Deep Water Renewal in Fjords

  • H. G. Gade
  • A. Edwards
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 4)


The notion of an isolated but easily studied body of seawater, removed for long periods from the complexities of advection or too much diffusion, is an attractive one. Early discussion of deep water renewals in fjord basins appears in the literature in connection with such stagnant water. Particular attention was given to stagnant basins with intermittent renewals - wherever discovered. Advective type water exchanges were linked to the prevailing wind conditons. They were most often considered to be a result of wind blowing upper, lighter water masses out of the fjord and thus forcing heavier water to rise. In this way, water appearing at sill level might be heavy enough to replace the resident water of the fjord basin (Gran & Gaarder, 1918; Strom, 1936; Braarud & Ruud, 1937).


Deep Water Bottom Water Internal Wave Basin Water Northerly Wind 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. G. Gade
    • 1
  • A. Edwards
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Geophysical InstituteUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Scottish Marine Biological AssocationOban, ArgyllScotland

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