Advertisement

Polyploidy pp 103-144 | Cite as

Polyploidy in Species Populations

  • Walter H. Lewis
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 13)

Abstract

Polyploidy in populations of well-differentiated plant species is now widely recognized (1,2). Most reports, however, are limited to a few individuals from one or several populations and thereby illustrate only a fraction of the extant genomic diversity in most species. They rarely purport populational dynamics involving Polyploidy as an evolutionary process. Nevertheless, there are recent notable exceptions and these will be utilized freely in this review of Polyploidy within species populations.

Keywords

Panicum Virgatum Species Population Unreduced Gamete Meiotic Behavior Diploid Progenitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Harlan, G.R., deWet, J.M.J., 1975, On Ö. Winge and a prayer: the origins of Polyploidy. Bot. Rev. 41: 361–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lewis, W.H., 1967, Cytocatalytic evolution in plants. Bot. Rev. 33: 105–115; This volume, p. 103.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cronquist, A., 1978, Once again, what is a species?, pp. 3–20, to “Biosystematics in Agriculture,” Beltsville S3nnp. Agr. Res. 2, Allanheld, Osmun and Co., Montclair, NJ.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Levin, D.A., 1979, The nature of plant species. Science 204: 381–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clausen, J., Keck, D.D., Hiesey, W.M., 1945, Experimental studies on the nature of species. II. Plant evolution through amphiploidy and autoploidy, with examples from the liadiinae. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 564, 1–174.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kihara, H., Ono, T., 1926, Chromosomenzah1en und Systematische Gruppierung der Rumexarten. Zeitschr. Zellforsch. 4: 475–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hedberg, I., 1967, Cytotaxonomic studies on Anthoxanthum odoratum L. s. lat. II. Investigations of some Swedish and of a few Swiss population samples. S3mib. Bot. Upsal. 18 (5): 1–86.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D’Amato, F., 1952, Polyploidy in the differentiation and function of tissues and cells in plants. A critical examination of the literature. Caryologia 4: 311–358.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D’Amato, F., 1964, EndoPolyploidy as a factor in plant tissue development. Caryologia 17: 41–52.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nagl, W., 1976, Nuclear organization. Ann. Rev. PI. Physiol. 27: 39–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nagl, W., 1978, “EndoPolyploidy and Polyteny in Differentiation and Evolution,” North-Holland, Amsterdam. 283 p.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lewis, W.H., Oliver, R.L., Luikart, T.J., 1971, Multiple genotypes in individuals of Claytonia virginica. Science 172: 564–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    östergren, G., Fröst, S., 1962, Elimination of accessory chromosomes from the roots of Haplopappus gracilis. Hereditas 48: 363–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Müntzing, A., 1946, Different chromosome numbers in root tips and pollen mother cells in a sexual strain of Poa alpina. Hereditas 32: 127–129.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Darlington, C.D., Thomas, P.T., 1941, Morbid mitosis and the activity of inert chromosomes in Sorghum. Proc. Roy. Soc. London 130: 127–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berger, C.A., Witkus, E.R., 1954, The cytology of Xanthisma texanum DC. I. Difference in the chromosome number of root and shoot. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 81: 489–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    deWet, J.M.J., 1980, Origins of polyploids. This volume, p. 3Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mooney, H.A., Johnson, A.W., 1965, Comparative physiological ecology of an arctic and alpine population of Thalictrum alpinum L. Ecology 46: 721–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Franke, R., 1975, Über das Auftreten von unreduzierten Gameten bei Angiospermen. Arch. ZUchtungsforsch. Berlin 5: 201–208.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tyrl, R.J., 1975, Origin and distribution of polyploid Achillea (Compositae) in western North America. Brittonia 27: 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lewis, W.H., Suda, Y., 1976, Diploids and polyploids from a single species populations: temporal adaptations. J. Heredity 67: 391–393.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lewis, W.H., 1977, Temporal adaptation correlated with ploidy in Claytonia virginica. Syst. Bot. 1: 340–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Powell, A.M., Sikes, S.W., 1975, On the origin of Polyploidy in Perityle rupestris (Asteraceae). Sei. Biol. J. 1: 132–137.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Levin, D.A., Wilson, A.C., 1976, Rates of evolution in seed plants: net increase in diversity of chromosome numbers and species numbers through time. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sei. USA 73: 2086–2090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Babcock, E.B., Stebbins, G.L., Jr., 1938, The American species of Crepis. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 504, 1–199.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Heckard, L.R., 1960, Taxonomic studies in the Phacelia magellanica Polyploidy complex. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 32: 1–126.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Uhl, C.H., 1970, Heteroploidy in Sedum glaucophyllum. Rhodora 72: 460–479.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Morton, J.K., 1979, Observations on Houghton’s goldenrod (Solidago houghtonii). Mich. Bot. 18: 31–35.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stebbins, G.L., 1950, “Variation and Evolution in Plants,” Columbia Univ. Press, New York. 643 p.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gottschalk, W., 1976, “Die Bedeutung der Polyploidie für die Evolution der Pflanzen,” Gustav-Fischer, Stuttgart. (particularly Tables 5–8 ).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fukuda, I., 1967, The biosystematic of Achlys. Taxon 16: 308–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Al-Sheikh Hussain, L.A., Elkington, T.T., 1978, Giemsa C- band karyotypes of diploid and triploid Allium caeruleum and their genomic relationship. Cytologia 43: 405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dewey, D.R., 1975, Genome relations of diploid Agropyron libanoticum with diploid and autotetraploid Agropyron stipifolium. Bot. Gaz. 136: 116–121; Dewey, D.R., Asay, K.H., 1975, The crested wheatgrasses of Iran. Crop Sei. 15: 844–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hedberg, I., 1970, Cytotaxonomic studies on Anthoxanthum odoratum L. s. lat. IV. Karyotypes, meiosis and the origin of tetraploid A. odoratum. Hereditas 64: 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Packer, J.G., Denford, K.E., 1974, A contribution to the taxonomy of Arctosytaphylos uva-ursi. Canad. J. Bot. 52: 743–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Estes, J.R., 1969, Evidence for autoploid evolution in the Artemisia ludoviciana complex of the Pacific Northwest. Brittonia 21: 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Borrill, M., Lindner, R., 1971, Diploid-tetraploid sympatry in Dactylis (Gramineae). New Phytol. 70: 1111–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nesom, G.L., 1978, Chromosome numbers in Erigeron and Conyza (Compositae). Sida 7: 375–381.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Baldwin, J.T.,Jr., 1941, Galax: the genus and its chromosomes. J. Heredity 32: 249–254.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nesom, G.L., 1979, Personal communication.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Teppner, H., Ehrendorfer, F., Puff, C., 1976, Karyosystematic notes on the Galium palustre-group (Rubiaceae). Taxon 25: 95–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dewey, D.R., 1979, The Hordeum violaceum complex in Iran. Amer. J. Bot. 66: 166–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hunziker, J.H., Palacios, R.A., de Valesi, A.G., Poggio, L., 1972, Species disjunctions in Larrea: evidence from morphology, cytogenetics, phenolic compounds, and seed albumins. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 59: 224–233.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rollins, R.C., Shaw, E.A., 1973, “The Genus Lesquerella ( Cruciferae) in North America,” Harvard University Press, Cambridge. 288 p.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Clark, C., 1975, Ecogeographic races of Lesquerella engelmannii (Cruciferae): distribution, chromosome numbers, and taxonomy, Brittonia 27: 263–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stuessy, T.F., 1971, Systematic relationships in the white- rayed species of Melampodium (Compositae). Brittonia 23: 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bacon, J.D., 1978, Taxonomy of Nerisyrenia (Cruciferae). Rhodora 80: 159–227.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rollins, R.C., Rildenberg, L., 1979, Chromosome numbers of Cruciferae IV. Bussey Inst. Harvard University, pp. 79–92.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ponnamma, M.G., 1978, Studies on bulbous ornamentals. I. Karyomorphology of diploid and triploid taxa of Pancratium triflorum Rosb. Cytologia 43: 717–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Palmer, P.G., 1975, A biosystematic study of the Panicum amarum-P. amarulum complex (Gramineae). Brittonia 27: 142–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Smith, B.W., 1968, Cytogeography and cytotaxonomic relation-ships of Rumex paucifolius. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 673–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Uhl, C.H., 1972, Intraspecific variation in chromosomes of Sedum in the southwestern United States. Rhodora 74: 301–320.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stewart, D.A., Barlow, B.A., 1976, Genomic differentiation and Polyploidy in Sowerbaea (Liliaceae). Austral. J. Bot. 24: 349–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jones, K., Golden, C., 1968, The telocentric complement of Tradescantia micrantha. Chromosoma 24: 135–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stebbins, G.L., 1971, “Chromosomal Evolution in Higher Plants,” Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. 216 p.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gates, R.R., 1924, Polyploidy. Brit. J. Exp. Biol. 1: 153–182.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Torrey, J.G., 1965, Physiological bases of organization and development in the root. Encycl. PI. Physiol. 15 (1): 1256–1327.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lewis, W.H., 1964, Oldenlandia cor3nnbosa (Rubiaceae). Grana Palynolog. 5: 330–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Anderson, L.C., 1977, Studies on Bigelowia (Asteraceae). Syst. Bot. 2: 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Randhawa, A.S., Beamish, K.I., 1970, Observations on the morphology, anatomy, classification, and reproductive cycle of Saxifraga ferruginea. Ganad. J. Bot. 48: 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lewis, W.H., 1976, Pollen size of Hedyotis caerulea (Rubiaceae) in relation to chromosome number and heterostyly. Rhodora 78: 60–64.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bremekamp, G.E.B., 1963, On pollen dimorphism in heterostylous Psychotrieae, especially in the genus Mapouria Aubl. Grana Palynolog. 4: 53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Levin, D.A., 1975, Minority cytotype exclusion in local plant populations. Taxon 24: 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sakai, K., Suzuki, Y., 1955, Studies on competition in plants. VII. Competition between diploid and autotetraploid plants of barley. J. Genetics 53: 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Smith, H.E., 1946, Sedum pulchellum: a physiological and morphological comparision of diploid, tetraploid, and hexa- ploid races. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 73: 495–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stebbins, G.L., 1949, The evolutionary significance of natural and artificial polyploids in the family Gramineae. Proc. 8th Inter. Cong. Genetics, Hereditas suppl. 461–485.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stebbins, G.L., 1972, Research on the evolution of higher plants: problems and prospects. Ganad. J. Genet. Cytol. 14: 453–462.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ehrendorfer, F., 1980, Polyploidy and distribution. This volume, p. 45.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Stebbins, G.L., 1980, Polyploidy in plants: unsolved problems and prospects. This volume, p. 495.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Brighton, C.A., 1976, Cytological problems in the genus Crocus (Iridaceae): II. Crocus cancellatus aggregate. Kew Bull. 32: 33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Giles, N.H., Jr., 1942, AutoPolyploidy and geographical distribution in Cuthbertia graminea Small. Amer. J. Bot. 29: 637–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Baldwin, J.T., Jr., Gulp, R., 1941, Polyploidy in Diospyros virginiana L. Amer. J. Bot. 28: 942–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sullivan, V.I., 1976, Diploidy, Polyploidy, and agamospermy among species of Eupatorium (Compositae). Ganad. J. Bot. 54: 2907–2917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tothill, J.C., Hacker, J.B., 1976, Polyploidy, flowering phenology and climatic adaptation in Heteropogon contortus (Gramineae). Austral. J. Ecol. 1: 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ornduff, R., 1970, Cytogeography of Nymphoides (Menyanthaceae). Taxon 19: 715–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chuang, T.I., Constance, L., 1977, Cytogeography of Phacelia ranunculacea (Hydrophyllaceae). Rhodora 79: 115–122.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Baldwin, J.T.,Jr., 1942, Polyploidy in Sedum ternatum Michx. II. Cytogeography. Amer. J. Bot. 29: 283–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kurita, M., Kuroki, Y., 1964, Polyploidy and distribution of Allium gray[i]. Mem. Ehime Univ. Sect 2, Ser. B 5: 37–45.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Böcher, T.W., 1936, Cytological studies on Campanula rotundifolia. Hereditas 22: 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lewis, W.H., Semple, J.C., 1977, Geography of Claytonia virginica cytotypes. Amer. J. Bot. 64: 1078–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hagerup, O., 1927, Empetrum hermaphroditum (Lge.) Hagerup. A new tetraploid, bisexual species. Dansk Bot. Arkiv. 5: 1–17.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mosquin, T., 1967, Evidence for autoPolyploidy in Epilobium angustifolium (Onagraceae). Evolution 21: 713–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Small, E., 1968, The systematics of autoPolyploidy in Epilobium latifolium (Onagraceae). Brittonia 20: 169–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schaefer, V.G., Miksche, J.P., 1977, Mikrospectrophotometric determination of DNA per cell and Polyploidy in Fraxinus americana L. Silvae Genetica 26: 184–192.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fagerlind, F., 1937, Embryologische, zytologische, und bestäubungs-experimentelle Studien in der Familie Rubiaceae nebst Bemerkungen über einige Polyploiditäts-probleme. Acta Horti Berg. 11: 195–470.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lewis, W.H., Terrell, E.E., 1962, Chromosomal races in eastern North American species of Hedyotis (Houstonia). Rhodora 64: 313–323.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sharma, A.K., Dey, D., 1967, A comprehensive cytotaxonomic study on the family Chenopodiaceae. J. Cytol. Genet. 2: 114–127.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hagerup, O., 1933, Studies on polyploid ecotypes in Vaccinium uliginosum L. Hereditas 18: 122–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    östergren, G., 1942, Chromosome numbers in Anthoxanthum. Hereditas 28: 242–243.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hedberg, I., 1969, Cytotaxonomic studies on Anthoxanthum odoratum L. s, lat. III. Investigations of Swiss and Austrian population samples. Sv. Bot. Tidskr. 63: 233–250.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mitchell, W.W., 1968, Taxonomy, variation, and chorology of three chromosome races of the Calamagrostis canadensis complex in Alaska. Madrono 19: 235–246.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tanaka, R., 1965, Intraspecific Polyploidy in Goodyera maximowicziana Makino. La Kromosoma 60: 1945–1950.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Brunken, J.N., Estes, J.R., 1975, Cytological and morphological variation in Panicum virgatum L. Southwest. Nat. 19: 379–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mantón, I., 1937, The problem of Biscutella laevigata L. II: The evidence frommeiosis. Ann. Bot. (n.s.) 1: 439–462.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Miller, J.M., 1976, Variation in populations of Claytonia perfoliata (Portulacaceae). Syst. Bot. 1: 20–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nur, U., Zohary, D., 1959, Distribution patterns of diploid and tetraploid forms of Dactylis glomerata L. in Israel. Bull. Res. Council Israel, sect. D, Botany, 7D: 13–22.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ehrendorfer, F., 1965, Dispersal mechanisms, genetic systems, and colonizing abilities in some flowering plant families, pp. 331–352, to Baker, H.G., Stebbins, G.L. (eds.), “The Genetics of Colonizing Species,” Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Stebbins, G.L., 1965, Colonizing species of native California flora, pp. 173-195, in Baker, H.G., Stebbins, G.L. (eds.), “The Genetics of Colonizing Species,” Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gadella, W.J., Kliphuis, E., 1968, Parnassia palustris in the Netherlands. Acta Bot. Neerl. 17: 165–172.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stewart, D.A., Barlow, B.A., 1976, Infraspecific Polyploidy and gynodioecism in Ptilotus obovatus (Amaranthaceae). Austral. J. Bot. 24: 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lövkvist, B., 1956, The Cardamine pratensis complex: outlines of its cytogenetics and taxonomy. Symb. Bot. Upsal. 14 (2): 1–131.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hagerup, O., 1932, Uber Polyploidie in Beziehung zu Klima, Ökologie und Phylogenie. Hereditas 16: 19–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Robertson, P.A., 1974, Morphological variation and chromosome numbers of North American populations of Koeleria cristata. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 101:. 124–129.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Skalinska, M., 1947, Polyploidy in Valeriana officinalis Linn, in relation to its ecology and distribution. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 53: 159–186.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Semple, J.C., 1978, The cytogeography of Aster pilosum (Compositae): Ontario and the adjacent United States. Canad. J. Bot. 56: 1274–1279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rehweder, H., 1937, Beziehungen zwischen Chromosomengrösse und Vitalität innerhalb der Gattung Dianthus. Planta 27: 478–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Johnson, A.W., Packer, J.G., 1965, Polyploidy and environment in Arctic Alaska. Science 148: 237–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Packer, J.G., 1969, Polyploidy in the Canadian Arctic Archi-pelago. Alpine Res. 1: 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Löve, A., Löve, D., 1957, Arctic Polyploidy. Proc. Genet. Soc. Canada 2: 23–27.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Löve, A., Löve, D., 1967, Polyploidy and altitude: Mt. Washington. Biol. Zentral. 86 (suppl.): 307–312.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hancock, J.F.,Jr., Bringhurst, R.S., 1979, Ecological differentation in perennial, octoploid species of Fragaria. Amer. J. Bot. 66: 367–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Jackson, R.C., 1976, Evolution and systematic significance of Polyploidy. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7: 209–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Golubovskaya, I.N., 1979, Genetic control of meiosis. Inter. Rev. Cytol. 58: 247–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sears, E.R., 1976, Genetic control of chromosome pairing in wheat. Ann. Rev. Genet. 10: 31–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Grant, V., 1952, Cytogenetics of the hybrid Cilia millefoliata X achilleaefolia. I. Variations in meiosis and Polyploidy rate as affected by nutritional and genetic conditions. Chromosoma 5: 372–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hossain, M.G., 1978, Effects of external environmental factors on chromosome pairing in autotetraploid rye. Cytologia 43: 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Grun, P., 1951, Variations in the meiosis of alfalfa. Amer. J. Bot. 38: 475–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Timmis, J.N., Rees, H., 1971, A pairing restriction at pachytene upon multivalent formation in autotetraploids. J. Heredity 26: 269–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sybenga, J.-, 1972, Chromosome-associated control of meiotic pairing differentiation. Variation with Secale cereale. Chromosoma 39: 351–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Denison, M.F., 1976, Populational variation in Oxalis hernandesii. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 103: 73–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gilles, A., Randolph, L.F., 1951, Reduction of quadrivalent frequency in autotetraploid maize during a period of 10 years. Amer. J. Bot. 38: 12–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Aastveit, K., 1968, Variation and selection for seed set in tetraploid rye. Hereditas 60: 294–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hossain, M.G., Moore, K., 1975, Selection in tetraploid rye. I. Effects of selection on the relationships between seed- set, meiotic regularity and plant vigour. Hereditas 81: 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    deWet, J.M.J., Harlan, J.R., 1970, Apomixis, Polyploidy and speciation in Dichanthium. Evolution 24: 270 - 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dickinson, H., Antonovics, J., 1973, Theoretical considerations of sympatric divergence. Amer. Nat. 107: 256–274.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Gottschalk, W., 1971, The phenomenon of “asymmetric genomic reduction.” J. Indian Bot. Soc. 50A: 308–317.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Noggle, G.R., 1946, The physiology of Polyploidy in plants. I. Review of the literature. Lloydia 9: 153–173.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gustafson, F.G., 1944, Growth hormone studies of some diplbid and autotetraploid plants. J. Heredity 35: 269–272.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Chen, S.-L., Tang, P.S., 1945, Studies on colchicine-induced autotetraploid barley. Amer. J. Bot. 32: 177–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jinno, T., 1958, Cytogenetic and cytoecological studies on some Japanese species of Rubus IV. Relation of polyploid to flowering time, and to growth rate. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 71: 359–365.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Schlösser, L.A., 1937, Grenzen und Möglichkeiten der Ausnutzung von Polyploidie in der Pflanzen-Züchtung. Forschungsdienst 3: 69–82.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Baldwin, J.T.,Jr., 1943, Polyploidy in Sedum pulchellum—I. Cytogeography. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Clausen, R.T., 1975, “Sedum of North America North of the Mexican; Plateau,” Cornell University Press, Ithica, NY. 742 p.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Yang, T.W,, Lowe, C.H., 1968, Chromosome variation in ecotypes of Larrea divaricata in the North American desert. Madrono 19: 161–164.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Yang, T.W., 1968, A new chromosome race of Larrea divaricata in Arizona. West. Reserve Acad. Nat. Hist. Mus. 2: 1–4 (special publication).Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Mauer, J., Mayo, J.M., Denford, K., 1978, Comparative ecophysiology of the chromosome races in Viola adunca J. E. Smith. Oecologia 35: 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tal, M., Gardi, I., 1976, Physiology of polyploid plants: water balance in autotetraploid and diploid tomato under low and high salinity. Physiol. PI. 38: 257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Tal, M., 1977, Physiology of polyploid plants: DNA, RNA, protein, and abscisic acid in autotetraploid and diploid tomato under low and high salinity. Bot. Gaz. 138: 119–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Tal, M., 1980, Physiology of polyploids. This volume, p. 61.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hall, 0., 1972, Oxygen requirement of root meristems in diploid and autotetraploid rye. Hereditas 70: 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Mears, J.A., The chemistry of polyploids: a summary with comments on Parthenium L. (Asteraceae-Ambrosiinae). This volume, p. 77.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Murray, B.C., Williams, C.A., 1973, Polyploidy and flavonoid synthesis in Briza media L. Nature 243: 87–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Murray, B.C., Williams, C.A., 1976, Chromosome number and flavonoid biosynthesis in Briza L. (Gramineae). Biochem. Genet. 14: 897–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Levy, M., 1976, Altered glycoflavone expression in induced autotetraploids of Phlox drummondii. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 4: 249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Levin, D.A., Torres, A.M., Levy, M., 1979, Alcohol dehydro-genase activity in diploid and autotetraploid Phlox. Biochem. Genet. 17: 35–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    DeMaggio, A.E., Lambrukos, J., 1974, Polyploidy and gene dosage effects on peroxidase activity in ferns. Biochem. Genet. 12: 429–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Roose, M.L., Gottlieb, L.D., 1976, Genetic and biochemical consequences of Polyploidy in Tragopogon. Evolution 30: 818–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rowson, J.M., 1944, Increased alkaloidal contents of induced polyploids of Datura. Nature 154: 81–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Rowson, J.M., 1945, Increased alkaloidal contents of induced polyploids of Datura, Atropa and Hyoscyamus. Quart. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 18: 175–193.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Jackson, B.P., Rowson, J.M., 1953, Alkaloid biogenesis in tetraploid stramonium. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 5: 778–793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Spurna, V., Plchova, S., Karpfel, Z., 1970, Study of some biotypes in the genus Achillea. Naturwissenschaften 4: 196–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Barber, H.N., 1970, Hybridization and the evolution of plants. Taxon 19: 154–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter H. Lewis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations