Learning Theory and Psychoanalysis

  • Eugene Wolf
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series

Abstract

In this eloquent and persuasive paper, Wolf explicates the differences between the classical conditioning theory of Pavlov and the operant conditioning concepts of Skinner, and their applications to psychodynamic theory and practice. He makes the telling point that for many people the traumatic life situations into which they are inextricably bound renders them just as immobilized, for all practical purposes, as dogs in a Pavlovian frame, and that this may explain why, like Pavlov’s dogs, they persist in their neurotic responses despite the fact that these responses are maladaptive. He suggests that transference and countertransference reactions can be seen as learned responses based on earlier stimuli, which then become generalized to similar ones in later life. He then comes to a formulation, essentially similar to Alexander’s concept of the corrective emotional experience, that stresses the therapist’s capacity to respond differently to the patient from the way previous human figures have done. Like Alexander and Marmor in the previous two papers, he stresses the mutual benefit that both psychoanalytic and behavioral psychiatrists can derive from an integration of both models.

Keywords

Hull Hunt Sonal Univer Mete 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, F. and French, T. M. (1946). Psychoanalytic Therapy. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  2. Cameron, N. and Magaret, A. (1951). Behavior Pathology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  3. Crisp, A. H. (1964). Development and application of a measure of ‘transference.’ J. Psychosom. Res. 8: 327 - 335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dollard, J. and Miller, N. E. (1950). Personality and Psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  5. Eysenck, H. J. (1960). Personality and behavior therapy. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 53: 504–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Eysenck, H. J. (1965). The effects of psychotherapy. Critical review in Int. J. Psychiat. 1: 97–178.Google Scholar
  7. Freud, S . (1964 a). Collected Papers, 4th ed. vol. II, p. 289. London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  8. Freud, S . (1964 b). An Autobiographical Study, 2nd ed. p. 76. London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  9. Hilgard, E. R. and Marquis, D. G. (1961). Conditioning and Learning, rev. ed. pp. 340–342. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  10. Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  11. Leary, T. (1957). Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  12. Liddell, H. S. (1944). Personality and the Behavior Disorders, vol. I, pp. 389–412. Ed. J. McV. Hunt. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  13. Luria, A. R. (1932). The Nature of Human Conflicts. New York: Liveright.Google Scholar
  14. Masserman, J. H. (1946). Principles of Dynamic Psychiatry. Philadelphia-London: Saunders.Google Scholar
  15. Mowrer, O. H. (1953). Psychotherapy—Theory and Research. New York: Ronald Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social Learning and Clinical Psychology. New York: Prentice-Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  18. Sears, R. R. (1944). Personality and the Behavior Disorders, vol. I, pp. 306–332. Ed. J. McV. Hunt. New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  19. Sullivan, H. S. (1955). Conceptions of Modern Psychiatry. London: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
  20. Wolf, E. (1957). Congress Report, 2nd Int. Congr. Psychiatry, vol. Ill, pp. 270–277, 284–291. Ed. W. A. Stoll. Zurich: Orell Fuessli.Google Scholar
  21. Wolf, E. (1957). Congress Report, 2nd Int. Congr. Psychiatry, vol. Ill, pp. 270–277, 284–291. Ed. W. A. Stoll. Zurich: Orell Fuessli.Google Scholar
  22. Wolf, E. (1960). Progress in Psychotherapy, vol. V, pp. 51–58. Ed. J. H. Masserman and J. L. Moreno. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  23. Wolf, E., Dytrych, Z., Grof, S., Kubicka, L. and Srnec, J. (1964). A methodological approach to social maladaptation. Mutual social perception inventory. (In Czech.) Cs. Psychiat. 60: 34–37.Google Scholar
  24. Wolf, E. (1966). Psychogenic disorders and interpersonal behavior. J. Psychosom. Res. 10: 119–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene Wolf

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations