Acute Renal Failure Following Renal Transplantation

  • Brian H. B. Robinson

Abstract

Two problems unique to organ transplantation are the preservation of the functional integrity of the organ during transfer from donor to recipient and the prevention of subsequent immunological interaction with the new host. Thus, ischemic damage and immunological graft rejection are major causes of acute renal failure (ARF) following transplantation. To these crucial problems of transplantation must be added technical problems associated with vascular and ureteric anastomosis, the complications of opportunist infections secondary to immunosuppressive therapy and of nephrotoxic drugs, as well as many of the causes of ARF discussed elsewhere in this book.

Keywords

Toxicity Urea Creatinine Anemia Radionuclide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Jacobs C, Brunner FP, Chantier C, Donckerwolcke RA, Gurland HJ, Hathway RA, Selwood NH, Wing AJ. Combined report on regular dialysis and transplantation in Europe, VII, 1976. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 14: 4–67, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schloerb PR, Waldorf RD, Welsh JS. The protective effect of kidney hypothermia on total renal ischemia. Surg Gynecol Obstet 109: 561–565, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harvey RB. Effect of temperature on function of isolated dog kidney. Amer J Physiol 197: 181–186, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marshall V. Organ preservation. In Tissue Transplantation, Morris PJ (ed). Edinburgh and London; Churchill Livingstone, 1982, pp. 40-59.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hall CL, Sansom JR, Obeid M, Dawson-Edwards P, Robinson BHB, Barnes AD, Blainey JD. Agonal phase, ischemic times, and renal vascular abnormalities and outcome of cadaveric kidney transplants. Brit Med J 3: 667–670, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marshall VC, Ross H, Scott DF, McInnes S, Thomson N, Atkins RC. Preservation of cadaveric renal allografts—Comparison of flushing and pumping techniques. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 14: 302–309, 1977.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marshall VC. Organ preservation. In Clinical Organ Transplantation, Calne RY (ed). Oxford and Edinburgh; Blackwell, 1971, pp. 55–103.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sells RA. The selection of cadaver donors and removal of kidneys for transplantation. In Clinical Organ Transplantation, Calne RY (ed). Oxford and Edinburgh; Blackwell, 1971, pp. 183–198.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to examine the definition of brain death. JAMA 205: 337-340, 1968.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diagnosis of brain death: Conference of the Medical Royal Colleges and their faculties in the United Kingdom. Br Med J 2: 1187-1188, 1976.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    van der Vliet JA, Sloof MJH, Kootstra G, Krom RAF, Rijkmans BG. Non-heartbeating donors, is it worthwhile? Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 17: 445–448, 1976.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clunie G. Renal transplantation I. Selection and preparation of donors, immunosuppression and surgical complications. In Organ Transplantation, Chatterjee SN (ed). Littleton, Ma, and Bristol: Wright PSG, 1982, pp. 151–219.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Friedman SM, Johnson RL, Friedman CL. The pattern of recovery of renal function following renal artery occlusion in the dog. Circ Res 2: 231–235, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gibson GR, Storey BG, Rogers JH, May J, Sheil APR. Early function in renal allografts from cadaver donors. Aust New Z J Surg 39: 35–37, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Collins GM, Bravo-Shugarman M, Terasaki PI. Kidney preservation for transport. Initial perfusion and 30 hours ice storage. ancet 2: 1219–1222, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bany JM, Lieberman S, Wickre C, Lieberman C, Fisher S, Craig D: Human kidney preservation by intracellular electrolyte flush followed by cold storage for over 24 hours. Transplantation 32: 485–487, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Opelz G, Terasaki PI. Advantages of cold storage over machine perfusion for preservation of cadaver kidneys. Transplantation 33: 64–68, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Spees EK, Oakes DD, Hill GS, Light JA, Williams GM, Ernst CB. Why some preserved kidneys do not function: A review of preservation-related endothelial injuries. Transpl Proc 14: 80–85, 1982.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Calne RY. The immunological background of organ grafting. In Organ Grafts. Current Topics in Immunology, Turk J (ed). London: Arnold, 1975, pp. 11–21.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Steinmuller D. The immune response to a tissue allograft. In Tissue Transplantation, Morris PJ (ed). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1982, pp. 14–27.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ketel BL, Stuart FP. Immunology of transplantation. In Organ Transplantation, Chatterjee SN (ed). Littleton, Ma, and Bristol: Wright PSG, 1982, pp. 15–44.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    White AG. Histocompatibility antigens. In Organ Transplantation, Chatterjee SN (ed). Littleton Ma, and Bristol: Wright PSG, 1982, pp. 45–92.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Haskill JS, Häyry P, Radov LA. Systemic and local immunity in allografts and cancer rejection. Contemp Top in Immunobiol 8: 107–170, 1978.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Graves M, Janossy G. Elicitation of selective T and B lymphocyte response by cell surface binding ligands. Transplant Rev 11: 87–130, 1972.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Williams GM, Hume DM, Hudson RP Jr, Morris PJ, Kano K, Milgrom F. Hyperacute renal-homograft rejection in man. N Engl J Med 279: 611–618, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kissmeyer-Neilson F, Olsen S, Petersen VP, Fjeldborg O. Hyperacute rejection of kidney allografts, associated with pre-existing humoral antibodies against donor cells. Lancet 2: 662–665, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Starzl TE, Marchioro TL, Holmes JH, Hermann G, Brittain RS, Stonington OH, Talmage DW, Waddell WR. Renal homografts in patients with major donor-recipient blood group incompatibilities. Surgery 55: 195–200, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Williams GM. Clinical course following renal transplantation. In Kidney Transplantation: Principles and Practices, Morris PJ (ed). London: Academic Press; New York: Grune and Stratton, 1979, pp. 203–214.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Katz J, Lurie A, Kaplan BS, Krawitz S, Metz J. Coagulation findings in the hemolytic-uremic syndrome of infancy. Similarity to hyperacute renal allograft rejection. J Pediatr 78: 426–434, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kreis H, Noël LH, Lacombe M, Crosnier J. Spontaneously reversible steroid-independent “rejection” episode following cadaver kidney transplantation. Transpl Proc 11: 1220–1221, 1979.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Porter KA. Renal transplantation. In Pathology of the Kidney, Heptinstall RH (ed). Boston: Little, Brown, 1974, pp. 977–1041.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Patel R, Mickey MR, Terasaki PI. Serotyping for homotransplantation. XVI. Analysis of kidney transplants from unrelated donors. N Engl J Med 279: 501–506, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Opelz, G. Mickey MR, Terasaki PI. HLA and kidney transplants: Re-examination. Transplantation 17: 371–382, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Van Rood JJ, Persijn GG, Lansbergen Q, Cohen B, van Leeuwen A, Bradley BA. How can HLA matching improve kidney graft survival? Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 16: 297–304, 1979.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ting A, Morris PJ. Matching for B-cell antigens of the HLA-DR series in cadaver renal transplantation. Lancet 1: 575–577, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ting A, Morris PJ. Powerful effect of HLA-DR matching on survival of cadaveric renal allografts. Lancet 1: 282–283, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Svejgaard. DR matching and cadaver kidney transplantation. Transplantation 33: 1–2, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ting A. HLA and organ transplantation. In Tissue Transplantation, Morris PJ (ed). Edinburgh; Churchill Livingstone, 1982, pp. 28-39.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Salaman JR. Non-specific immunosuppression. In Tissue Transplantation, Morris PJ (ed). Edinburgh; Churchill Livingstone, 1982, pp. 60–69.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Buckels JAC, Mackintosh P, Barnes AD. Controlled trial of low-versus high-dose oral steroid therapy in 100 cadaver renal transplants. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 18: 394–398, 1981.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Morris PJ., Cyclosporin A. Transplantation 32: 349–354, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hamilton DV, Evans DB, Henderson RG, Thiru S, Calne RY, White DJG, Carmichael DJS. Nephrotoxicity and metabolic acidosis in transplant patients on cyclosporin A. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 18: 400–407, 1981.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fabre JW. Specific immunosuppression. In Tissue Transplantation, Morris PJ (ed). Edinburgh; Churchill Livingstone, 1982, pp. 80–94.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vidne BA, Leapman SB, Butt KM, Kountz SL. Vascular complications in human renal transplantation. Surgery 79: 77–81, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Richardson WP, Colvin RB, Cheeseman SH, Tolkoff-Rubin NE, Herrin JT, Cosimi AB, Collins AB, Hirsch MS, McCluskey RT, Russell PS, Rubin RH. Glomerulopathy associated with cytomegalovirus viremia in renal allografts. N Engl J Med 305: 57–63, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cameron J. Rigby RJ, van Deth AG, Petrie JJ JB. Severe tubulo-interstitial disease in a renal allograft due to cytomegalovirus infection. Clin Nephrol 18: 321–325, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mackenzie EFD, Poulding JM, Harrison PR, Amer B. Human polyoma virus—A significant pathogen in renal transplantation. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 15: 352–359, 1978.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rubin RH, Tolkoff-Rubin NE. Viral Infection in the Renal Transplant Patient. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 19: 513–526, 1982.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    House AK, Boak JL, Hulme B. An in vitro study of renal allograft recipients for cellular delayed type hypersensitivity to GBM and disrupted spleen cells. Clin Exp Immunol 11: 165–172, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thomas F, Lee HM, Lower RR, Thomas JM. Value of immunologic monitoring studies of human E, EA, and EAC rosetting lymphocyte subpopulations in renal and cardiac transplantation. Transpl Proc 13: 1599–1603, 1981.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hall CL, Pejhan N, Thomson RW, Dawson-Edwards P, Barnes AD, Robinson BHB, Meynell MJ, Blainey JD. Serial estimation of urinary fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products in kidney transplantation. Br Med J 3: 204–207, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wellwood JM, Ellis BG, Hall JH, Robinson DR, Thompson AE. Early warning of rejection? Br Med J 2: 261–265, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schweizer RT, Moore R, Bartus SA, Bow L, Hayden J. Beta 2-microglobulin monitoring after renal transplantation. Transpl Proc 13: 1620–1613, 1981.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yeboah ED, Chisholm GD, Short MD, Petrie A. The detection and prediction of acute rejection episodes in human renal transplants using radioactive fibrinogen. Br J Urol 45: 273–280, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grino JM, Alsina J, Martin J, Roca M, Castelao A, Romero R, Caralpi A. Indium-III labelled autologous platelets as a diagnostic method in kidney allograft rejection. Transpl Proc 14: 198–200, 1982.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cruz C, Hricak H, Eyler WR, Levin NW, Uniewski M. Sonographic features of ATN and of acute rejection in renal allografts. Proc Eur Dial Transpl Assoc 17: 413–427, 1980.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Häyry P, von Willebrand E. Transplant aspiration cytology in diagnostic evaluation of renal allografts. Transpl Proc 13: 1574–1578, 1981.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cameron JS, Turner DR. Recurrent glomerulonephritis in allografted kidneys. Clin Nephrol 7: 47–54, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pinto J, Lacerda G, Cameron JS, Turner DR, Bewick M, Ogg CS. Recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in renal allografts. Transplantation 32: 83–89, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Calne RY. Cyclosporin. Nephron 26: 57–63, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hamilton DV, Evans DB, Thiru S. Toxicity of cyclosporin A in organ grafting. In Cyclosporin A, White DJG (ed). Amsterdam; Elsevier Biochemical Press, 1982, pp. 393–411.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian H. B. Robinson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations