Privacy, Community and Activity Space: A Relational Exploration

  • Allen A. TurnbullJr.


“Privacy,” “community” and “activity space” are frequent topics of discussion among social scientists, philosophers, lawyers, architects and urban planners. The task of coming to an unambiguous and comprehensive understanding of either privacy (19), community (7) or activity space (5) presents a formidable problem. Understanding the complexities of the interrelationships among privacy, community and activity space presents even more difficulties (6, 15, 17, 30, 31).

The first part of this paper presents an overview of privacy, community and activity space as individual concepts. Working definitions are proposed, followed by a discussion of the possible interrelationships among the three concepts. The second part presents the results from an ongoing research project that is investigating these interrelationships through the development of an attitudinal inventory (32). This modest beginning will, it is hoped, lead to elaboration of a more comprehensive model of the privacy-community-activity space interrelationships in the future.


Activity Space Meaningful Relationship Canadian Sample California Psychological Inventory Desire Community 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Altman, I. The environment and social behavior. Monterey, California: Brooks Cole, 1975.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bookchin, M. The limits of the city. New York: Harper Colophon, 1974.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Breckenridge, A. C. The right to privacy. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brooks, R. O. New towns and communal values: A case study of Columbia, Maryland. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1974.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buttimer, A. Social space and the planning of residential areas. Environment and Behavior, 1972, 4: 279–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chermayeff, S. and Alexander, C. Community and privacy. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1963.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clark, D. The concept of community: A re-examination. Sociological Review, 1973, 21: 397–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cooley, C. H. Social organization. New York: Charles Scribner’s & Sons, 1929.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dentler, R. A. American community problems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goffman, E. The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday, 1959.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gough, H. G. Manual for the California Psychological Inventory. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hillary, G. A. Definitions of community: Areas of agreement. Rural Sociology, 1955, 20: 111–123.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jourard, S. Healthy personality. New York: Macmillan, 1974.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Keller, S. The urban neighborhood: A sociological perspective. New York: Random House, 1968.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Keller, S. Human communications and social networks at the micro-scale. Ekistics, 1970, 179: 306–308.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kelvin, P. A social psychological examination of privacy. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1973, 12: 248–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Keyes, R. We, the lonely people: Searching for community. New York: Harper and Row, 1973.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lansing, J. B., Marans, R. W. and Zehner, R. B. Planned residential environments. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Institute for Social Research, 1970.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Margulis, S. T. Privacy as a behavioral phenomenon: Coming of age. In S. Margulis (Ed.), Privacy. Symposium papers at the meetings of the Environmental Design Research Association, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1974.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marshall, N. J. C. Orientations toward privacy: Environmental and personality components. Doctoral Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1970.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marshall, N. J. C. Privacy and environment. Human Ecology, 1972, 1: 93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maslow, A. H. Motivation and personality ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Harper & Row, 1970.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Head, M. Neighborhoods and human needs. Ekistics, 1966, 123: 124–126.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Milgram, S. The experience of living in cities. Science, 1970, 167: 1461–1468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Minar, D. and Greer, S. The concept of community. Chicago: Aldine, 1969.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Poplin, D. E. Communities: A survey of theories and methods of research. New York: Macmillan, 1972.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H. and Rivlin, L. G. (Eds.). Environmental psychology: Man and his physical setting. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1970.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rapoport, A. Some perspectives on human use and organization of space. Paper presented at the meetings of the Australian Association of Social Anthopologists, Melbourne, Australia, 1972.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reubhausen, O. and Brim, O. Privacy and behavioral research. American Psychologist, 1966, 21: 423–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Slater, P. The pursuit of loneliness: American culture at the breaking point. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Slater, P. Earthwalk. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Turnbull, A. A., Jr. Privacy, community and activity space: An exploratory investigation. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, 1977.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Webber, M. M. Order in diversity: Community without propinquity. In L. Wingo (Ed.), Cities and space. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wellman, B. The form and function of future communities. In L. S. Bourne, R. D. Mackinnon, J. Seigel and J. W. Simmons, Urban futures for central Canada: Perspectives on forecasting urban growth and form. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wellman, B., Craven, P., Whitaker, M., Stevens, H., Shorter, A., DuToit, S. and Bakker, H. Community ties and support systems: From intimacy to support. In L. S. Bourne, R. D. Mackinnon and J. W. Simmons, The form of cities in Central Canada. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1973.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allen A. TurnbullJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations