Telencephalic Function in Elasmobranchs

A Behavioral Perspective
  • Raymond Curtis Graeber


Both comparative neurologists and psychologists have often been intrigued with the possibility of inferring past evolutionary trends in the relationship between the vertebrate brain and behavior. In general, two investigative approaches have been taken toward realizing this goal. Some workers have attempted to correlate the behavior patterns of different existing animal species with known structural differences in their central nervous systems. Others have chosen to compare the behavioral effects of similar types of selective brain damage among various related animal groups. In either case, the choice of subjects is critical.


Visual Discrimination Optic Tectum Instrumental Conditioning Lemon Shark Nurse Shark 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allee, W. C., and Dickinson, J. C., 1954, Dominance and subordination in the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis (Mitchill), Physiol. Zool. 27: 356.Google Scholar
  2. Ariëns Kappers, C. U., 1906, The structure of the teleostean and selachian brain, J. Comp. Neurol. Psychiat. 16: 1.Google Scholar
  3. Ariëns Kappers, C. U., Huber, G. C., and Crosby, E. C., 1936, Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Vertebrates, Including Man, Macmillan, New York (reprinted 1967, Hafner, New York, 3 vols.).Google Scholar
  4. Aronson, L. R., 1963, The central nervous system of sharks and bony fishes with special reference to sensory and integrative mechanisms, in: Sharks and Survival ( P. W. Gilbert, ed.), pp. 165–241, Heath, Boston.Google Scholar
  5. Aronson, L. R., 1970, Functional evolution of the forebrain in lower vertebrates, in: Development and Evolution of Behavior: Essays in Memory of T. C. Schneiria ( L. R. Aronson, E. Tobach, D. S. Lehrman, and J. S. Rosenblatt, eds.), pp. 75–107, Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  6. Aronson, L. R., and Herberman, R., 1960, Persistence of a conditioned response in the cichlid fish, Tilapia macrocephalia, after forebrain and cerebellar ablations, Anat. Rec. 138: 322.Google Scholar
  7. Aronson, L. R., and Kaplan, H., 1968, Function of the teleostean forebrain, in: The Central Nervous and Fish Behavior ( D. Ingle, ed.), pp. 107–125, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  8. Aronson, L. R., Aronson, F. R., and Clark, E., 1967, Instrumental conditioning and light-dark discrimination in young sharks, Bull. Mar. Sci. 17: 249.Google Scholar
  9. Bäckström, K., 1924, Contributions to the forebrain morphology in selachians, Acta Zool. 5: 123.Google Scholar
  10. Bakay, L., and Lee, J. C., 1966, Ultrastructural changes in the edematous central nervous system, Arch. Neurol. 14: 644.Google Scholar
  11. Banner, A., 1968, Attraction of young lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris, by sound, Copeia 1968: 871.Google Scholar
  12. Banner, A., 1972, Use of sound in predation by young lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris (Poey), Bull. Mar. Sci. 22: 251.Google Scholar
  13. Bernstein, J. J., 1970, Anatomy and physiology of the central nervous system, in: Fish Physiology, Vol. IV: The Nervous System, Circulation, and Respiration ( W. S. Hoar and D.J. Randall, eds.), pp. 1–90, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Bethe, A., 1899, Die Lokomotion des Haifisches (Scyllium) und ihre Beziehung zu den einselnen Gehirnteilen und zum Labyrinth, Pfluegers Arch. 76: 470.Google Scholar
  15. Bogartz, R. S., 1965, The criterion method: Some analyses and remarks, Psychol. Bull. 64: 1.Google Scholar
  16. Bruckmoser, P., and Dieringer, N., 1973, Evoked potentials in the primary and secondary olfactory projection areas of the forebrain in elasmobranchs, J. Comp. Physiol. 87: 65.Google Scholar
  17. Budker, P., 1971, The Life of Sharks, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell, C. B. G., 1976, What animals should we compare? in: Evolution, Brain, and Behavior: Persistent Problems ( R. B. Masterton, W. Hodos, and H. Jerison, eds.), pp. 107–113, Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  19. Clark, E., 1959, Instrumental conditioning of lemon sharks, Science 136: 217.Google Scholar
  20. Clark, E., 1961, Visual discrimination in lemon sharks, Symp. Papers 10th Pacific Sci. Congr. Honolulu 10: 175.Google Scholar
  21. Clark, E., 1963, The maintenance of sharks in captivity, with a report on their instrumental conditioning, in: Sharks and Survival ( P. W. Gilbert, ed.), pp. 115–149, Heath, BostonGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen, D. H., Duff, T. A., and Ebbesson, S. O. E., 1973, Electrophysiological identification of a visual area in shark telencephalon, Science 182: 492.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, J. L., Gruber, S. H., and Hamasaki, D. F. 1977, Spectral sensitivity and Purkinje shift in the retina of the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris (Poey), Vision Res. 17: 787.Google Scholar
  24. Demski, L, 1977, Electrical stimulation of the shark brain, Am. Zool. 17: 487.Google Scholar
  25. Dewsbury, D. A., and Bernstein, J. J., 1969, Role of the telencephalon in the performance of conditioned avoidance responses by goldfish, Exp. Neurol. 23: 445.Google Scholar
  26. Ebbesson, S. O. E., 1971, Projections of the optic tectum in the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum Bonnaterre), Proc. Soc. Neurosci. 1st Annu. Meet. 1971: 109.Google Scholar
  27. Ebbesson, S. O. E., 1972a, New insights into the organization of the shark brain, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 42A: 121.Google Scholar
  28. Ebbesson, S. O. E., 1972b, A proposal for a common nomenclature for some optic nuclei in vetebrates and the evidence for the common origin of two such cell groups, Brain Behav. Evol. 6: 75.Google Scholar
  29. Ebbesson, S. O. E., and Heimer, L., 1970, Projections of the olfactory tract fibers in the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), Brain Res. 17: 47.Google Scholar
  30. Ebbesson, S. O. E., and Northcutt, R. G., 1976, Neurology of anamniotic vertebrates, in: Evolution of Brain and Behavior in Vertebrates ( R. B. Masterton, M. E. Bitterman, C. B. G. Campbell, and N. Hotton, eds.), pp. 115–146, Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  31. Ebbesson, S. O. E., and Ramsey, J. S., 1968, The optic tracts of two species of sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier and Ginglymostoma cirratum ), Brain Res. 8: 36.Google Scholar
  32. Ebbesson, S. O. E., and Schroeder, D. M., 1971, Connections of the nurse shark’s telencephalon, Science 173: 254.Google Scholar
  33. Ebbesson, S. O. E., Jane, J. A., and Schroeder, D. M., 1972, A general overview of major interspecific variations in thalamic organization, Brain Behav. Evol. 6: 92.Google Scholar
  34. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I., and Haas, H., 1959, Erfahrungen mit haien, Z. Tierpsychol. 16: 733.Google Scholar
  35. Finstad, W. O., and Nelson, D. R., 1975, Circadian activity rhythm in the horn shark, Heterodontus francesci: Effect of light intensity, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 74: 20.Google Scholar
  36. Flood, N. B. and Overmier, J. B., 1971, Effects of telencephalic and olfactory lesions on appetitive learning in goldfish, Physiol. Behav. 6: 35.Google Scholar
  37. Gilbert, P. W., 1962, The behavior of sharks, Sci. Am. 207: 60.Google Scholar
  38. Graeber, R. C., 1972, Visual discrimination learning in sharks (Negaprion brevirostris and Ginglymostoma cirratum): Effects of central nervous system lesions, 191 pp., Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia.Google Scholar
  39. Graeber, R. C., 1974, Food intake patterns in captive juvenile lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris, Copeia 1974: 554.Google Scholar
  40. Graeber, R. C., 1978, Behavioral studies correlated with central nervous system integration of vision in sharks, in: Sensory Biology of Elasmobranchs ( E. S. Hodgson and R. F. Mathewson, eds.), pp. 195–225, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  41. Graeber, R. C., and Ebbesson, S. O. E., 1972a, Visual discrimination learning in normal and tectalablated nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum), Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 42A: 131.Google Scholar
  42. Graeber, R. C., and Ebbesson, S. O. E., 1972b, Retinal projections in the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris), Brain Behav. Evol. 5: 461.Google Scholar
  43. Graeber, R. C., Schroeder, D. M., Jane, J. A., and Ebbesson, S. O. E., 1972, The importance of telencephalic structures in visual discrimination learning in nurse sharks, Proc. Soc. Neurosci. 2nd Annu. Meet. 1972: 100.Google Scholar
  44. Graeber, R. C., Ebbesson, S. O. E., and Jane, J. A., 1973, Visual discrimination in sharks without optic tectum, Science 180: 413.Google Scholar
  45. Graeber, R. C., Schroeder, D. M., Jane, J. A., and Ebbesson, S. O. E., 1978, Visual discrimination following partial telencephalic ablations in nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum), J. Comp. Neurol. 180: 325.Google Scholar
  46. Gruber, S. H., 1967, A behavioral measurement of dark adaptation in the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris, in: Sharks, Skates, and Rays ( P. W. Gilbert, R. F. Mathewson, and D. P. Rail, eds.), pp. 479–490, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  47. Gruber, S. H., 1975, Duplex vision in elasmobranchs: Histological, electrophysiological and psychophysical evidence, in: New Approaches to the Study of Vision in Fishes (M. A. Ali, ed.), pp. 525– 540, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Gruber, S. H., and Myrberg, A. A., 1977, Approaches to the study of the behavior of sharks, Am. Zool. 17: 471.Google Scholar
  49. Gruber, S. H., and Schneiderman, N., 1975, Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the lemon shark (Negaprion Brevirostris), Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. 7: 430.Google Scholar
  50. Gruber, S. H., Hamasaki, D. H., and Bridges, C. D. B., 1963, Cones in the retina of the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris), Vision Res. 3: 397.Google Scholar
  51. Gruber, S. H., Gulley, R. L., and Brandon, J., 1975, Duplex retina in seven elasmobranch species, Bull. Mar. Sci. 25: 353.Google Scholar
  52. Hamasaki, D. H., and Bridges, C. D. B., 1965, Properties of the electroretinogram in three elasmobranch species, Vision Res. 5: 483.Google Scholar
  53. Hamasaki, D. H., and Gruber, S. H., 1965, The photoreceptors of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, and the sting ray, Dasyatis sayi, Bull. Mar. Sci. 15: 1051.Google Scholar
  54. Healey, E. G., 1957, The nervous system, in: The Physiology of Fishes ( M. E. Brown, ed.), pp. 1–119, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Herrick, C. J., 1922, Functional factors in the morphology of the forebrain of fishes, in: Libro en Honor de D. Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Vol. I, pp. 143–204, Jiménez y Molina, Madrid.Google Scholar
  56. Herrick, C. J., 1962,Neurological Foundations of Animal Behavior, Hafner, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Hobson, E. S., 1963, Feeding behavior in three species of sharks, Pac. Sci. 17: 171.Google Scholar
  58. Hodgson, E. S., and Mathewson, R. F., 1971, Chemosensory orientation in sharks, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 188: 175.Google Scholar
  59. Hodos, W., 1970, Evolutionary interpretations of neural and behavioral studies of living vertebrates, in: The Neurosciences: A Second Study Program ( F. O. Schmitt, ed.), pp. 26–39, Rockefeller University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Hodos, W., and Campbell, C. B. G., 1969, Scala naturae: Why there is no theory in comparative psychology, Psychol. Rev. 76: 337.Google Scholar
  61. Holmgren, N., 1922, Points of view concerning forebrain morphology in lower vertebrates, J. Comp. Neurol. 34: 391.Google Scholar
  62. Hotton, N., 1976, Origin and radiation of the classes of poikilothermous vertebrates, in: Evolution of Brain and Behavior in Vertebrates ( R. B. Masterton, M. E. Bitterman, C. B. G. Campbell, and N. Hotton, eds.), pp. 1–24, Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  63. Houser, G. L., 1901, The neurons and supporting elements of the brain of a selachian, J. Comp. Neurol. 11: 65.Google Scholar
  64. Johnson, R. H., and D. R. Nelson, 1973, Agonistic display in the gray reef shark, Carcharhinus menisorrah, and its relationship to man, Copeia 1973: 76.Google Scholar
  65. Johnston, J. B., 1911, The telencephalon of selachians, J. Comp. Neurol. 21: 1.Google Scholar
  66. Kalmijn, A. J., 1966, Electro-perception in sharks and rays, Nature (London) 212: 1232.Google Scholar
  67. Kalmijn, A. J., 1971, The electric sense of sharks and rays, J. Exp. Biol. 55: 371.Google Scholar
  68. Kalmijn, A. J., 1973, Electro-orientation in sharks and rays: Theory and experimental evidence, Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Contrib. 73–39:1.Google Scholar
  69. Kalmijn, A. J., 1974, The detection of electric fields from inanimate and animate sources other than electric organs, in: Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. III/3 ( A. Fessard, ed.), pp. 147–200, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Kaplan, H., and Aronson, L. R., 1967, Effect of forebrain ablation on the performance of a conditioned avoidance response in the teleost fish, Tilapia h. macrocephalia, Anim. Behav. 15: 438.Google Scholar
  71. Karamyan, A. I., 1956, Evolution of the Function of the Cerebellum and Cerebral Hemispheres, Medgiz, Leningrad (transl, by Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1962 ).Google Scholar
  72. Karamyan, A. I., Vesselkin, N. P., Belekhova, M. G., and Zagorul’ko, T. M., 1966, Electrophysiological characteristics of tectal and thalamocortical divisions of the visual system in lower vertebrates, J. Comp. Neurol. 127: 559.Google Scholar
  73. Kelly, J. C., and Nelson, D. R., 1975, Hearing thresholds of the horn shark, Heterodontus francisci, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58: 905.Google Scholar
  74. Kleerekoper, H., Gruber, D., and Matis, J., 1975, Accuracy of localization of a chemical stimulus in flowing and stagnant water by the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, J. Comp. Physiol. 98: 257.Google Scholar
  75. Kritzler, H., and Wood, L., 1961, Provisional audiogram for the shark, Carcharhinus leucas, Science 133: 1480.Google Scholar
  76. Kuchnow, K. P., and Gilbert, P. W., 1967, Preliminary in vivo studies on pupillary and tapetal pigment responses in the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris, in: Sharks, Skates, and Rays ( P. W. Gilbert, R. F. Mathewson, and D. P. Rail, eds.), pp. 465–477, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  77. Lineaweaver, T. H., and Backus, R. H., 1973, The Natural History of Sharks, Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y.Google Scholar
  78. Loeb, J., 1891, Ueber den Anteil des Hörnerven an den nach Gehirn Verletzung auftretenden Zwangslagen und assozienten Stellungsanderungen der Bulbi und Extremitäten, Pflüegers Arch. 50: 66.Google Scholar
  79. Marshall, N. B., 1971, Explorations in the Life of Fishes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  80. Masai, H., 1962, On the external form of the brain of Heterodontus japonicus, Yokohama Med. Bull. 13: 249.Google Scholar
  81. Moy-Thomas, J. A., 1939, The early evolution and relationships of the elasmobranchs, Biol. Rev. 14: 1.Google Scholar
  82. Myrberg, A. A., 1972, Using sound to influence the behavior of free-ranging marine animals, in: Behavior of Marine Animals—Current Perspectives in Research, Vol. 2 ( H. E. Winn and B. L. Olla, eds.), pp. 435–468, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Myrberg, A. A., and Gruber, S. H., 1974, The behavior of the bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo, Copeia 1974: 358.Google Scholar
  84. Myrberg, A. A., Banner, A., and Richard, J. D., 1969, Shark attraction using a video-acoustic system, Mar. Biol. 2: 264.Google Scholar
  85. Nelson, D. R., 1967, Hearing thresholds, frequency discrimination, and acoustic orientation in the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris (Poey), Bull. Mar. Sci. 17: 741.Google Scholar
  86. Nelson, D. R., 1974, Ultrasonic telemetry of shark behavior, Naval Res. Rev. 27: 1.Google Scholar
  87. Nelson, D. R., and Gruber, S. H., 1963, Sharks: Attraction by low-frequency sounds, Science 142: 975.Google Scholar
  88. Nelson, D. R., and Johnson, R. H., 1970, Diel activity rhythms in the nocturnal, bottom-dwelling sharks, Heterodontus francisci and Cephaloscyllium ventriosum, Copeia 1970: 732.Google Scholar
  89. Nelson, D. R., and Johnson, R. H., 1972, Acoustic attraction of Pacific reef sharks; effect of pulse intermittency and variability, Comp. Biochem, Physiol. 42A: 85.Google Scholar
  90. Nelson, D. R., Johnson, R. H., and Waldrop, L. G., 1969, Responses in Bahamian sharks and grouper to low-frequency pulsed sounds, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. 68: 131.Google Scholar
  91. Nieuwenhuys, R., 1967, Comparative anatomy of olfactory centres and tracts, in: Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 23 ( Y. Zotterman, ed.), pp. 1–64, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  92. Northcutt, R. G., 1977, Elasmobranch central nervous system organization and its possible evolutionary significance, Am. Zool. 17: 411.Google Scholar
  93. Overmier, B. J., and Curnow, P. F., 1969, Classical conditioning, pseudoconditioning and sensitization in “normal” and forebrainless goldfish, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 68: 193.Google Scholar
  94. Overmier, B. J., and Savage, G. E., 1974, Effects of telencephalic ablation on trace conditioning of heart rate in goldfish, Exp. Neurol. 42: 339.Google Scholar
  95. Parker, G. H., 1910, Olfactory reactions in fishes, J. Exp. Zool. 8: 535.Google Scholar
  96. Parker, G. H., 1914, The directive influence of the sense of smell in the dogfish, Bull. U.S. Bur. Fisheries 33: 61.Google Scholar
  97. Parker, G. H., and Sheldon, R. E., 1913, The sense of smell in fishes, Bull. U.S. Bur. Fisheries 32: 33.Google Scholar
  98. Platt, C. J., Bullock, T. H., Czéh, G., Kovačević, D., and Gojković, M., 1974, Comparison of the electroreceptor, mechanoreceptor, and optic evoked potentials in the brains of some rays and sharks, J. Comp. Physiol. 95: 323.Google Scholar
  99. Polimanti, O., 1911, Contributi alia fisiligia del sistema nervoso centrale e del movimento dei pesci, I. Selacoidei, Zool. Jahrb. 30: 473.Google Scholar
  100. Polimanti, O., 1913, Contributions a la physiolgie du systeme nerveaux central et du mouvement des poissons, Arch. Ital. Biol. 59: 383.Google Scholar
  101. Polyak, S., 1957, The Vertebrate Visual System, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  102. Rizzolo, A., 1929, A study of equilibrium in the smooth dogfish (Galeus canis Mitchill) after removal of different parts of the brain, Biol. Bull. 57: 245.Google Scholar
  103. Romer, A. S., 1956, The Vertebrate Body, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  104. Romer, A. S., 1967, Major steps in vertebrate evolution, Science 158: 1629.Google Scholar
  105. Romer, A. S., 1968a, Notes and Comments on Vertebrate Paleontology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  106. Romer, A. S., 1968b, The Procession of Life, World Press, Cleveland.Google Scholar
  107. Savage, G. E., 1968a, Function of the forebrain in the memory system of the fish, in: The Central Nervous System and Fish Behavior ( D. Ingle, ed.), pp. 127–138, Chicago University Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  108. Savage, G. E., 1968b, Temporal factors in avoidance learning in normal and forebrainless goldfish, Nature (London) 218: 1168.Google Scholar
  109. Savage, G. E., 1969a, Some preliminary observations on the role of the telencephalon in food-reinforced behavior in the goldfish, Carassius auratus, Anim. Behav. 17: 760.Google Scholar
  110. Savage, G. E., 1969b, Telencephalic lesions and avoidance behavior in the goldfish (Carassius auratus), Anim. Behav. 17:362.Google Scholar
  111. Savage, G. E., and Swingland, I. R., 1969, Positively reinforced behavior and the forebrain in goldfish, Nature (London) 221: 878.Google Scholar
  112. Schaeffer, B., 1967, Comments on elasmobranch evolution, in: Sharks, Skates and Rays ( P. W. Gilbert, R. F. Mathewson, and D. P. Rail, eds.), pp. 3–35, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  113. Schroeder, D. M., and Ebbesson, S. O. E., 1974, Nonolfactory telencephalic afferents in the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), Brain Behav. Evol. 9: 121.Google Scholar
  114. Segaar, J., 1965, Behavioral aspects of degeneration and regeneration in fish brain: A comparison with higher vertebrates, in: Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 14 ( Y. Zotterman, ed.), pp. 143–231, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  115. Sheldon, R. E., 1909, The reactions of dogfish to chemical stimuli, J. Comp. Neurol. 19: 273.Google Scholar
  116. Sheldon, R. E., 1911, The sense of smell in selachians, J. Exp. Zool. 10: 51.Google Scholar
  117. Springer, S., 1950, Natural history notes on the lemon shark, Tex. J. Sci. 2: 349.Google Scholar
  118. Steiner, I., 1886, Ueber das Centrainervensystem des Haifisches und des Amphioxus lanceolatus und über die halbcirkelförmigen Canäle des Haifisches, Sitzungsher. Akad. Wiss, Berlin 1886: 495.Google Scholar
  119. Steiner, I., 1888, Die Functionem des Zentralnervensystems und ihre Phylogneese. 2. Abt. Die Fische, Vieweg, Braunschweig.Google Scholar
  120. Stell, W. K., 1972, The structure and morphologic relations of rods and cones in the retina of the spiny dogfish, Squalus, Comp. Biochem, Physiol. 42A: 141.Google Scholar
  121. Stensiö, E., 1963, The brain and the cranial nerves in fossil, lower craniate vertebrates, Skrift. Norske Videnskaps-Akad. Mat.-Naturv. Klasse Ny Ser. 13: 1.Google Scholar
  122. Tanaka, S. K., 1973, Suction feeding by the nurse shark, Copeia 1973: 606.Google Scholar
  123. Ten Cate, J., 1935, Physiologie des Zentralnervensystem der Fische, Ergeh. Biol. 11: 335.Google Scholar
  124. Tester, A. L., 1963, Olfaction, gustation, and the common chemical sense in sharks, in: Sharks and Survival ( P. W. Gilbert, ed.), pp. 255–282, Heath, Boston.Google Scholar
  125. Tester, A. L., and Kato, S., 1966, Visual target discrimination in blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) and grey sharks (C. menisorrah), Pacific Sci. 20: 461.Google Scholar
  126. van Bergeijk, W. A., 1964, Directional and nondirectional hearing in fish, in: Marine Bio-Acoustics ( W. N. Tavolga, ed.), pp. 281–299, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Veselkin, N. P., 1964, Electrical responses in skate brain to photic stimulation, Fiziol. Zh. SSSR im. I. M. Sechenova 50:268 [Translated in Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 24:368 (1965)].Google Scholar
  128. Veselkin, N. P., and Kovacevic, N., 1973, Nonolfactory afferent projections of the telencephalon of elasmobranchii, Z. Evol. Biokim. Fiziol. 9: 585.Google Scholar
  129. Voronin, L. G., Gusselnikova, K. G., Gusselnikov, V. I., and Supin, A. J., 1968, On the problem of the evolution of the vertebrate afferent systems, in: Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 22 ( Y. Zotterman, ed.), pp. 541–565, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Curtis Graeber
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Military Medical Psychophysiology, Division of NeuropsychiatryWalter Reed Army Institute of ResearchUSA

Personalised recommendations