A Model of People at High Risk to Develop Chronic Stress Related Symptoms

  • Ian Wickramasekera

Abstract

Sir William Osler is reported to have said that “sometimes it is more important to know what kind of patient has a disease than what kind of disease the patient has”. One implication of this statement is that certain types of personality features can potentiate or attenuate either the symptoms or the etiology of a disease, or both. The first goal of this paper is to start to specify a promising set of personality features and also a set of situational events under which people who are either biologically prone to a disease or exposed to the relevant pathogens will become symptomatic. The second goal of this paper is to tentatively suggest some procedures to quantify these personality dimensions and these situational conditions. The third goal is to present evidence from my clinical practice and the research literature to support this model of the patient at high risk to develop chronic stress related illness. The present model (Wickramasekera, 1979, 1980a;1980b) is based on clinical observations made, and case study data collected, over the last 15 years in an increasingly specialized clinical practice.

Keywords

Respiration Nism Burrows Alexithymia Exhibitionism 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barber, T. X., 1976, “Hypnosis: a scientific approach” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, J. M., 1979, Cognitive Activity, pain perception and hypnotic susceptibility,presented at: the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, J. M., and Chaves, J. F., 1980, Cognitive Activity Perception and hypnotic susceptibility in chronic pain patients,presented at: Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  4. Cannon, W. B., 1932, “The Wisdom of the Body” Appleton-Century Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaves, J. F., and Brown, J. M., 1978, Self-generated strategies for the control of pain and stress,presented at: Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  6. Das, J. P., 1958a, The Pavlovian Theory of Hypnosis: An evaluation,Journal of Mental Sciences, 104: 82–90Google Scholar
  7. Das, J. P., 1958b, Conditioning and Hypnosis,Journal of Experimental Psychology, 56: 110–113Google Scholar
  8. DeLongis, A., Coyne, J. C., Dakof, G., Folkman, S., and Lazarus, R. S., 1982, Relationship of Daily Hassles, Uplifts and Major Life Events to Health Status,Health Psychology, 1 (2): 119–136Google Scholar
  9. Ellis, A., 1962, “Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy” Lyle Stuart Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Evans, F. J., 1977, Hypnosis and Sleep: The control of Altered States of Consciousness,in: “Conceptual and Investigative Approaches to Hypnosis and Hypnotic Phenomena” W. E. Edmonston, ed.,Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 296:162–174Google Scholar
  11. Eysenck H J., 1960, “The structure of human personality (2nd Ed)” Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Foenander, G., Burrows, G. G., Gerschman, J., and Horne, D. J., 1980, Phobic behavior and hypnotic susceptibility,Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis., 8: 41–46.Google Scholar
  13. Frankel, F. H., Apfel-Savitz, R., Nemiah, J. C., and Sifneos, P. E., 1977, the relationship between hypnotizability and Alexithymia, Proc. II, European Conference on Psychosomatic Research, Heidelberg, 1976,Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 28:172–178Google Scholar
  14. Frankel, F. H., and Orne, M. T., 1976, Hypnotizability and phobic behavior,Archives of General Psychiatry, 33: 1259–1261Google Scholar
  15. Gerschman, J., Burrows, G. D., Reade, P., and Foenander, G., 1979, Hypnotizability and the treatment of dental phobic behavior,in: “Hypnosis” G. D. Burrow, D. R. Collison, and L. Dennerstein, eds., Elseiver, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Hilgard, E. R., 1965, “Hypnotic Susceptibility” Harcourt, Brace and World, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Hilgard, E. R., 1977, “Divided consciousness: multiple controls in human thought and actions” Wiley Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Hinkle, L. E., 1961, Ecological observations on the relation of physical illness, mental illness and the social environment.,Psychosomatic Medicine, 23: 289–296Google Scholar
  19. Holmes, T. H., and Rahe, R. H., 1967, The social readjustment scale,Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11: 213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ingram, R. E., Saccuzzo, D. P., McNeil, B. W., and McDonald, R., 1979, Speed of Information Processing in high and low susceptible subjects. A preliminary study,International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis42–47Google Scholar
  21. Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaefer, C., and Lazarus, R. S., 1981, Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events,Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4: 1–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. King, D. R., and McDonald, R. D., 1976, Hypnotic susceptibility and verbal conditioning,International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24: 29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lacey, J. I., 1967, Somatic response patterning and stress: some revisions of activation theory,in: “Psychological Stress” M. H. Appley, and R. Trumball, eds., Appleton-Century Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Larsen, S., 1966, Strategies for reducing phobic behavior,Dissertation Abstracts, 26: 6850Google Scholar
  25. Lesser, I. M., 1981, A review of the Alexithymia Concept,Psychosomatic Medicine, 43, 6: 531–543Google Scholar
  26. Mason, J. W., 1971, A re-evaluation of the concept of “nonspecificity” in stress theory,Journal of Psychiatric Research, 8: 323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nace, E. P., Warwick, A. M., Kelley, R. L., and Evans, F. J., 1982, Hypnotizability and outcome in brief psychotherapy,Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 43: 129–133Google Scholar
  28. Perry, C., John, R., and Hollander, B., 1982, Hypnotizability and phobic behavior, 34th Annual S.E.C.H. Convention, IndianapolisGoogle Scholar
  29. Pettinati, H., Horne, R. L., and Staats, J. M., 1982, Assessment of hypnotic capacity in patients with Anorexia Nervosa,presented at: the 90th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  30. Selye, H., 1956, “Stress and Disease” McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Shields, J., 1962, “Monozygotic twins brought up apart and brought up together” Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  32. Shor, R. E., 1964, A note on the shock tolerance of real and simulating hypnotic subjects,International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 12: 258–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sifneos, P. M., 1972, “Short-term Psychotherapy and Emotional Crisis” Havard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  34. Spanos, N. P., Radtke-Bodonik, L., Ferguson, J. D., and Jones, B., 1979, The effects of hypnotic susceptibility, suggestions for analgesia, and the utilization of cognitive strategies on the reduction of pain,Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 3: 282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Spanos, P. N., Brown, J. M., Jones, B., and Horner, D., 1981, Cognitive activity and Suggestions for Analgesia in the reduction of reported pain,Journal of Abnormal Psychology., 90, 6: 554–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sternbach, R. A., 1966, “Principles of Psychophysiology” Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  37. Stewart, L. H., 1962, Social and emotional adjustment during adolescence as related to the development of psychosomatic illness and adulthood,Genetic Psychos Monographs, 175–215Google Scholar
  38. Stoyva, J. M., 1965, Posthypnotically suggested dreams at the Sleep Cycle,Archives of General P ychiatry, 12: 287–294Google Scholar
  39. Valliant, G. E., 1978, Natural history of male psychological health IV: What kind of men do not get psychosomatic illness,Psychosomatic Medicine, 40: 420–431Google Scholar
  40. Webb, R. A., 1962, Suggestibility and Verbal Conditioning,International Journal Journal of Clinical, and Experimental Hypnosis10: 275–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Weiss, R. L., Ullman, L. P., and Krasner, L., 1960, On the relationship between hypnotizability and response to verbal operant conditioning,Psychological Reports, 59–60Google Scholar
  42. Wickramasekera, I., 1970, The effects of hypnosis and a control procedure on verbal conditioning,presented at: the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Miami. Wickramasekera, I., 1971, Effects of EMG feedback training on susceptibility to hypnosis: preliminary observations,Proc. 79, Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association6: 787–785Google Scholar
  43. Wickramasekera, I., 1973, The effects of EMG feedback on hypnotic susceptibility: More preliminary data,Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82: 74–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wickramasekera, I., 1976, “Biofeedback, Behavior Therapy, and Hypnosis” Nelson-Hall, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  45. Wickramasekera, I., 1976, Aversive behavior rehearsal for sexual exhibitionism,Behavior Therapy, 7: 167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wickramasekera, I., 1977, On attempts to modify hypnotic susceptibility: some psychophysiological procedures and promising directions,Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences296: 143–153ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wickramasekera, I., 1979, A model of the patient at high risk for chronic stress related disorders,presented at: Annual Convention of the Biofeedback Society of America, San Diego, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  48. Wickramasekera, 1:, 1980, Aversive Behavior Rehearsal: A cognitive-behavioral procedure,in: “Exhibitionism: Description, Assessment and Treatment” D. J. Cox, and R. J. Daitzman, eds., Harland, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Wickramasekera, I., 1980a, Patient Variables, In Behavioral Medicine and the Psychological Aspects of Health Care,invited address: Veterans Administration, North Central Regional Medical Education Center.Google Scholar
  50. Wickramasekera, I., 1980b, Principles of Psychophysiology and the High Risk patient,invited address: University of Illinois College of Medicine, PeoriaGoogle Scholar
  51. Wickramasekera, I., 1980a, Patient Variables, In Behavioral Medicine and the Psychological Aspects of Health Care,invited address: Veterans Administration, North Central Regional Medical Education Center.Google Scholar
  52. Wilson, S. C., and Barber, T. X., 1982, The fantasy-prone personality: implications for understanding imagery, hypnosis and parapsychological phenomena,in: “Imagery: Current Theory Research and Application” A. A. Sheikh, ed, John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Wickramasekera
    • 1
  1. 1.Eastern Virginia Medical SchoolNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations