yearb.8:114–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schultze-Westrum, T., 1965, Innerartliche Verständigung durch dufte beim gleitbeutler Petaurus breviceps papuanus Thomas (Marsupialia, Phalangeridae), Z. Vergl. Physiol.50:151–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Schürer, U., 1978, Breeding the black-footed cat in captivity. Carnivore 1:109–111.Google Scholar
  171. Seidensticker, J. C, IV, Hornocker, M. G., Wiles, W. V., and Messick, J. P., 1973, Mountain lion social organization in the Idaho Primitive Area, Wildl. Mongr.35:1–60.Google Scholar
  172. Seitz, A., 1970, Beitrag zur Haltung des Schabrackentapirs (Tapirus indicus Desmarest 1819), Zool. Gart. N.F.39:271–283.Google Scholar
  173. Seiander, R. K., 1972, Sexual selection and dimorphism in birds, in: Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, 1871-1971 (B. Campbell, ed.), pp. 180–230, Aldine Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  174. Sherman, P. W., 1980, Infanticide in Belding’s ground squirrels, in: Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory (R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle, eds.) Chiron Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  175. Simonetta, A. M., 1966, Osservazioni etologiche ed ecologiche sui dik-dik (gen. Madoqua; Mammalia: Bovidae) in Somalia, Monit. Zool. Ital.74:1–33.Google Scholar
  176. Skinner, J. D., Breytenbach, G. J., and Maberly, C. T. A., 1976, Observations on the ecology and biology of the bush pig Potamochoerus porcus, S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res.6:123–128.Google Scholar
  177. Smith, M. H., 1966, The evolutionary significance of certain behavioral, physiological,and morphological adaptations of the old-field mouse, Peromyscus polionotus, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida.Google Scholar
  178. Smythe, N., 1978, The natural history of the Central American agouti (Dasyprocta punctata), Smithson. Contrib. Zool.257:1–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Spencer-Booth, Y., 1970, The relationship between mammalian young and conspecifics other than the mothers and peers: A review, in: Advances in the Study of Behaviour, Vol. 3 (D. S. Lehrman, R. A. Hinde, and E. Shaw, eds.), pp. 120–194, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  180. Stanley, M., 1971, An ethogram of the hopping mouse, Notomys alexis, Z. Tierpsychol.29:225–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Stearns, S. C, 1976, Life-history tactics: A review of the ideas, Quart. Rev. Biol. 51:3–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Stonorov, D., and Stokes, A. W., 1972, Social behavior of the Alaskan brown bear, in: Bears—Their Biology and Management (S. M. Herrero, ed.), pp. 232–242, IUCN Publ.Google Scholar
  183. Stroganov, S. U., 1962, Carnivorous Mammals of Siberia, Published for the Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation by the Israeli Program for Scientific Translation, Tel Aviv.Google Scholar
  184. Tembrock, G., 1957, Zur Ethologie des Rotfuchses (Vulpes vulpes (L.)), unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Fortpflanzung, Zool. Gart.23:289–532.Google Scholar
  185. Tener, J. S., 1965, Muskoxen in Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Queen’s Printer, Ottawa, Ganada.Google Scholar
  186. Thomas, J. A., and Birney, E. C., 1979, Parental care and mating system of the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol,5:171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tilford, B. L., and Nadler, R. D., 1978, Male parental behavior in a captive group of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), Folia Primatol.29:218–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Tonkin, B. A., and Kohler, E., 1978, Breeding the African golden cat in captivity, Int. Zoo Yearb.18:147–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Trivers, R. L., 1972, Parental investment and sexual selection, in: Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man 1871-1971 (B. Campbell, ed.), pp. 136–179, Aldine Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  190. Trivers, R. L., and Hare, H., 1976, Haplodiploidy and the evolution of the social insects, Science 191:249–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Turner, K., 1970, Breeding Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) at Westbury Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb. 10:65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Ulmer, F. A., 1968, Breeding fishing cats (Felis viverrina) at Philadelphia Zoo, Int. Zoo Yearb.8:49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. van Lawick, H., 1970, Golden jackals in: Innocent Killers (H. van Lawick and J. van Lawick-Goodall), pp. 105–145, Collins, London.Google Scholar
  194. van Lawick, H., 1974, Solo: The Story of an African Wild Dog, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  195. Vehrencamp, S. L., Stiles, F. G., and Bradbury, J. W., 1977, Observations on the foraging behavior and avian prey of the neotropical carnivorous bat, Vampyrum spectrum, J. Mammal 58:469–478.Google Scholar
  196. Verts, B. J., 1967, The Biology of the Striped Skunk, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 111.Google Scholar
  197. Wackernagel, H., 1965, Grant’s zebra, Equus burchelli boehmi, at Basle Zoo—a contribution to breeding biology, Int. Zoo Yearb.5:38–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Walker, E. P., 1975, Mammals of the World, 3rd ed., Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  199. Wayre, P., 1978, Status of otters in Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Italy, in: Otters (N. Duplaix, ed.), pp. 152–155, IUCN Publ. New Ser.Google Scholar
  200. Weatherhead, P. J., and Robertson, R. J., 1979, Offspring quality and the polygyny threshold: “The sexy son hypothesis,” Am. Nat.113:201–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Weiher, E., 1976, Hand rearing fennec foxes, Int. Zoo Yearb.16:200–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Williams, J. B., 1978, Adult Male-Infant Interaction in Nonhuman Primates: A Bibliography with Primate Index, 2nd ed., Primate Information Center, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
  203. Wilson, E. O., 1975, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  204. Wilson, S. C, and Kleiman, D. G., 1974, Eliciting play: A comparative study (Octodon, Octodontomys, Pediolagus, Phoca, Choeropsis, Ailuropoda), Am. Zool.14:341–370.Google Scholar
  205. Wilsson, L., 1971, Observations and experiments on the ethology of the European beaver (Castor fiber L.), Viltrevy (Stockholm)8:117–266.Google Scholar
  206. Wittenberger, J. F., 1978, The evolution of mating systems in grouse, Condor 80:126–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Yardeni-Yaron, E., 1952, Reproductive behaviour of the levante vole (Microtusguentheri D. A.), Bull. Res. Counc. Isr.1:96–98.Google Scholar
  208. Zucker, E. L., Mitchell, G., and Maple, T., 1978, Adult male-offspring play interactions within a captive group of orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus), Primates 19(2):379–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Devra G. Kleiman
    • 1
  • James R. Malcolm
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoological ResearchNational Zoological Park, Smithsonian InstitutionWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations