Interaction of Viruses with Neutralizing Antibodies

  • Benjamin Mandel

Abstract

Possibly the earliest published expectation and demonstration of the neutralizing capacity of humoral antibody is contained in the report of Sternberg (1892). He suspected that the blood of an individual recently recovered from a viral infection contained an “antitoxine” that could nullify the infectious capability of the causative agent. He then demonstrated that the serum of a calf recently vaccinated with cowpox (?) virus neutralized the infectivity of this virus when the two were mixed prior to inoculation. The validity of this result was corroborated, and extended, by Béclère et al. (1898) in their studies involving a different host, man, and a different virus, variola. Worthy of note is the empirical aspect of these speculations and experimentations since the nature of antibody as well as virus was at that time unknown.

Keywords

Entropy Enthalpy Fractionation Polypeptide Trypsin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ablashi, D. V., Martos, L. M., Gilden, R. V., and Hampar, B., 1969, Preparation of rabbit immune serum with neutralizing activity against a simian cytomegalovirus (SA61 J. Immunol. 102: 263.Google Scholar
  2. Adler, F. L., Walker, W. S., and Fishman, M., 1971, Amplification of phage neutralization by complement, antiglobulin, and allotype sera, Virology 46: 797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida, J. D., and Laurence, G. D., 1969, Heated and unheated antiserum on rubellaGoogle Scholar
  4. virus; morphological effect, Am. J. Dis. Child. 118:101.Google Scholar
  5. Almeida, J. D., and Waterson, A. P., 1969, The morphology of virusantibody interaction, Adv. Virus Res. 15: 307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Almeida, J. D., Brown, F., and Waterson, A. P., 1967, The morphologic characteristics of 19 S antibody, J. Immunol. 98: 186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersen, H. K., 1971, Serologic differentiation of human cytomegalovirus strains using rabbit hyperimmune sera, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 33: 187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Andersen, H. K., 1972, The influence of complement on cytomegalovirus neutralization by antibodies, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 36: 133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Andrewes, C. H., and Elford, W. J., 1933a, Observations on antiphage sera. I.TheGoogle Scholar
  10. percentage law Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 14:367.Google Scholar
  11. Andrewes, C. H., and Elford, W. J., 19336, Observations on antiphage sera. II. Properties of incompletely neutralized phage, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 14: 376.Google Scholar
  12. Arnon, R., 1971, Antibodies to enzymes—A tool in the study of antigenic specificity determinants, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 54: 47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ashe, W. K., and Notkins, A. L., 1966, Neutralization of an infectious herpes simplex virus-antibody complex by anti globulin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 56: 447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ashe, W. K., and Notkins, A. L., 1967, Kinetics of sensitization of herpes simplex virus and its relationship to the reduction in the neutralization rate constant, Virology 33: 613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ashe, W. K., Mage, M., Mage, R., and Notkins, A. L., 1968, Neutralization and sensitization of herpes simplex virus with antibody fragments from rabbits of different allotypes, J. Immunol. 101: 500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ashe, W. K., Mage, M., and Notkins, A. L., 1969, Kinetics of neutralization of sensitized herpes simplex virus with antibody fragments, Virology 37: 290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ashe, W. K., Daniels, C. A., Scott, G. S., and Notkins, A. L., 1971, Interaction of rheumatoid factor with infectious herpes simplex virus-antibody complexes, Science 172: 176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Austin, R. M., and Daniels, C. A., 1974, Interaction of staphylococcal protein A with virus-IgG complexes,J. Immunol. 113: 1568.Google Scholar
  19. Barlow, J. L., Van Vunakis, H., and Levine, L., 1958, Studies of the inactivation of phage by the properdin system. I. Evidence for complement, properdin and magnesium requirements, J. Immunol. 80: 339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Baughman, R. H., Fenters, J. D., Marquis, G. S., Jr., and Holper, J. C., 1968, Effect of complement and viral filtration on the neutralization of respiratory syncytial virus, Appl. Microbiol. 16: 1076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Béclère, A., Chambon, and Ménard, 1898, Études sur l’immunité vaccinale: L’immunité consécutive à l’inoculation sous cutanée du vaccin, Ann. Inst. Pasteur 12: 837.Google Scholar
  22. Bendinelli, M., Nardini, L., and Campa, M., 1974, Neutralization of Friend leukemia virus by sera of unimmunized animals, J. Gen. Virol. 22: 207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ben-Yoseph, Y., Geiger, B., and Arnon, R., 1975, Antibody mediated thermal stabilization of human hexosaminidases, Immunochemistry 12: 221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Berry, D. M., and Almeida, J. D., 1968, The morphological and biological effects of various antisera on avian infectious bronchitis virus,J. Gen. Virol. 3: 97.Google Scholar
  25. Bowman, B. U., Jr., and Patnode, R. A., 1963, Infection of protoplasts of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage 0X174 treated with specific antibody, Virology 21: 506.Google Scholar
  26. Bowman, B. U., and Patnode, R. A., 1964, Neutralization of bacteriophage 0X174 by specific antiserum,J. Immunol. 92: 507.Google Scholar
  27. Bradish, C. J., Farley, J. O., and Ferrier, H. E. N., 1962, Studies on the nature of the neutralization reaction and the competition for neutralizing antibody between components of the virus system of foot and mouth disease, Virology 18: 378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brandtzaeg, P., 1978, Polymeric IgA is complexed with secretory component (SC) on the surface of human intestinal epithelial cells, Scand. J. Immunol. 8: 39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Brown, D. A., Lescott, T., Harrap, K. A., and Kelly, D. C., 1977, The replication and titration of iridescent virus type 22 in Spodoptera frugiperda cells, J. Gen. Virol. 38: 175.Google Scholar
  30. Brown, F., Cartwright, B., and Newman, J. F. E., 1964, Further studies of the early antibody in the sera of cattle and guinea pigs infected with foot and mouth disease virus, J. Immunol. 93: 397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brown, J. C., and Koshland, M. E., 1975, Activation of antibody Fc function by antigen-induced conformational changes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 5111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Brown, M., and Faulkner, P., 1977, A plaque assay for nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, using a solid overly, J. Gen. Virol. 36: 361.Google Scholar
  33. Burnet, F. M., Keogh, E. V., and Lush, D., 1937, The immunological reactions of the filterable viruses, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 15: 227.Google Scholar
  34. Bums, W. H., and Allison, A. C., 1975, Virus infections and the immune responses they elicit, in: The Antigens ( M. Sela, ed.), pp. 479–574, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Cann, J. R., and Clark, E. W., 1954, On the kinetics of neutralization of bacteriophage T2 by specific antiserum, J. Immunol. 72: 463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Carthew, P., 1976, The surface nature of a bovine enterovirus, before and after neutralization,J. Gen. Virol. 32: 17.Google Scholar
  37. Chesebro, B., Bloth, B., and Svehag, S.-E., 1968, The ultrastructure of normal and pathological IgM immunoglobulins, J. Exp. Med. 127: 399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cinader, B., ed., 1966, Antibodies to Biologically Active Molecules, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Cohn, M., 1971, The take-home lesson—1971, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sei. 190: 529.Google Scholar
  40. Copra, J. D., and Kehoe, J. M., 1974, Antibody diversity: Is it all coded for by the germ line genes? Scand. J. Immunol. 3: 1.Google Scholar
  41. Cowan, K. M., 1962, Studies on the coliphage neutralizing activity of normal human serum, J. Immunol. 88: 476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cowan, K. M., 1973, Antibody response to viral antigens, Adv. Virus Res. 17: 195.Google Scholar
  43. Cremer, W. E., Riggs, J. L., Fujimoto, F. Y., Hagens, S. J., Ota, M. I., and Lennette, E. H., 1964, Neutralizing activity of fragments obtained by papain digestion of viral antibody, J. Immunol. 93: 283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cremer, N. E., Riggs, J. L., and Lennette, E. H., 1975, Neutralization kinetics of Western equine encephalitis virus by antibody fragments, Immunochemistry 12: 597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Crothers, D. M., and Metzger, H., 1972, The influence of polyvalency on the binding properties of antibodies, Immunochemistry 9: 341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Cunningham, A. J., 1974, The generation of antibody diversity: Its dependence on antigenic stimulation, Contemp. Top. Mol. Immunol. 3: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Cunningham, A. J., and Pilarski, L. M., 1974, Antibody diversity: A case for its generation after antigenic stimulation, Scand. J. Immunol. 3: 5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dales, S., and Kajioka, R., 1964, The cycle of multiplication of vaccinia virus in Earle’s strain L cells, Virology 24: 278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Daniels, C. A., 1975, Mechanisms of viral neutralization, in: Viral Immunology and Immunopathology ( A. L. Notkins, ed.), pp. 79–97, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Daniels, C. A., Borsos, T., Rapp, H. J., Snyderman, R., and Notkins, A. L., 1970, Neutralization of sensitized virus by purified components of complement, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 65: 528.Google Scholar
  51. Day, E. D., 1972, Advanced Immunochemistry, pp. 273 - 291, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  52. Day, L. A., Sturtevant, J. M., and Singer, S. J., 1962, The direct measurement of the rate of a hapten-antibody reaction, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84: 3768.Google Scholar
  53. Day, L. A., Sturtevant, J. M., and Singer, S. J., 1963, The kinetics of the reactions between antibodies to the 2,4 dinitrophenyl group and specific haptens, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sei. 103: 611.Google Scholar
  54. Delbrück, M., 1945, Effects of specific antisera on the growth of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages), J. Bacteriol. 50: 137.Google Scholar
  55. Della-Porta, A. J., and Westaway, E. G., 1978, A multi-hit model for the neutralization of animal viruses,J. Gen. Virol. 38: 1.Google Scholar
  56. De Sena, J., and Mandel, B., 1976, Studies on the in vitro uncoating of poliovirus. I. Characterization of the modifying factor and the modifying reaction, Virology 70: 470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Douglas, S. R., and Smith, W., 1930, A study of vaccinal immunity in rabbits by means of in vitro methods, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 11: 96.Google Scholar
  58. Dourmashkin, R. R., and Tyrrell, D. A. J., 1974, Electron microscopic observations on the entry of influenza virus into susceptible cells, J. Gen. Virol. 24: 129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Dozois, T. F., Wagner, J. C., Chemerda, C. M., and Andrew, V. M., 1949, The influence of certain factors on the neutralization of Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, J. Immunol. 62: 319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Drake, W. P., and Mardiney, M. R., Jr., 1975, Complement-mediated alteration of antibody specificity in vivo, J. Immunol. 114: 1053.Google Scholar
  61. Dudley, M. A., Henkens, R. W., and Rowlands, D. T., Jr., 1970, Kinetics of neutralization of bacteriophage f2 by rabbit G-antibodies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 65: 88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Dulbecco, R., Vogt, M., and Strickland, A. G. R., 1956, A study of the basic aspects of neutralization of two animal viruses, Western equine encephalitis virus and poliomyelitis virus, Virology 2: 162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Eisen, H. N., and Karush, F., 1949, Interaction of purified antibody with homologous hapten. Antibody valence and binding constant,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71: 363.Google Scholar
  64. Eisen, H. N., and Siskind, G. W., 1964, Variations in affinities of antibodies during the immune response, Biochemistry 3: 996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Elliott, R. M., Lescott, T., and Kelly, D. C., 1977, Serological relationships of an iridescent virus (type 25) recently isolated from Tipula sp. with two other iridescent viruses (types 2 and 22), Virology 81: 309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Epstein, S. I., Doty, P., and Boyd, W. C., 1956, A thermodynamic study of hapten-antibody association, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78: 3306.Google Scholar
  67. Erickson, R. P., 1974, Inactivation of trypsin by antibodies of high affinity, Immuno chemistry 11: 41.Google Scholar
  68. Fazekas de St. Groth, S., 1961, Methods in immunochemistry of viruses. 2. Evaluation of parameters from equilibrium measurements, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 39: 563.Google Scholar
  69. Fazekas de St. Groth, S., 1962, The neutralization of viruses, Adv. Virus Res. 9: 1.Google Scholar
  70. Fazekas de St. Groth, S., and Reid, A. F., 1958, The neutralization of animal viruses. II. A critical comparison of hypotheses, J. Immunol. 80: 225.Google Scholar
  71. Fazekas de St. Groth, S., and Webster, R. G., 1961, Methods in immunochemistry of viruses. I. Equilibrium filtration, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 39: 549.Google Scholar
  72. Fazekas de St. Groth, S., and Webster, R. G., 1963a, The neutralization of animal viruses. III. Equilibrium conditions in the influenza virus-antibody system, J. Immunol. 90: 140.Google Scholar
  73. Fazekas de St. Groth, S., and Webster, R. G., 19636, The neutralization of animal viruses. IV. Parameters of the influenza virus-antibody system, J. Immunol. 90: 151.Google Scholar
  74. Fazekas de St. Groth, S., Watson, G. S., and Reid, A. F., 1958, The neutralization of animal viruses. I. A model of virus-antibody interaction, J. Immunol. 80: 215.Google Scholar
  75. Feinstein, A., and Munn, E. A., 1966, An electron microscopic study of the interaction of macroglobulin (IgM) antibodies with bacterial flagella and of the binding of complement, J. Physiol. (London) 186: 64 P.Google Scholar
  76. Feinstein, A., and Rowe, A. J., 1965, Molecular mechanisms of formation of an antigen-antibody complex, Nature (London) 205: 147.Google Scholar
  77. Feinstein, R. N., Jaroslow, B. N., Howard, J. B., and Faulhaber, J. T., 1971, Stabilization of mutant catalase by complex formation with antibody to normal catalase, J. Immunol. 106: 1316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Fenwick, M. L., and Cooper, P. D., 1962, Early interactions between poliovirus and ERK cells: Some observations on the nature and significance of the rejected particles, Virology 18: 212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Finkelstein, M. S., and Uhr, J. W., 1966, Antibody formation. V. The avidity of 7M and 7G guinea pig antibodies to bacteriophage 0X174, J. Immunol. 97: 565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Foti, A. G., Glovsky, M. M., and Cooper, J. F., 1975, The effect of antibody on human prostatic acid phosphatase activity. I. Temperature and pH stabilization of acid phosphatase enzyme activity by rabbit antibody to acid phosphatase, Immuno- chemistry 12: 131.Google Scholar
  81. Froese, A., 1968, Kinetic and equilibrium studies on 2,4 dinitrophenyl hapten-antibody systems, Immunochemistry 5: 253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Froese, A., and Sehon, A. H., 1965, Kinetic and equilibrium studies of the reaction between anti-J?-nitrophenyl antibodies and a homologous hapten, Immunochemistry 2: 135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Froese, A., Sehon, A. H., and Eigen, M., 1962, Kinetic studies of protein-dye and anti- body-hapten interactions with the temperature-jump method, Can. J. Chem. 40: 1786.Google Scholar
  84. Gard, S., 1955, Neutralization of Theiler’s virus, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 37: 21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gard, S., 1957, Immuno-inactivation of poliovirus, Acta. Gesamte Virusforsch. 7: 449.Google Scholar
  86. Gipson, T. G., Daniels, C. A., and Notkins, A. L., 1974, Interaction of rheumatoid factor with infectious vaccinia virus-antibody complexes, J. Immunol. 112: 2087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Goodman, J. W., and Donch, J. J., 1964, Neutralization of bacteriophage by intact and degraded rabbit antibody,J. Immunol. 93: 96.Google Scholar
  88. Goodman, J. W., and Donch, J. J., 1965, Phage-neutralizing activity in light polypeptide chains of rabbit antibody, Immunochemistry 2: 351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Gopalakrishnan, P. V., and Karush, F., 1974a, Antibody affinity. VI. Synthesis of bivalent lactosyl haptens and their interaction with anti-lactosyl antibodies, Immunochemistry 11: 279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Gopalakrishnan, P. V., and Karush, F., 1974b, Antibody affinity. VII. Multivalent interaction of anti-lactoside antibody. J. Immunol. 113: 769.Google Scholar
  91. Gordon, M. H., 1925, Studies of the viruses of vaccinia and variola, Med. Res. Counc. G.B. Spec. Rep. Ser., No. 98.Google Scholar
  92. Graham, B. J., Minamishima, Y., Dreesman, G. R., Haines, H. G., and Benyesh-Mel- nick, M., 1971, Complement-requiring neutralizing antibodies in hyperimmune sera to human cytomegaloviruses,J. Immunol. 107: 1618.Google Scholar
  93. Granoff, A., 1965, The interaction of Newcastle disease virus and neutralizing antibody Virology25:38Google Scholar
  94. Graves, J. H., Cowan, K. M., and Trautman, R., 1964, Characterization of antibodies produced by guinea pigs inoculated with inactivated foot-and-mouth disease antigenImmunol. 92: 501Google Scholar
  95. Green, N. M., 1969, Electron microscopy of the immunoglobulins, Adv. Immunol. 11: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gudnadottir, M., and Palsson, P. A., 1965, Host-virus interaction in visna infected sheep, J. Immunol. 95: 1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hahon, N., 1969, The kinetics of neutralization of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus by antiserum and the reversibility of the reaction, J. Gen. Virol. 4: 77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hahon, N., 1970, Neutralization of residual infectivity of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus by anti-gamma globulin, J. Gen. Virol. 6: 361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Haimovich, J., and Sela, M., 1966, Inactivation of poly-DL-alanyl bacteriophage T4 with antisera specific toward poly-DL-alanine, J. Immunol. 97: 338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hajek, P., 1966, Properties of the neutralizing factors against T2 and 0X174 phages present in normal sera, Folia Microbiol. (Prague) 11: 290.Google Scholar
  101. Hajek, P., 1968, Dependence of the neutralizing activity of 19 S and 7 S antibodies on complement in the primary and secondary response in infant rabbits to phage T2, Folia Microbiol. (Prague) 13: 557.Google Scholar
  102. Hajek, P., 1969, Neutralization of bacterial viruses by antibodies of young animals. I. Dependence of neutralizing activity of 19 S and 7 S on complement in the course of the primary and secondary response of young rabbits immunized with T2 phage, Folia Microbiol. (Prague ) 14: 165.Google Scholar
  103. Hajek, P., and Mandel, L., 1966, Antibody response of young animals to bacteriophages of different immunological behaviour: 0X174 and T2, Folia Microbiol. (Prague) 11: 282.Google Scholar
  104. Hale, E. M., Hirata, A. A., Brusenback, R. A., and Overby, L. R., 1969, Antiserum neutralization of bacteriophage A mathematical analysis, J. Immunol. 102:206.Google Scholar
  105. Hampar, B., Notkins, A. L., Mage, M., and Keehn, M. A., 1968, Heterogeneity in the properties of 7 S and 19 S rabbit-neutralizing antibodies to herpes simplex virus, J. Immunol. 100: 586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hardie, G., and van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1975, Immunochemical studies of tobacco mosaic virus. I. Refutation of the alleged homogeneous binding of purified antibody fragments, Immunochemistry 12: 903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Harris, J. E., Siminovitch, L., McCulloch, E. A., and Cinader, B., 1962, Restoration of heat-labile activity in mouse and human antiserum to B. megatherium bacteriophage, Fed. Proc. 21: 17.Google Scholar
  108. Hashimoto, N., and Prince, A. M., 1963, Kinetic studies on the neutralization reaction between Japanese encephalitis virus and antiserum, Virology 19: 261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Haukenes, G., 1977, Demonstration of host antigens in the myxovirus membrane: Lysis of virus by antibody and complement, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Sect. B 85: 125.Google Scholar
  110. Haurowitz, F., 1973, The problem of antibody diversity. Immunodifferentiation versus somatic mutation, Immunochemistry 10: 775.Google Scholar
  111. Hawkes, R. A., 1964, Enhancement of the infectivity of arboviruses by specific antisera produced in domestic fowls, Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 42: 465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Hawkes, R. A., and Lafferty, K. J., 1967, The enhancement of virus infectivity by antibody, Virology 33: 250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Heineman, H. S., 1967, Herpes simplex neutralizing antibody—Quantitation of the complement-dependent fraction in different phases of adult human infection, J. Immunol 99: 214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hoffman, L. G., 1976a, Antibodies as allosteric proteins. I. hypothesis, Immunochemistry 13: 725.Google Scholar
  115. Hoffman, L. G., 1976, Antibodies as allosteric proteins. II. Comparison with experiment, Immunochemistry 13: 731.Google Scholar
  116. Hoffman, L. G., 1976c, Antibodies as allosteric proteins. III. An alternative model and some predictions, Immunochemistry 13: 737.Google Scholar
  117. Hornick, C. L., and Karush, F., 1969, The interaction of hapten-coupled bacteriophage 0X174 with antihapten antibody, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 5: 163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Hornick, C. L., and Karush, F., 1972, Antibody affinity. III. The role of multivalence, Immunochemistry 9: 325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Huggett, D. O., Rodriguez, J. E., and McKee, A. P., 1972, Infectious anti- body-reovirus complexes, Infect. Immun. 6: 996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Hultin, J. V., and McKee, A. P., 1952, Fixation of “neutralized” influenza virus by susceptible cells, J. Bacteriol. 63: 437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Hyllseth, B., and Pettersson, U., 1970, Neutralization of equine arteritis virus: Enhancing effect of guniea pig serum, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 32: 337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ide, K., and Yoshino, K., 1974, Studies on the neutralization of herpes simplex virus. VII. Réévaluation of the equilibrium theory concerning the unneutralizable persistent fraction, Jpn. J. Microbiol. 18: 397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ikegami, M., and Francki, I. B., 1973, Presence of antibodies to double-stranded RNA in sera of rabbits immunized with rice dwarf and maize rough dwarf viruses, Virology 56: 404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Iwasaki, T., and Ogura, R., 1968a, Studies on complement-potentiated neutralizing antibodies C’-PN-ab, Virology 34: 46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Iwasaki, T., and Ogura, R., 1968b, Studies on neutralization of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). I. Further neutralization of the resistant fraction by an interaction between antivirus IgG antibody and IgG heterotype or allotype antibody, Virology 34: 141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Jaton, J.-C., Huser, H., Braun, D. G., Givol, D., Pecht, I., and Schlessinger, J., 1975, Conformational changes induced in a homogeneous anti-type III pneumococcal antibody by oligosaccharides of increasing size, Biochemistry 14: 5312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Jerne, N. K., and Avegno, P., 1956, The development of the phage-inactivating properties of serum during the course of specific immunization of an animal; reversible and irreversible inactivation, J. Immunol. 76: 200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Joklik, W. K., 1964, The intracellular fate of rabbitpox virus rendered noninfectious by various reagents, Virology 22: 620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Joklik, W. K., and Darnell, J. E., Jr., 1961, The adsorption and early fate of purified poliovirus in HeLa cells, Virology 13: 439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kalmanson, G. M., Hershey, A. D., and Bronfenbrenner, J., 1942, Factors influencing the rate of neutralization of bacteriophage by the antibody, J. Immunol. 45: 1.Google Scholar
  131. Kârber, G., 1931, Beitrag zur kollektiven Behandlung pharmakologischer Reihen- versuche, Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 162: 480.Google Scholar
  132. Karl, S. C., and Thormar, H., 1971, Antibodies produced by rabbits immunized with visna virus, Infect. Immun. 4: 715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Karush, F., 1956, The interaction of purified antibody with optically isomeric haptens, J.Am. Chem.Soc. 78: 5519.Google Scholar
  134. Karush, F., 1962, Immunologic specificity and molecular structure, Adv. Immunol. 2: 1.Google Scholar
  135. Karush, F., 1976, Multivalent binding and functional affinity, in: Contemporary Topics in Molecular Immunology, Vol. 5 ( H. N. Eisen and R. A. Reisfeld, eds.), pp. 217–228, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  136. Keller, R., 1965, Reactivation by physical means of antibody-neutralized poliovirus, J. Immunol. 94: 143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Keller, R., 1966, The stability of neutralization of poliovirus by native antibody and enzymatically derived fragments, Immunol. 96: 96.Google Scholar
  138. Keller, R., 1968, Studies on the mechanism of the enzymatic reactivation of antibody- neutralized poliovirus,J. Immunol. 100: 1071.Google Scholar
  139. Keller, R., and Dwyer, J. E., 1968, Neutralization of poliovirus by IgA coproanti- bodies, J. Immunol. 101: 192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Ketler, A., Hinuma, Y., and Hummeler, K., 1961, Dissociation of infective poliomyelitis virus from neutralizing antibody by fluorocarbon, J. Immunol. 86: 22.Google Scholar
  141. Kindt, T. J., 1975, Rabbit immunoglobulin allotypes; structure, immunology, and genetics, Adv. Immunol. 21: 35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Kjellen, L., 1957, Studies on in vitro neutralization of adenoviruses, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 7: 307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kjellen, L., 1962, Studies on the interactions of adenovirus, antibody, and host cells in vitro, Virology 18: 448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kjellen, L., 1964, Reactions between adenovirus antigens and papain digested rabbit immune globulin. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 14: 189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Kjellen, L., 1965a, On the capacity of pepsin-digested antibody to neutralize adenovirus infectivity, Immunology 8: 557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Kjellen, L., 19656, Density gradient centrifugations of adenovirus-antibody complexes, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 17: 398.Google Scholar
  147. Kjellen, L., and Pereira, H. G., 1968, Role of adenovirus antigens in the induction of virus neutralizing antibody, J. Gen. Virol. 2: 177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kjellen, L. E., and Schlesinger, R. W., 1959, Influence of host cell on residual infectivity of neutralized vesicular stomatitis virus, Virology 7: 236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Klinman, N. R., Long, C. A., and Karush, F., 1967, The role of antibody bivalence in the neutralization of bacteriophage, J. Immunol. 99: 1128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Krummel, W. M., and Uhr, J. W. 1969, A mathematical and experimental study of the kinetics of neutralization of bacteriophage 0X174 by antibodies, J. Immunol. 102: 772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Kulberg, A. J., and Pervikov, Ju. V., 1976, Naturally occurring antiglobulin factors in virus neutralization: Homoreactant as a factor enhancing neutralization of the infectious complex of poliovirus with the Fab antibody fragment, Infect. Immun. 13: 322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Kurtz-Fritsch, C., and Hirth, L., 1972, Uncoating of two spherical plant viruses, Virology 47: 385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Lafferty, K. J., 1963a, The interaction between virus and antibody. I. Kinetic studies, Virology 21: 61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Lafferty, K. J., 1963b, The interaction between virus and antibody. II. Mechanism of the reaction, Virology 21: 76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Lafferty, K. J., and Oertelis, S., 1963, The interaction between virus and antibody. III. Examination of virus-antibody complexes with the electron microscope, Virology 21: 91.Google Scholar
  156. Lanni, F., and Lanni, Y. T., 1953, Antigenic structure of bacteriophage, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 18: 159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Leddy, J. P., Simons, R. L., and Douglas, R. G., 1977, Effect of selective complement deficiency on the rate of neutralization of enveloped viruses by human sera, J. Immunol. 118: 28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Leerhoy, J., 1968, Rubella virus neutralization in heated sera, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 73: 275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Lewenton-Kriss, S., and Mandel, B., 1972, Studies on the nonneutralizable fraction of poliovirus, Virology 48: 666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Leymaster, G. R., and Ward, T. G., 1949, The effect of complement in the neutralization of mumps virus, J. Immunol. 61: 95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Linscott, W. D., and Levinson, W. E., 1969, Complement components required for virus neutralization by early immunoglobulin antibody, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 64: 520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Long, P. H., and Olitzky, P. K., 1930, The recovery of vaccine virus after neutralization with immune serum, J. Exp. Med. 51: 209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Macario, A. J. L., and Conway de Macario, E., 1975, Antigen-binding properties of antibody molecules: Time-course dynamics and biological significance, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 71: 125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Maess, J., 1971, Komplementabhangige in vz/ro-Neutralisation des equine arteritis virus, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 33: 194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Majer, M., 1972, Virus sensitization, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 58: 69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Majer, M., and Link, F., 1970, Studies on the non-neutralizable fraction of vaccinia virus, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 7: 283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Majer, M., and Link, F., 1971, Sensitization of influenza virus A2/Singapore by antineuraminidase, Gen. Virol. 13: 355.Google Scholar
  168. Majer, M., and Link, F., 1972, Studies on a recombinant influenza A virus by indirect neutralization, Z. Immunitaetsforsch. 144: 96.Google Scholar
  169. Mäkelä, O., 1966, Assay of anti-hapten antibody with the aid of hapten-coupled bacteriophage, Immunology 10: 81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Mamet-Bratley, M. D., 1966, Evidence concerning homogeneity of the combining sites of purified antibody, Immunochemistry 3: 155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Mandel, B., 1958, Studies on the interactions of poliomyelitis virus, antibody, and host cells in a tissue culture system, Virology 6: 424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Mandel, B., 1960, Neutralization of viral infectivity: Characterization of the virus-antibody complex, including association, dissociation, and host-cell interaction, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sei. 83:515.Google Scholar
  173. Mandel, B., 1961, Reversibility of the reaction between poliovirus and neutralizing antibody of rabbit origin, Virology 14: 316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Mandel, B., 1967a, The interaction of neutralized poliovirus with HeLa cells. I. Adsorption, Virology 31: 238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Mandel, B., 1967b, The interaction of neutralized poliovirus with HeLa cells. II. Elution, penetration, uncoating, Virology 31: 248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Mandel, B., 1971a, Methods for the study of virus-antibody complexes, Methods Virol. 5: 375.Google Scholar
  177. Mandel, B., 1971b Characterization of type 1 poliovirus by electrophoretic analysis, Virology 44: 554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Mandel, B., 1976, Neutralization of poliovirus: A hypothesis to explain the mechanism and the one-hit character of the neutralization reaction, Virology 69: 500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Mandel, B., 1978, Neutralization of animal viruses, Adv. Virus Res. 23: 205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Mannweiler, E., 1963, Die Neutralisation von Influenza-virus in der Gewebekultur von Huhnerembryo-nieren-zellen. II. Die unspezifische Neutralisation, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 12: 197.Google Scholar
  181. Markenson, J. A., Daniels, C. A., Notkins, A. L., Hoofnagle, J. H., Gerety, J., and Barker, L. F., 1975, The interaction of rheumatoid factor with hepatitis B surface antigen-antibody complexes, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 19: 209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Martos, L. M., Ablashi, D. V., Gilden, R. V., Siguenza, R. F., and Hampar, B., 1970, Preparation of immune rabbit sera with neutralizing activity against human cytomegalovirus and varicella-zoster virus,/. Gen. Virol. 7: 169.Google Scholar
  183. McKercher, P. D., and Giordano, A. R., 1967, Foot-and-mouth disease in swine. II. Some physical-chemical characteristics of antibodies produced by chemically- treated and non-treated foot-and-mouth disease virus, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 20: 54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. McNeill, T. A., 1968, The neutralization of pox viruses. I. Evidence for antibody interference, J. Hyg. 66: 541.Google Scholar
  185. Metzger, H., 1974, Effect of antigen binding on the properties of antibody, Adv. Immunol 18: 169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Miller, G. W., 1977, Complement-mediated dissociation of antibody from immobilized antigen,J. Immunol. 119: 488.Google Scholar
  187. Minamishima, Y., Graham, B. J., and Benyesh-Melnick, M., 1971, Neutralizing antibodies to cytomegaloviruses in normal simian and human sera, Infect. Immun. 4: 368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Monod, J., Wyman, J., and Changeux, J.-P., 1965, On the nature of allosteric transitions: A plausible model,J. Mol. Biol. 12: 88.Google Scholar
  189. Morgan, C., and Rose, H. M., 1968, Structure and development of viruses as observed in the electron microscope. VIII. Entry of influenza virus, J. Virol. 2: 925.Google Scholar
  190. Morgan, C., Rose, H. M., and Mednis, B., 1968, Electron microscopy of herpes simplex virus. I. Entry,J. Virol. 2: 507.Google Scholar
  191. Mueller, J. H., 1931, The effect of alexin in virus-antivirus mixtures. J. Immunol. 20: 17.Google Scholar
  192. Muschel, L. H., and Toussaint, A. J., 1962, Studies on the bacteriophage neutralizing activity of serums. II. Comparison of normal and immune phage neutralizing antibodies, J. Immunol. 89: 35.Google Scholar
  193. Nagano, Y., and Mutai, M., 1954, Études sérologiques sur le bactériophage. 2. Adsorption du bactériophage neutralisé sur le bactérie hote, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 148: 766.Google Scholar
  194. Nagano, Y., Takeuti, S., and Iwasa, S., 1952, Études sérologiques de bactériophage. II. Influence de l’immunsérum sur l’adsorption du phage T2 sur la bactérie hôte, Jpn. J. Exp. Med. 22: 145.Google Scholar
  195. Neva, F. A., and Weller, T. H., 1964, Rubella interferon and factors influencing the indirect neutralization test for rubella antibody, J. Immunol. 93: 466.Google Scholar
  196. Nicklin, M. G., and Stephen, J., 1973, Solubilities of protein-antigen/rabbit-antibody complexes as a measure of serum avidity, Immunochemistry 10: 717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Nisonoff, A., Wissler, F. C., Lipman, L. N., and Woernley, D. L., 1960, Separation of univalent fragments from the bivalent rabbit antibody molecule by reduction of disulfide bonds, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 89: 230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Notkins, A. L., 1971, Infectious virus-antibody complexes: Interaction with antiimmunoglobulins, complement, and rheumatoid factor,J. Exp. Med. 134: 41S.Google Scholar
  199. Notkins, A. L., Mahar, S., Scheele, C., and Goffman, J., 1966, Infectious virus-antibody complex in the blood of chronically infected mice, J. Exp. Med. 124: 81.Google Scholar
  200. Notkins, A. L., Mage, M., Ashe, W. K., and Mahar, S., 1968, Neutralization of sensitized lactic dehydrogenase virus by anti-globulin, J. Immunol. 100: 314.Google Scholar
  201. Notkins, A. L., Rosenthal, J., and Johnson, B., 1971, Rate zonal centrifugation of herpes simplex virus-antibody complexes, Virology 43: 321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Ogra, P. L., Karzon, D. T., Righthand, F., and MacGillivray, M., 1968, Immunoglobulin response in serum and secretions after immunization with live and inactivated poliovaccine and after natural infection, New Engl. J. Med. 279: 893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Ogra, P. L., Marag, A., and Tiku, M. L., 1975, Humoral immune response to viral infections, in: Viral Immunology and Immunopathology ( A. L. Notkins, ed.), pp. 57–77, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  204. Okuno, T., and Furusawa, I., 1978, Use of osmotic shock for the inoculation of barley protoplasts with brome mosaic virus, J. Gen. Virol. 39: 187.Google Scholar
  205. Oldstone, M. B. A., 1975, Virus neutralization and virus-induced immune complex disease, Prog. Med. Virol. 19: 84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Oldstone, M. B. A., Larson, D. L., and Cooper, N. R., 1972, Virus-antiviral antibody (V-Ab) complexes: Interaction with complement, Fed. Proc. 31: 791.Google Scholar
  207. Oldstone, M. B. A., Cooper, N. R., and Larson, D. L., 1974, Formation and biologic role of polyoma virus-antibody complexes: A critical role for complement, J. Exp. Med. 140: 549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Oroszlan, S., and Gilden, R. V., 1970, Immune virolysis: Effect of antibody and complement on C-type RNA virus, Science 168: 1478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Orvell, C., and Norrby, E., 1977, Immunologic properties of purified Sendai virus glycoproteins,J. Immunol. 119: 1882.Google Scholar
  210. Osler, A. G., 1976, Complement—Mechanisms and Functions, Prentice-Hall, Engle- wood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  211. Otsuki, Y., and Takebe, I., 1973, Infection of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts by cucumber mosaic virus, Virology 52: 433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Otsuki, Y., Takebe, I., Honda, Y., Kajita, S., and Matsui, C., 1974, Infection of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts by potato virus X, J. Gen. Virol. 22: 375.Google Scholar
  213. Ozaki, Y., 1968, Neutralization kinetics of poliovirus by specific antiserum during the course of immunization of rabbits, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 25: 137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Ozaki, Y., and Kumagai, K., 1969, Studies on the neutralization of Japanese encephalitis virus. II. Variations in reaction properties of virus to antibody during replication in PS cell cultures, J Immunol. 103: 850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Ozaki, Y., and Tabeyi, K., 1967, Studies on the neutralization of Japanese encephalitis virus. I. Application of kinetic neutralization to the measurement of the neutralizing potency of antiserum,J. Immunol. 98: 1218.Google Scholar
  216. Ozaki, Y., Kumagai, K., Kawanishi, M., and Seto, A., 1974, Studies on the neutralization of Japanese encephalitis virus. III. Analysis of the neutralization reaction by anti-rabbit globulin serum, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 45: 7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Palmer, J. L., Mandy, W. J., and Nisonoff, A., 1962, Heterogeneity of rabbit antibody and its subunits, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48: 49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Parkman, P. D., Mundon, F. K., McCown, J. M., and Buescher, E. L., 1964, Studies of rubella. II. Neutralization of the virus, J. Immunol. 93: 608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Pernis, B., Ghezzi, I., and Turri, M., 1963, Properties of phage-neutralizing antibodies produced by new born rabbits, Nature (London) 197: 807.Google Scholar
  220. Petty, R. E., and Steward, W. M., 1977, The effect of immunological adjuvants on the relative affinity of anti protein antibodies, Immunology 32: 49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Philipson, L., 1966, Interaction between poliovirus and immunoglobulins. II. Basic aspects of virus antibody interaction, Virology 28: 35.Google Scholar
  222. Philipson, L., and Bennich, H., 1966, Interaction between poliovirus and immunoglobulins. III. The effect of cleavage products of rabbit globulin on infectivity and distribution of virus in polymer phase systems, Virology 29: 330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Porter, D. D., and Larsen, A. E., 1967, Aleutian disease of mink: Infectious virus antibody complexes in the serum, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 126: 680.Google Scholar
  224. Porter, R. R., 1959, The hydrolysis of rabbit globulin and antibodies with crystalline papain, Biochem. J. 73: 119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Putnam, F. W., Tan, M., Lynn, L. T., Easley, C. W., and Migita, S., 1962, The cleavage of rabbit globulin by papain, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Radwan, A. I., and Burger, D., 1973a, The complement requiring neutralization of equine arteritis virus by late antisera, Virology 51: 71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Radwan, A. I., and Burger, D., 19736, The role of sensitizing antibody in the neutralization of equine arteritis virus by complement or anti IgG serum, Virology 53: 366.Google Scholar
  228. Radwan, A. I., Burger, D., and Davis, W. C., 1973, The fate of sensitized equine arteritis virus following neutralization by complement or anti IgG serum, Virology 53: 372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Rappaport, I., 1957, The kinetics of antibody inactivation of tobacco mosaic virus, J. Immunol. 78: 256.Google Scholar
  230. Rappaport, I., 1965, The antigenic structure of tobacco mosaic virus, Adv. Virus Res. 11: 223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Rappaport, I., 1970, An analysis of the inactivation of MS2 bacteriophage with antiserum,J. Gen. Virol. 6: 25.Google Scholar
  232. Rawls, W. E., Desmyter, J., and Melnick, J. L., 1967, Rubella virus neutralization by plaque reduction, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 124: 167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Reed, L. J., and Muench, H., 1938, A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoints, Am. J. Hyg. 27: 493.Google Scholar
  234. Rohrman, G. F., and Krueger, R. G., 1970, Precipitation and neutralization of bacteriophage MS2 by rabbit antibodies,J. Immunol. 104: 353.Google Scholar
  235. Rosenstein, R. W., Nisonoff, A., and Uhr, J. W., 1971, Significance of bivalence of antibody in viral neutralization, J. Exp. Med. 134: 1431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Rotman, M. B., and Celada, F., 1968, Antibody mediated activation of a defective galactosidase extracted from an Escherichia coli mutant, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 60: 660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Rowlands, D. T., Jr., 1967, Precipitation and neutralization of bacteriophage f2 by rabbit antibodies, J. Immunol. 98: 958.Google Scholar
  238. Rubin, H., 1957, Interactions between Newcastle disease virus (NDV), antibody and cell, Virology 4: 533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Rubin, H., and Franklin, R. M., 1957, On the mechanism of Newcastle disease virus neutralization by immune serum, Virology 3: 84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Sabin, A. B., 1935a, The mechanism of immunity to filterable viruses. I. Does the virus combine with the protective substance in immune serum in the absence of tissue? Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 16: 70.Google Scholar
  241. Sabin, A. B., 19356, II. Fate of the virus in a system consisting of susceptible tissue, immune serum and virus, and the role of the tissue in the mechanism of immunity, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 16: 84.Google Scholar
  242. Sagik, B. P., 1954, A specific reversible inhibition of bacteriophage T2, J. Bacteriol. 68: 430.Google Scholar
  243. Sarvas, H., and Makela, O., 1970, Haptenated bacteriophage in the assay of antibody quantity and affinity: Maturation of an immune response, Immunochemistry 7: 933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Scatchard, G., 1949, The attractions of proteins for small molecules and ions, Ann. N.Y.Acad. Sci. 51: 660.Google Scholar
  245. Schluederberg, A., Ajello, C., and Evans, B., 1976, Fate of rubella genome ribonucleic acid after immune and nonimmune virolysis in the presence of ribonuclease, Infect. Immun. 14: 1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Schrader, J. A., and Muschel, L. H., 1975, Coliphage T2 neutralization by 7 S antibody and CI, Immunochemistry 12: 791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Schultz, E. W., 1928, Studies on the antigenic properties of the ultra viruses. I. Introductory remarks,J. Immunol. 15: 229.Google Scholar
  248. Seidman, J. G., Leder, A., Nau, M., Norman, B., and Leder, P., 1978, Antibody diversity, Science 202: 11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Shinkai, K., and Yoshino, K., 1975a, Complement requirement of neutralizing antibodies in different classes of immunoglobulin appearing in rabbits and guinea pigs after primary and booster immunization with herpes simplex virus, Jpn. J. Microbiol. 19: 25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Shinkai, K., and Yoshino, K., 19756, Neutralizing activities of early and late IgG fragments from rabbits immunized with herpes simplex virus, Jpn. J. Microbiol. 19: 211.Google Scholar
  251. Shortridge, K. F., 1972, Adenovirus neutralization—behavior of virion derived capsid components in the production of an in vitro neutralizing antibody, Microbios 5: 265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Shortridge, K. F., and Biddle, F., 1970, The proteins of adenovirus type 5, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 29:1.Google Scholar
  253. Silverstein, S. C., and Marcus, P. I., 1964, Early stages of Newcastle disease virus HeLa cell interaction: An electron microscopic study, Virology 23: 370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Smith, K. O., Galasso, G., and Sharp, D. G., 1961, Effect of antiserum on adsorption of vaccinia virus to Earle’s L cells, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 106: 669.Google Scholar
  255. Smith, W., 1930, Specific antibody absorption by the viruses of vaccinia and herpes, J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 33: 273.Google Scholar
  256. Smorodintsev, A. A., and Yabrov, A. A., 1963, The mechanism of enhanced activity of anti influenza virus neutralizing antisera on their interaction with native serum from normal animals, Acta Virol. Engl. Ed. 7: 193.Google Scholar
  257. Spielberg, H., 1974, Biological activities of immune globulins of different classes and subclasses, Adv. Immunol. 19: 259.Google Scholar
  258. Stemke, G. W., 1969, Mechanism of bacteriophage T4 neutralization by rabbit immunoglobulin and its proteolytic digestion fragments, J. Immunol. 103: 596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Stemke, G. W., and Lennox, E. S., 1967, Bacteriophage neutralizing activity of fragments derived from rabbit immunoglobulins by papain digestion, J. Immunol. 98: 94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Sternberg, G. M., 1892, Practical results of bacteriological researches, Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 7: 68.Google Scholar
  261. Stevens, D. A., Pincus, T., Burroughs, M. A. K., and Hampar, B., 1968, Serologic relationship of a simian herpes virus (SA8) and herpes simplex virus: Heterogeneity in the degree of reciprocal cross-reactivity shown by rabbit 7 S and 19 S antibodies, J. Immunol. 101: 979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Stinski, M. F., and Cunningham, C. H., 1970, Antibody neutralized avian infectious bronchitis virus in chicken embryo kidney cells: Entry and degradation, J. Gen. Virol. 8: 173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Strunk, R. C., John, T. J., and Sieber, O. F., 1977, Herpes simplex virus infections in guinea pigs deficient in the fourth component of complement, Infect. Immun. 15: 165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Styk, B., 1965, Cofactor and specific antibodies against influenza viruses. XI. Mechanism of the action of antibody cofactor, Acta Virol. Engl. Ed. 9: 210.Google Scholar
  265. Styk, B., 1965, Cofactor and specific antibodies against influenza viruses. XI. Mechanism of the action of antibody cofactor, Acta Virol. Engl. Ed. 9: 210.Google Scholar
  266. Styk, B., and Hana, L., 19656, Cofactor and specific antibodies against influenza viruses. X. Formation of 19 S and 7 S type influenza antibodies in young and adult rabbits and roosters; the role of antibody cofactor, Acta Virol. Engl. Ed. 9: 200.Google Scholar
  267. Styk, B., Rathova, V., and Blaskovic, D., 1958, Thermolability of specific hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against the FE influenza virus and their reactivation by the addition of fresh serum, Acta Virol. Engl. Ed. 2: 179.Google Scholar
  268. Svehag, S.-E., 1963, Reactivation of neutralized virus by fluorocarbon: Mechanism of action and demonstration of reduced reactivability with time of virus antibody interaction, Virology 21: 174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Svehag, S.-E., 1965a, The dissociability of different poliovirus antibody complexes as tested by hypertonic salt solutions, Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 17: 504.Google Scholar
  270. Svehag, S.-E., 1965b, The formation and properties of poliovirus neutralizing antibody. 5. Changes in the quality of 19 S and 7 S rabbit antibodies following immunization, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 64: 103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Svehag, S.-E., 1966, Diversity of antibodies formed against viruses, in: Antibodies to Biologically Active Molecules ( B. Cinader, ed.), pp. 301 - 348, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  272. Svehag, S.-E., 1968, Formation and dissociation of virus-antibody complexes with special reference to the neutralization process, Prog. Med. Virol. 10:1.Google Scholar
  273. Svehag, S.-E., and Mandel, B., 1962, The production and properties of poliovirus neutralizing antibody of rabbit origin, Virology 18: 508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Svehag, S.-E., and Mandel, B., 1964a, The formation and properties of poliovirus-neu- tralizing antibody. I. 19 S and 7 S antibody formation: Differences in kinetics and antigen dose requirement for induction, J. Exp. Med. 119: 1.Google Scholar
  275. Svehag, S.-E., and Mandel, B., 1964b, The formation and properties of poliovirus-neutralizing antibody. II. 19 S and 7 S antibody formation: Differences in antigen dose requirement for sustained synthesis, anamnesis, and sensitivity to X-irradiation, J.Exp. Med. 119: 21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Svehag, S.-E., Chesebro, B., and Bloth, B., 1968, Ultrastructure of IgM immunoglobulins, Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 50: 1013.Google Scholar
  277. Symington, J., McCann, A. K., and Schlesinger, M. J., 1977, Infectious virus-antibody complexes of sindbis virus, Infect. Immun. 15: 720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Szweczuk, M. R., and Mukkur, T. K. S., 1977, Enthalpy-entropy compensation in dinitrophenyl-anti-dinitrophenyl antibody interaction(s), Immunology 32: 11.Google Scholar
  279. Takebe, I., 1977, Protoplasts in the study of plant virus replication, in: Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 11 (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and Robert R. Wagner, eds.), Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  280. Takebe, I., and Otsuki, Y., 1969, Infection of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts by tobacco mosaic virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 64: 843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Taniguchi, S., and Yoshino, K., 1965, Studies on the neutralization of herpes simplex virus. II. Analysis of complement as the antibody-potentiating factor, Virology 26: 54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Thomssen, R., 1963, Ein chromatographisches Verfahren zur Bestimmung typenspezifischer Poliovirus-antikorper mit 32P-markierten Poliovirus, Z. Natur- forsch. 18B: 798.Google Scholar
  283. Thormar, H., 1963, Neutralization of visna virus by antisera from sheep, J. Immunol. 90: 185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Tiselius, A., and Kabat, E. A., 1939, An electrophoretic study of immune sera and purified antibody preparations, J. Exp. Med. 69: 119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Tolmach, L. J., 1956, Immunological aspects of bacteriophage-host cell interaction, Fed. Proc. 15: 619.Google Scholar
  286. Toolan, H. W., 1965, H-l virus viremia in adult hamster, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 119: 715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Toussaint, A. J., and Muschel, L. H., 1962, Studies on the bacteriophage neutralizing activity of serums. I. An assay procedure for normal antibody and complement, J. Immunol. 89: 27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Trautman, R., 1976, Unified mass-action theory for virus neutralization and radioimmunology, Scand. J. Immunol. 5: 609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Trautman, R., and Harris, W. F., 1977, Modeling and computer simulation approach to the mechanism of foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralization assays, Scand. J. Immunol. 6: 831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Tyrrell, D. A. J., and Horsfall, F. L., Jr., 1953, Neutralization of viruses by homologous immune serum. I. Quantitative studies on factors which affect the neutralization reaction with Newcastle disease, influenza A, and bacterial virus, T3, J. Exp. Med. 97: 845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Uhr, J. W., 1964, The heterogeneity of the immune response, Science, 145: 457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Uhr, J. W., and Finkelstein, M. S., 1963, Antibody formation. IV. Formation of rapidly and slowly sedimenting antibodies and immunological memory to bacteriophage 0X174, J. Exp. Med. 117: 457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Uhr, J. W., Finkelstein, M. S., and Baumann, J. B., 1962, Antibody formation. III. The primary and secondary response to bacteriophage 0X174 in guinea pigs, J. Exp. Med. 115: 655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Valentine, R. C., and Green, N. M., 1967, Electron microscopy of an antibody-hapten complex, J. Mol. Biol. 27: 615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. van Regenmortel, M. H. V., 1966, Plant virus serology, Adv. Virus Res. 12: 207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Van Vunakis, H., Barlow, J. L., and Levine, L., 1956, Neutralization of bacteriophage by the properdin system, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 42: 391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Vogt, A., Kopp, R., Maass, G., and Reich, L., 1964, Poliovirus type 1: Neutralization by papain-digested antibodies, Science, 145: 1447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Wadell, G., 1972, Sensitization and neutralization of adenovirus by specific sera against capsid subunits, J. Immunol. 108: 622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Wallis, C., 1971, The role of antibody, complement, and anti-IgG in the persistent fraction of herpesvirus, in: Viruses Affecting Man and Animals ( M. Sanders and M. Schaeffer, eds.), pp. 102–123, Warren H. Green, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  300. Wallis, C., and Melnick, J. L., 1967, Virus aggregation as the cause of the nonneu- tralizable persistent fraction, J. Virol. 1: 478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Wallis, C., and Melnick, J. L., 1970, Herpesvirus neutralization: Induction of the persistent fraction by insufficient antibody, Virology 42: 128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Wallis, C., Shirley, A., and Melnick, J. L., 1973, Total recovery of infectious virus from noninfectious type 1 poliovirus-antibody complex by heating in salts, Intervirology 1: 41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Way, H. J., and Garwes, D. J., 1970, Serum accessory factors in the measurement of arbovirus neutralization reactions, J. Gen. Virol. 7: 211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Werner, T. C., Bunting, J. R., and Cathou, R. E., 1972, The shape of immunoglobulin G molecule in solution, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69: 795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Westaway, E. G., 1965a, The neutralization of arboviruses. I. Neutralization in homologous virus-serum mixtures with two group B arboviruses, Virology 26: 517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Westaway, E. G., 1965b, The neutralization of arboviruses. II. Neutralization in heterologous virus-serum mixtures with four group B arboviruses, Virology 26: 528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Westaway, E. G., 1968, Antibody responses in rabbits to the group B arbovirus Kunjin: Serologic activity of the fractionated immunoglobulins in homologous and heterologous reactions, J. Immunol. 100: 569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Wigzell, H., 1973, Antibody diversity: Is it all coded for by the germ line genes? Scand. J. Immunol. 2: 199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Yguerabide, J., Epstein, H. F., and Stryer, L., 1970, Segmental flexibility in an antibody molecule, J. Mol. Biol. 51: 573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Yoshino, K., and Isono, N., 1978, Studies on the neutralization of herpes simplex virus. IX. Variance in complement requirement among IgG and IgM from early and late sera under different sensitization conditions, Microbiol. Immunol. 22: 403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Yoshino, K., and Taniguchi, S., 1964, The appearance of complement-requiring neutralizing antibodies by immunization and infection with herpes simplex virus, Virology 22: 193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Yoshino, K., and Taniguchi, S., 1965a, Studies on the neutralization of herpes simplex virus. I. Appearance of neutralizing antibodies having different grades of complement requirement, Virology 26: 44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Yoshino, K., and Taniguchi, S., 19656, Studies on the neutralization of herpes simplex virus. III. Mechanism of the antibody-potentiating action of complement, Virology 26: 61.Google Scholar
  314. Zimmerman, S. E., Brown, R. K., Curti, B., and Massey, V., 1971, Immunochemical studies of L-amino acid oxidase, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 229: 260PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Mandel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of VirologyThe Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York, Inc.New YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations