Advertisement

Chemicals and Fuels from Semi-Arid Zone Biomass

  • John R. Benemann
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 14)

Abstract

Biofuels, fuels from biomass, are being recognized as a significant future energy source for the U.S. and the world (1). Present uses of wood and dung rival or exceed those of fossil fuels in rural regions of many underdeveloped countries. In the U.S., wood wastes, sugar cane bagasse, and domestic firewood presently contribute as much as 2% of total fuel usage. Worldwide, biofuel production could be expanded considerably by better management and greater utilization of existing forest resources, by collection and use of agricultural residues, by gas production from animal wastes, and through municipal and industrial waste utilization. Besides such readily available and economically attractive biofuel resources, biomass farming specifically for fuel production has been proposed.

Keywords

Natural Rubber Sugar Cane Bagasse Semiarid Region Desert Plant Rubber Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Benemann, J.R. 1978, Biofuels, A Survey, Electric Power Research Institute, ER-746-SR, Palo Alto, California.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alich, J.A. and R.E. Inman. 1974, Effective Utilization of Solar Energy to Produce Clean Fuels. Final Report, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fraser, M. et al. 1977, The Photosynthesis Energy Factory: Analysis, Synthesis and Demonstration. Intertechnology/Solar Corp., Warrenton, Virginia.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Inman, R.E. 1977, Silviculture Biomass Farms; Vol. I, Summary, Mitre Corp., McLean, Virginia.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mariani, E.O. et al. 1978, The Eucalyptus Fuel Plantation as a New Source of Energy, Mareleo Inc., Beverly Hills, California.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oswald, W.J. and C.G. Goleuke. 1960, Biological Transformations of Solar Energy11, Adv. Appi. Microbiol. 2: 223–262.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Benemann, J.R. et al., 1978, 2nd Ann. Symp. Fuels From Biomass, “Fuels from Microalgae Biomass”, in press.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wilcox, H.A. 1976, The U.S. Navy’s Ocean Farm Project. Code 8046 Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    North, W.J. 1976, Ocean Food and Energy Farm Project, Subtasks 1 and 2: Biological Studies of M. pyrifera Growth in Upwelled Oceanic Waters, U.S. Energy Research and Development Admin.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Flowers, A. and A.J. Bryce. 1977, Energy Conversion from Marine Biomass, American Gas Association, Washington, DC.,Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wolverton, B.C. et al. 1975, Bioconversion of Water Hyacinths Into Methane Gas, Part I, NASA Tech. Memo TM-X72725.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lipinsky, E.S. et al. 1977, Systems Study of Fuels from Sugarcane, Sweet Sorghum, and Sugar Beets; Vol. I, Comprehensive Evaluation, Battelle, Columbus Laboratories.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Benson, W.R. 1977, “Biomass Potential From Agricultural Production”, in Conf. Proc., Biomass—A Cash Crop for the Future? Midwest Research Institute and Battelle, Columbus Laboratories, Kansas City, Missouri.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fisher, R.A. and N.C. Turner. 1978, “Plant Productivity in the Arid and Semiarid Zones,” Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 29: 277–317.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mudie, P.J. 1974, “The potential Economic Uses of Halophytes” in R.J. Reinola and W.H. Queens, eds. Ecology of Halophytes, Academic Press, New York., pp. 565–597.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    National Academy of Sciences. 1974, More Water for Arid Lands, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Solbrig, O.T. and G.H. Orians. 1977, “The Adaptive Characteristics of Desert Plants,” Amer. Sci., _65: 412–421.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berry,J.A. 1975, “Adaptation of Photosynthetic Processes to Stree,” Science, 188: 644–650.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schulze, E.D. and L. Kappen. 1975, “Primary Production of Deserts” in Photosynthesis and Productivity in Different Environments, J.P. Cooper, ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bjorkman, O. et al. 1972, “Photosynthetic Adaptation to High Temperatures: A field Study of Death Valley, Calif.” Science, 1975: 786–789.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boyko, K. 1975, “Saltwater Agriculture.” Sci. Ameri., 102: 88–96.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Epstein, E. and J.D. Norlyn. 1977, “Seawater Based Crop Production: A Feasibility Study,” Science, 97: 249–251.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    National Academy of Sciences. 1977, Guayule. An Alternative Source of Natural Rubber, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    McGinnies, W.G. and E.F. Kaase. 1975, Guayule: A Rubber Producing Shrub for Arid and Semiarid Regions, Office of Arid Land Studies, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    McGinnies, W.G. and E.F. Haase, eds. 1975, An International Conference on the Utilization of Guayule, Office of Arid Land Studies, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Anderson, E.V. 1978, Economics Improving for Guayule Rubber, 11 Chem. Eng. News, Aug. 28, pp 10–11.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reid, M.S. 1978, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, personal communication.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Calvin, M. 1978, “Green Factories”, Chem. Eng. News, March 20, pp. 30–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Loomis, R.S. 1978, “Agriculture”, presented at CHEMRAW Symp. on Organic Raw Materials, Intl. Union of Pure and Appi. Chem., Toronto, CANADA, in press.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Loomis, R.W., and P.A. Gerakis. 1978, “Productivity and Agricultural Ecosystems”, in Photosynthesis and Productivity in Different Environments, J.P. Cooper, ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Benemann, J.R. et al. 1978, Cost Analysis of Microalgae Biomass Systems, U.S. Dept. of Energy, HCP/TI 605–01. 94 p.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Benemann, J.R., et al. 1978, Large-Scale Freshwater Microalgal Biomass Production for Fuel and Fertilizer, Final Report, Sanitary Engineering Research Laboratory, Univ. of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Oswald, W.J. 1977, “Determinants of Feasibility in Bioconversion of Solar Energy, ”in Research in Photobiology, A. Castellani, ed., Plenum Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Goldman, J.C. 1978, Fuels for Solar Energy: Photosynthetic Systems State of the Art and Potential for Energy Production, USDOE, in Press.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goldman, J.C. and J.H Ryther. 1977, “Mass Production of Algae: Bioengineering Aspects”, in Biological Solar Energy Conversion, A. Mitsui, et al., eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Di Elia, C.F. et al., 1977, “Productivity and Nitrogen balance in Large-Scale Phytoplankton Cultures”, Wat. Res., 11: 1031–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Oswald, W.J. 1963, “High-Rate Pond in Waste Disposal”, in Dev. in Indux. Microbiol, pp. 112–119.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Oswald, W.J. and J.R. Benemann. 1978, “Biological Waste Treatment at Elevated Temperatures and Salinities”, in this volume.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ben-Amotz, A. 1978, Kors Industries Ltd., Israel, Private Communication.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ben-Amotz, A. and M. Avron. 1973,“The Role of Glycerol in the Osmotic Regulation of the Halophilic Alga, Dunaliella parva”, Plant Pysiol. 51: 875–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Borowitzka, L.J. and A.D. Borwn. 1974, “The Salt Relations of Marine and Halophilic Species of the Unicellular Green Alga, Dunaliella”, Arch. Microbiology, 96: 37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dubinsky, Z. et al. 1978, “Potential of Large-Scale Algal Culture for Biomass and Lipid Production in Arid Lands”, Bioeng. Biotech., in press.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Burlew, T.S. ed. 1953, Algae Culture: From Laboratory to Pilot Plant, Carnegie Institute of Washington publication, Wash., DC.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Benemann, J.R. et al. 1977, Solar Energy Conversion with Hydrogen-Producing Algae, Final Report, Sanitary Engineering Research Laboratory, Univ. of Calif., Berkeley.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kallenbeck, P.C. et al. 1978, “Solar Energy Conversion with Hydrogen-Producing Cultures of the Blue-Green Alga, Anabaena Cylindrica,” Bioeng. Biotech., in press.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Benemann, J.R. and W.J. Oswald. 1977, “Algae Farms on Marginal Cropland”, presented at Energy Farms Workshop, Biomass Alternative Implementation Div., Clif. Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, Sacramento, California,Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Felker, P. and G. Weiner. 1977, “Potential Use of Mesquite as a Low Energy, Water and Machinery Requiring Food Source”, unpublished manuscript, Univ. of California, Riverside.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    National Academy of Sciences. 1975, Products from Jojoba: A Promising New Crop for Arid Lands, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ryther, J.K. et al. 1977, “Cultivation of Seaweeds as a Biomass Source for Energy”, in press.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Neushul, M. 1977, “The domestication of the Giant Kelp, Macro-cystis, As a Marine Plant Biomass Producer”, in The Marine Plant Biomass of the Pacific Northwest Coast, R.W. Krauss, ed., Oregon State University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • John R. Benemann
    • 1
  1. 1.EcoenergeticsRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations