Caring for one’s offspring is so widespread among birds and mammals that it is the exceptions that attract our attention. Among birds, megapodes are a special curiosity precisely because their precocial young are unattended by their elders, even though the latter may have labored long maintaining an optimal temperature in their solar-heated nests (Frith, 1962). Mammals, by virtue of the nursing relationship between mothers and young, are never quite so distant from their offspring, but in some species the contact between the generations ends abruptly with weaning while in others it persists long after. Why is parental care not universal and uniform?
KeywordsParental Care Reproductive Effort Parental Investment Male Territoriality Paternal Care
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Daly, M., and Wilson, M., 1978, Sex, Evolution, and Behavior, Duxbury Press, N. Scitvate, Mass.Google Scholar
- Frith, H. J., 1962, The Mallee-fowl: The Bird That Builds an Incubator, Angus & Robertson, Sydney.Google Scholar
- Ghiselin, M., 1979, The Economy of Nature and the Evolution of Sex, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
- Goldschmidt, R., 1955, Theoretical Genetics, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
- Gould, S. J., 1977, Ontogeny and Phytogeny, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
- Klopfer, P. H., 1973a, Behavioral Aspects of Ecology, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
- Klopfer, P. H., McGeorge, L., and Barnett, R., 1973, Maternal Care in Mammals, Addison-Wesley (Module), Reading, Mass.Google Scholar
- Klopfer, P. H., and Boskoff, K., 1979, Maternal behavior in prosimians, in: The Study of Pro simian Behavior (G. A. Doyle and R. D. Martin, eds.), pp. 123–156, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Kummer, H., 1971, Primate Societies, Aldine-Atherton, Chicago.Google Scholar
- Lack, D., 1947, Darwin’s Finches, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Sussman, R., 1979, Primate Ecology, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
- Thurber, J., and White, E. B., 1957, Is Sex Necessary? Or, Why You Feel the Way You Do, Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
- Wallace, R. A., 1978, Social behavior on islands, in: Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 3 (P. P. G. Bateson and P. H. Klopfer, eds.), pp. 167–204, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar